Tag Archive: writing



Tablet, Malia Palace MA/P Hi 02 in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs, dealing with crops and vessels (pottery):

Cretan tablet Malia Palace MAP hi 02

Tablet, Malia Palace MA/P Hi 02 in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs, which are not hieroglyphs at all, but rather ideograms and logograms, is highly intriguing. Actually, this tablet is partially decipherable. The front side definitely deals with the produce of olive trees, i.e. olive oil and also with wheat crops. If anyone is in any doubt over the meaning of the logogram 5. TE, which looks exactly like the Linear A and Linear B syllabogram TE, this doubt can easily be swept away by mere comparison with the logogram/ideogram for wheat in several ancient scripts, some of which are hieroglyphic, such as Egyptian, others which are cuneiform and yet others which bear no relation to either hieroglyphs or cuneiform, or for that matter, with one another, as for instance, the Harrapan and Easter Island exograms.

comparison of Cretan TE with symbol for wheat or barley in various ancient scripts

In fact, the recurrence of an almost identical ideogram/logogram across so many ancient scripts is astonishing. It is for this reason that I am in no doubt over the interpretation of 5. TE as signifying what in the Cretan script.

Next up, we have 3a. & 3b., which I interpret, and probably correctly, as signifying “ewe” and “ram” respectively. In fact, the resemblance of 3b. to a ram’s head is uncanny. What is passingly strange is this: the ram’s head figures so prominently on the second side of the tablet, being much larger than any other ideogram/logogram on the tablet. Why is this so? There simply has to be a reason. But for the time being, I am stumped. Since 3a. & 3b. Relate to sheep, it stands to reason that 6. is another type of livestock. My money is on “pig”. 7. and 9. are both vessels, 7. probably being either a wine or water flask and 9. being a spice container, as it is strikingly similar to the Linear B ideogram for the same. 8. looks like some kind of grain crop, and so I take it to be so.

As for the rest of the ideograms/logograms, they are still indecipherable.


So-called Cretan hieroglyphs are not hieroglyphs at all. Example 1

Cretan symbolic writing ideograms a

These 2 palm-leaf tablets incised with Cretan symbols are the first example of why so-called Cretan hieroglyphs are not hieroglyphs at all. We note right off the top that there are only 6 symbols, all of which are in fact ideograms or logograms. The numeric symbols, 40 and 100 on the fist tablet and 50, 10 & 80 on the second, do not conform to Linear A and B standards. In Linear A & B, decimals to the tens (10…90) are represented by horizontal bars, 1 for 10, 2 for 20, 8 for 80 etc. It appears instead that the dots on these tablets represent decimals to the tens. This is partly because the figure for 100 on the first tablet accords with Linear A & B practice, making it more likely that the dots are indeed in the tens.

Some other symbols are clearly identifiable. No. 1. is definitely the ideogram for an adze or labrys, which in Linear A and B is metamorphosed into the syllabogram for the vowel A. 2. is more likely to represent olive tree(s) rather than olive(s), for reasons which will become apparent in upcoming examples. 5. is very likely the ideogram for helmet, because it is very similar to same ideogram in Linear B.

So what are these palm-leaf tablets about? The first appears to be primarily military, te second primarily agricultural, with the sole exception of the ideogram for helmet, which appears out of place. But perhaps it is not. Perhaps the olive tree crops are being defended by the military. We shall never know.


RE Cretan “hieroglyphs”: Brewminate: a Bold Blend of News & Ideas: We're Never Far from Where we Were:
Form Follows Function: Writing and its Supports in the Aegean Bronze Age 
by Dr. Sarah Finlayson, Archaeologist/Historian
Posted March 29 2017

Brewinmate


form follows function writing in the Aegean Bronze Age

Excerpta from the source with COMMENTS by Richard Vallance Janke inserted where necessary:

...a starting point from which to unpick the complex and changing relationships between writing and its material supports during the Aegean Bronze Age, [is] the basic hypothesis that the shape of objects which bear writing, the Bronze Age ‘office stationery’ so to speak, derives from the use to which they, object + writing, are put and the shape changes as this purpose changes. 

COMMENT:

The shapes of incised objects (exograms) derive from the uses to which they are put. In other words, if the exograms, which, contrary to popular belief, are not hieroglyphs, change not only their form (i.e. shape) but have specific shapes tailored to the functions they perform. For this reason, among others, I cannot accept the hypothesis that they are hieroglyphs. They appear rather to be ideograms and logograms specifically designed to represent the contents of “packages” or “official documents”, sometimes apparently written on papyrus, and therefore subsequently lost due to the climate of Crete which as not conducive to the preservation of papyrus. What the exograms were which were inscribed on the lost documents for which the clay forms served as content indicators we shall never know, but chances are that the papyrus contents were written in Linear A. The incised objects, and I quote, “noduli, flat-based sealings, cones, medallions, labels, three- and four-sided bars, and tablets” specifically served as incised “subject headings” for the contents on papyrus which they represented. Since most people in the palace administration in the Minoan era in which Linear A was the standard syllabary were illiterate, the so-called Cretan “hieroglyphs”, of which there only 45 by my count, exclusive of numerics, served as ideogrammatic guideline markers for the contents of the documents which were once attached to them. Illiterate people could “read” ideograms; they could not read Linear A.  (all italics mine throughout this post)

Finlayson continues:      

The clay documents comprise crescents (all terms are defined below), noduli, flat-based sealings, cones, medallions, labels, three- and four-sided bars, and tablets (Olivier and Godart 1996: 10–11; Younger 1996–1997: 396). There are also substantial numbers of direct object sealings, which show seal impressions but no incised writing (Krzyszkowska 2005: 99).

COMMENT:

The “substantial numbers of direct object sealings” are seal impressions without incised writing because the contents, probably written and not incised on papyrus, which they seal have been lost forever. Thus, the script in which the actual sealed documents has been lost. But what was that script? Was it more of the same? ... Cretan “hieroglyphs”? I very much doubt that, because not a single Cretan seal can be read as syllabic text in a syllabary. What script was the writing on papyrus of the sealed documents? That is the whole point, and the whole mystery. Could it have been an early version  of Linear A, a.ka. as Festive Linear A? Quite possibly.

Finlayson continues:      

Easier to understand are the gable-shaped hanging nodules (Figure 3d). These sealings are carefully shaped around a knotted string, and carry a seal impression on one face (Krzyszkowska 2005: 280). The majority are uninscribed (only 22 out of the 164 sealings from Pylos carry an inscription), but on those examples with incised text, an ideogram is usually written over the seal impression, and additional sign-groups can appear on the other faces (Palaima 2003: 174; Krzyszkowska 2005: 280). Analysis of the cache of 60 nodules from Thebes, 56 of which have inscriptions, has enabled a convincing reconstruction of their use. The gable shape of the nodules results from the way the clay is held between the fingers while impressing the seal and writing the inscription (Piteros et al. 1990: 113). This shape, together with its suspension cord, give (sic) a small, solid, virtually indestructible and very portable document (Piteros et al. 1990: 183). In this instance, form does not strictly follow function, but rather the two aspects are intertwined in a more complex way. A key part of these documents’ function is their portability, and this governs their very small size, which in turn means only the most important information is recorded, namely the seal impression, the ideogram which identifies the goods, and, rarely, a small amount of additional data, such as anthroponyms, toponyms, transactional terms (Piteros et al. 1990: 177). The formula ‘personal name (here represented by the seal impression) + object + toponym / second personal name’ is equivalent to that recorded on the ‘palm-leaf ’ tablets. Numerals are rare, because that information is supplied by the object itself. It is suggested that each nodule accompanies a single item, mostly livestock in the Theban examples, from the hinterland into the palatial centre, with the nodule acting as a primary document, recording the most crucial information about its object, the sex of the animal, for example, and also certifying or authenticating, by the seal impression, who is responsible for it (probably in the sense of ‘owing’ the item to the palace; Piteros et al. 1990: 183–184). 

It is important to note, however, that, except at Thebes, there are considerably fewer inscribed than uninscribed nodules. Sealings of this type would therefore seem to be primarily recording instruments within transactions that do not require the use of writing (Palaima 2003: 174), although this is not incompatible with their being primary documents as described above.

So few noduli survive that it is difficult to understand how they functioned (Krzyszkowska 2005: 284). I discuss this form below as they are significantly more common in LA administration. (Italics by Richard Vallance Janke)


Roundels (Figure 2c) are clay disks with one or more seal impressions around their rim, and usually with a LA inscription on one or both faces, but with no trace of having been hung from or pressed against another object (Hallager 1996: 82). The number of seal impressions on the rim probably specifies the quantity of the commodity recorded in the inscription (livestock, agricultural produce, cloth, vessels and so on), with each impression representing one unit (Hallager 1996: 100–101, 113). Analysis of impressions and inscriptions suggests that at least two people made a roundel, one wielding the seal and another, the stylus (Hallager 1996: 112). These two factors have led to the interpretation of these documents as receipts, created and held by the central administration to record goods disbursed; the seal user would be the recipient, certifying with his or her impression the quantity of goods received (Hallager 1996: 116). Significantly, the physical limitations of these documents necessarily restrict the size of transactions, with 15 units being the largest amount attested (Palaima 1990: 92).

COMMENT on the sentence “a roundel, one wielding the seal and another, the stylus (Hallager 1996: 112). These two factors have led to the interpretation of these documents as receipts, created and held by the central administration to record goods disbursed; the seal user would be the recipient, certifying with his or her impression the quantity of goods received...”

In other words, the actual contents of the documents (apparently written with a stylus on papyrus) to which these seals were affixed may have been administrative receipts or possibly even inventories, in which case the contents of the documents were probably not written in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs, limited as these are to 45. And by 45 I mean 45 ideograms and logograms + additional numerics and nothing more than that. Given that these 45 signs never form any legible sentence or phrase, it is highly unlikely they would have been used for the writing of the contents on papyrus for which they serve as seals.

Finlayson continues:  

Noduli (Figure 2e), disk- or dome-shaped lumps of clay with a seal impression but no perforation, imprints of objects, or other visible means of fastening (“sealings that do not seal” [Weingarten 1986: 4]) are a very long-lasting document form, found from the early First Palace through to the Late Bronze Age, but they are particularly common in Second Palace Period LA administration, with around 130 examples known (Krzyszkowska 2005: 161; Weingarten 1990a: 17). Only eight have LA inscriptions or countermarks over the seal impression (Hallager 1996: 127). As they are clearly not attached to anything, noduli are independent documents, and their primary purpose seems to be to carry a seal impression, that is to authenticate or certify something. By analogy with Old Babylonian practice, Weingarten (1986: 18) suggests they are originally dockets, receipts for work done, with the seal impression being made by the overseer to authorise ‘payment’; as the form becomes more widespread in the Second Palace Period, they become more like tokens, to be exchanged for goods or services, or as laissez-passer, with the seal impression identifying the carrier as legitimate (Weingarten 1990a: 19–20).

COMMENT: 

The previous sentence, beginning with “By analogy...” and ending with “as legitimate” gives us a clearer impression the function(s) of the seals as these relate to the contents they seal. Old Babylonian tablets were incised or written in Cuneiform, which is a readable script meant for the eyes of literate scribes only. Note that the inventorial contents of the Babylonian tablets were clearly written out in Cuneiform. Although this practice is at variance with that of the Cretan seals, it still all boils down to the same thing. The actual contents of the documents to which the Cretan seals were affixed were written out in a language, possibly unknown, possibly Linear A. So in either case, the Babylonian or the Cretan, contents appear to be intended for literate scribes. 

Finlayson continues:    

Moving on to the ‘passive’ sealed documents, single-hole hanging nodules (Figure 2g) are roughly triangular clay sealings, formed around a knot at the end of a piece of string or cord (Hallager 1996: 160–161). They have a seal impression on one face, and a single incised LA sign, or very rarely another seal impression, on one of the other faces (Hallager 1996: 161). There are five sub- categories of single-hole nodule, differentiated by shape and position of seal impression or inscription (pendant, pyramid, cone, dome / gable and pear, see Figure 2g) with pendant being by far the most common (Hallager 1996: 162–163). About 13 signs or ligatures are found on these nodules, but it is very difficult to discern their meaning; the restricted range might suggest they are acting as arbitrary symbols, along the lines of ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, rather than as syllabograms (Krzyszkowska 2005: 160). These nodules hang from something, although there is no evidence for what (Krzyszkowska 2005: 160). Hallager has proposed a use similar to that observed in contemporary Egypt, where nodules were hung from rolls of papyrus as identification labels, with their cord threaded through holes in the lower part of the scroll to enable it to be unrolled and read without breaking the cord or sealed nodule (Hallager 1996: 198–199). 

COMMENTS:

Once again, the practice of Cretan using seals seems to be very similar if not identical to that of contemporary Egyptian hieroglyphic writing on papyrus, with the critical difference being that Egyptian hieroglyphs are writing, while Cretan seal ideograms are not. But the contents of the Cretan documents on papyrus were probably also written in a script, probably a syllabary, and possibly even (Festive) Linear A. But since the Cretan papyri are lost to history, we shall never know. Was there a “Cretan” script for the written documents on papyrus. It is notable that the Egyptian papyrus, once unsealed, was meant to read, again by literate scribes. Was this the Cretan practice too? Quite likely.

Finlayson continues:

The bars (Figure 1a) are usually rectangular, inscribed on all four sides, and sometimes pierced with a hole at one end (Hallager 1996: 33). That the bars could be suspended suggests they might be used as labels attached to objects for transport or storage, but the information on them seems to be much like that on the tablets, and, in fact, the unpierced examples are perhaps best understood as variants of the standard tablet format (Hallager 1996: 33). Olivier (1994–1995: 268–269) offers an intriguing alternative explanation, that the bars are not attached by cords to any object, but instead hang together on some sort of horizontal rod to enable them to be sorted and stored, or taken down when additional data are inscribed on them; he envisions the bars operating like the LB ‘palm-leaf ’ tablets, for compiling basic data. 

Returning now to LA administration, it seems that a link exists between the architectural context of deposits and their composition and function (Schoep 2002b: 25). Although few documents have been found in primary contexts, it is nevertheless possible to identify three commonly occurring groupings (Schoep 1995: 57). “Full combination deposits” always contain single-hole hanging nodules, alongside tablets and other sealings; as the single-hole nodules are postulated to hang from the highest-level records, on perishable materials, these deposits may be ‘archives’ (Schoep 1995: 61).

COMMENT:

These (sealed) documents may have been ‘archives’, and if they are, they were probably written out (on papyrus) but not in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs.

Finlayson continues:  

This seems to be supported by their location, in central buildings (including Malia Palace, Zakros House A, and the ‘villa’ at Ayia Triada), usually on an upper floor in residential quarters, clearly separated from storage or work areas, and by their association with valuable objects (Schoep 1995: 61, table 3, 62). ‘Single type deposits’ consist of direct object sealings, tablets or noduli, and most seem to be in the location in which they functioned; the direct object sealings are found in magazines suitable for bulk storage, as at Monastiraki, while tablet or noduli deposits can also occur in smaller-scale storage rooms, for example, Houses I, Chania or FG, Gournia (Schoep 1995: 62–63). “Limited combination deposits” fall somewhere in between; deposits from the ‘villa’ at Ayia Triada and Zakros Palace contain tablets and sealed documents, in workshop or storage areas, while other deposits contain only sealings, ...

In reviewing the evidence for LA use in the Second Palace Period, one gets an impression of a widespread use of writing on several media, and for several purposes, with either the writing support being manipulated to add meaning to the text (as with the clay administrative documents) or the other way around (as might be the case with some of the non-administrative objects).

COMMENT:

Finlayson notes that the the writing may have been manipulated to add meaning to the texts, in this case written on clay documents. She is making a clear distinction between the ideograms and logograms used on the seals themselves and the writing of the texts which they seal.

Finlayson continues:

Although examples of writing are relatively widespread in the landscape, this need not necessarily equate to widespread literacy, not least because it seems likely that writing is principally an elite activity, and furthermore, that restricted contexts of use possibly mean that ordinary, non-writing, people might well interact with only a single kind, or a small range, of documents, creating a sort of sub-category of literacy, where understanding part of a text’s meaning derives largely from the form of its support and context of use.  (all italics by the Commentator, Richard Vallance Janke).

COMMENT:

The passage above rams home that fact that literacy was not widespread. Quite the contrary. Only the scribes were literate. On the other hand, the form of the so-called Cretan hieroglyphs were accessible to non-literates, which was everyone except the scribes. That way, non-literate administrators, merchants, distributors of commodities and end users of these could identify what the purpose of what each and every seal represented, without having to be able to read the contents of documents per se.

Finlayson continues:   

Clearly, for some of the sealed document forms, the loss of whatever they were associated with means our understanding of their use cannot, without speculation, extend much beyond inferring that they hung from or were affixed to something. Generally, the taphonomy of writing in the Aegean is problematic, as we depend on it being applied to materials that are preserved archaeologically; in the case of clay documents that were not deliberately fired, this means accidental preservation in a wider burnt context (Bennet 2008: 6). There is then an inevitable risk that, in an effort to make up for the gaps in the evidence, particularly with CH and LA where we cannot read the texts, we rely too heavily on aspects like differences in form, which might be a reflection of our own ‘etic’ analyses rather than of different ancient practices (Bennet 2005: 269). “Classer, c’est interpréter” (Godart and Olivier 1979: xxiv) is a crucial principle for understanding a large and complex database at the macro scale, but runs the risk of misrepresenting, at the micro scale, differences in form that result from regional peculiarities of use, or are a function of the way different individuals form and seal or inscribe each shape, as seems likely, for example, for some of the variation amongst LA single-hole hanging nodules (Krzyszkowska 2005: 159–160). 

While these points must be borne in mind, it is nevertheless reasonable to suggest that the observable changes in document forms point to alterations in the methods of data gathering, processing and storing (Palaima 1984: 305). I would pick out two as particularly significant. The first is the bundle of changes in sealing practices between the First and Second Palace periods (i.e. between CH / limited LA use, and widespread LA use): direct object sealing is abandoned, suggesting, on the one hand, that the security of storerooms and their contents is managed differently, in a less physical way (Weingarten 1990b: 107–108), and, on the other, that direct control of commodities, by means of attaching sealings to them, is replaced by more indirect methods of controlling commodity information with hanging nodules and tablets (Knappett 2001: 86, n. 26). Furthermore, writing, with one exception, no longer appears on seals themselves, but from this point on is incised or painted rather than formed by stamping (Bennet 2008: 9–10). 

What drives these changes is difficult to evaluate, not least because we assume that changes in sealing systems are necessarily tied to changes in writing systems (and possibly language; Bennet 2005: 270).

COMMENT:

Key phrase “we assume”. Changes in sealing systems, from simple pictographic seals to seals incised in Cretan “hieroglyphs” and eventually to Linear A & B incised directly on the seals do not at all necessarily reflect any changes in the writing systems in which the actual documents (usually on papyrus) were written. That is a false assumption. Note here that Bennet specifically states that the writing systems sealed by the seals were probably independent of the figures or exograms found on the seals, these often being so-called Cretan hieroglyphs. The written language(s) of the document contents have have changed over time, but not necessarily in tune with the seals themselves. Point well taken.  

Palaima’s suggestion that LA replaces CH because the latter script is inadequate to record increasingly complex economic activities (1990: 94) is a case in point, and this sort of utilitarian motivation underestimates the potential for writing to be used for ideological reasons. The transition from CH to LA, and from LA to LB, can arguably be seen as part of a deliberate construction of new identities, through the manipulation of knowledge resources or material culture, by elite groups (ALL italics by the Commentator), seeking to differentiate themselves from their predecessors, or exclude others from participating in political or economic life (Bennet 2008: 20; Schoep 2007: 59). Knappett’s observation that, in seeking to look through artefacts to see “the people behind them”, and their motivations or choices, there is a tendency for the objects themselves to be reduced to mere ciphers or emblems of human activity (Knappett 2008b: 122), is also pertinent here. He suggests that more attention be paid to the agency of artefacts, to the possibility that things can “take on a life of their own, entangling humans and pushing them along new, previously unrecognised paths” (Knappett 2008b: 122); while ascribing agency to objects is problematic (Morphy 2009: 6), Knappett is nevertheless right to stress the complexity of the relationship between artefacts and their users. 

COMMENT:

Much more to follow in the upcoming posts on the uses of pictographs and so-called Cretan “hieroglyphic” seals.

Linear B syllabograms, homophones and special characters missing from the Linear A syllabary:

Linear B syllabograms and homophones not in Linear A

A considerable number of Mycenaean Linear B syllabograms, homophones and special characters missing from the Linear A syllabary. But the same can be said for a fairly large number of Linear A syllabograms, homophones and special characters missing from Linear B. Thus, students of both syllabaries must master, first the overlap, which accounts for most of the characters in both syllabaries, and secondly, the discrepancies, of which there are scores. There is simply no way around it. If you are a student of both Linear A and Linear B you have to learn the syllabograms, homophones and special characters found in one of the syllabaries but missing in the other.

Notably, the O series of syllabograms in Linear B suffers from several lacunae in Linear A. This is simply because Linear A has an aversion the ultimate O, and nothing more. Words which terminate in O in Linear B, which is to say, masculine and neuters, much more commonly end in U in Linear A. And this includes a great many exograms which are common to both syllabaries.

Above all else, the masculine and neuter genitive singular always terminates in O in Linear B, and always in U in Linear A. The feminine genitive singular ultimate in Linear A, just as we find in Linear B, appears to be ija, and there are plenty of examples (for instance, jadireja, kiraja, kupa3rija, musajanemaruja, namarasasaja, nenaarasaja, nemaruja, nenaarasaja, nukisikija, sejarapaja, sidija, sudaja and Sukirteija, to cite just a few) . The problem is that no examples of masculine or neuter genitive singular with the ultimate ijo exist. Only a few words terminate in iju, (aju, araju, kumaju, kureju, pirueju and sareju), but these are almost certainly masculine and/or neuter genitive singular, hence likely validating the notion that the feminine genitive singular is ija.


Minoan Linear A scribal hands: W & Z series syllabograms: WA WI ZA ZE ZE ZU (the last)


Linear A scribal hands WA WI ZA ZE ZO ZU



Minoan Linear A scribal hands: T series syllabograms: TA TA2 (TAI) TE TI TO TU

Linear A scribal hands ta ta2 te to tu



Minoan Linear A scribal hands: S series syllabograms: SA SE SI SU

Linear A scribal hands SA SE SI SU



Minoan Linear A scribal hands: R series syllabograms: RA RA2 (RAI) RE RI RO RU

Linear A scribal hands RA R2 RE RI RO RU

Linear A scribal hands: P & Q series syllabograms:

Linear a scribal hands syllabograms rPA P3 PI PO PU PU2 QA QE


Linear A scribal hands: N series syllabograms:

Linear A N series of syllabograms

Linear A scribal hands: M series syllabograms


Linear A scribal hands: M series syllabograms:

Linear A scribal hands MA ME MI

 


Linear A scribal hands: JU + K series syllabograms:

linear a scribal hands JU KA KI KO KU

 


Linear A scribal hands: D series syllabograms:

Linear A scribal hands D series

 


Decipherment of the RECTO of Linear A tablet HT 86 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A Haghia Triada HT 86

It is possible to decipher this tablet and several others dealing with grain crops with a reasonable degree of accuracy and, in the case of some words, with complete accuracy. The Linear A word akaru is almost certainly the equivalent of akaro, and not of akareu, in Linear B, the latter interpretation of John G. Younger being utterly out of the question in context. The standard Old Minoan words for emmer wheat and “roasted einkorn” are kunisu and dideru. The second of these words, dideru, is equivalent to Linear B, didero, but neither word appears in any later ancient Greek dialect, leading me to draw the inference that dideru/didero is either archaic proto-Mycenaean Greek or that it falls within the pre-Greek substratum or alternatively that it is Old Minoan (OM). As for dame, it appears to be dative singular for damu (Linear A) or damo (Linear B), hence grains for the village wheat”. Finally, minute would appear to signify “and for one month”, te being enclitic, meaning “and”, with the entire phrase derived from mini = “month”. The actual case structure for the ultimate u has yet to be determined for Old Minoan. Unfortunately, it will be some time before I can tackle Old Minoan grammar (declensions and conjugations), as I must first decipher as many Old Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Mycenaean-derived words as I can in Linear A. And these run to at least 300 out of 988 Minoan words I have isolated.


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 988 words, with 214 more entries than in John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon:

comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 988 terms

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Youngers Reverse Linear A Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former, along with additional Linear vocabulary which I have found on my own. By my count, there are 988 words, 214 more than in Prof. John G. Youngers Reverse Linear A Lexicon, which has 774 entries, not counting numeric syllabograms, of which no one knows the phonetic values at any rate + long strings + broken series of syllabograms, though I may have made the occasional error in addition, since I had to subtract some repetitive words and add others from the tablets, which are not in the Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed under one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna 
dakusene(ti)
japa/japadi/japaku
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri 
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu 
reda/redamija/redana/redasi 
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are,
2 Broken series of syllabograms &
3 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

This is the raw Lexicon, without definitions. Definitions of Old Minoan (OM), pre-Greek substratum (PGS) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) terms will soon be published in sub-Lexicons pursuant to this Lexicon on my academia.edu account. 

adai 
adakisika
adara/adaro/adaru
ade/adu 
Adunitana  
adureza 
aduza
ajesa 
aju 
Akanu/Akanuzati  = Archanes (Crete)  = 10
aka 
akaru 
aki/akii  = garlic
akipiete(ne?)
akumina
ama 
amaja
amawasi
amidao/amidau 
amita = 20
ana 
ananusijase
anatu 
anau
anepiti
aparane 
apaki 
apero 
api 
ara = 30
araju 
arako
aranare/aranarai (sing.) 
arati
aratiatu 
aratu  
arauda
aredai
Arenesidi  
aresana = 40
ari/arinita
arisu
arokaku
arote 
aru/arudara
aruma 
aruqaro
arura 
asadaka
asamune = 50
asara2 
asasumaise
ase/asi
aseja 
asidatoi 
asijaka
asikira 
asisupoa
asona
asuja = 60
Asupuwa 
atade 
atanate 
atare 
ati 
atika
atiru
atu 
aurete 
awapi = 70
azura

daa 
dadai/dadana
dadipatu
dadumata
dadumina/dadumine
dai/daina
daipita 
dajute
daka/daki/daku/dakuna = 80
dakusene(ti)
damate Cf. Linear B damate
dame/dami/daminu  
danasi 
danekuti
daqaqa
daqera
dare 
darida 
daropa = 90
darunete 
daserate
dasi 
datapa 
datara/datare
data2 
datu  
dawa  (Haghia Triada)  CF LB dawo
daweda 

dea = 100
deauwase 
dedi
dejuku
demirirema 
depa/depu 
deripa
detaa 
dide/didi
dideru
didikase/didikaze  = 110
dii 
dija/dije
dika 
Dikate  = Mount Dikte
dikime
dikise 
dima
dimaru
dimedu
dinaro = 120
dinau
dipa3a 
dipaja
diqise 
dirasa 
diredina
dirina
diru 
disa
disipita = 130
ditajaru
ditamana  = dittany
du/dua/duja
dumaina 
dumedi
dumitatira2 (dumitatirai)
dunawi
dupa3na
dupu3re 
dura2 = 140
durare
duratiqe
dureza/durezase
dusi/dusini
dusima 
dusu
duti
duwi 
duzu

edamisa = 150
edu 
eka 
epa3
ero
esija
etanasu
etori 
ezusiqe

ia 
Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3  = Mount Ida  = 160
Idamate/idamete  
Idarea 
idunesi 
iduti 
ija 
ijadi 
ijapame  
ijate 
ika 
Ikesedesute   = 170
Ikurina  
ikuta
ima
imeti 
inaimadu
inajapaqa
ipinama
ira2 
iruja
isari  = 180
ise
itaja
itaki
itijukui 
itinisa
Ititikuna  
Izurinita  

jaa
jadi/jadikitu = 190
jadireja 
jadisi
jadu
jadurati
jai 
jainwaza
jaiterikisu 
jaitose
jaja
jakisikinu = 200
jako/jaku/jakute
jamaa
jamauti
jami/jamidare 
januti
japa/japadi/japaku 
japametu 
japanidami 
japarajase
jara2qe = 210
jara/jare/jaremi 
jarepu2  
jarete
jari/jarina/jarinu
jaripa3ku
jarisapa
jaru/jarui 
jasaja
jasamu 
jasapai = 220
jasaraanane
jasasarame
jasidara
jasea/jasepa 
jasie 
jasumatu 
jata/jatai/jatapi 
jate/jateo
jatimane
jatituku+ jatituku (repeated) = 230
jatoja
jawi
jedi 
jeka 
jemanata
jetana 
jua
judu
juerupi 
juka = 240
juma/jumaku
juraa
jureku
juresa 
jutiqa
juu

ka (extremely common)
kada/kadasaa
kadi 
kadumane   = 250
kadusi 
kae
kai/kaika 
kairo
kaji/kaju 
kaki/kaku
kakunete
kami
kana/kanatiti/kanau 
kanajami = 260
kanaka 
kanita 
kanuti 
kapa/kapaqe/kapi 
kaporu 
kapusi
kaqa/kaqe
kara 
karona
karopa2 (karopai) = 270
karu  
karunau 
kasaru 
kasi 
kasidizuitanai  
Kasikidaa   
kasitero 
katanite
kataro  scarab (Egyptian)
kati 
kaudeta = 280 
keda 
keire 
kekiru
kera/kero  
keta/kete 
ketesunata  
kezadidi
kida/kidi 
kidapa 
kidaro = 290
kidata
kidini
kidiora
kii/kiipa
kija  
kika 
kikadi 
kikiraja
kimu 
kina = 300
kinima
kinite
kipaa 
kipisi (fairly common) 
kiqa
kira/kiro 
kireta2 
kiretana 
kireza
kiro/kirisi/kiru  = 310
kiso 
kisusetu 
kitai/kitei 
kitanasija 
kitiqa
kito 
koiru 
koja
kopu
koru  = 320
Kosaiti  
kuda
kuja
kujude 
kuka
kukudara 
kumaju 
kumapu 
kunisu
kupa/kupi = 330 
kupa3natu 
kupa3nu 
kupa3pa3
kupa3rija  
kupaja 
kupari 
Kupatikidadia  
kupazu
kuqani 
kura/kuramu  =340
kurasaqa 
kureda 
kureju 
kuro/kurotu 
kuto 
kuruku
kuruma 
kutiti  Kutaistos Cf. LB Kitaito
kutukore
kuzuni = 350

maa
madadu 
madi 
mai/maimi
majutu 
makaise
makaita 
makarite
makidete 
mana/manapi (common)= 360
maniki
manirizu 
manuqa
maru/maruku/maruri
masa/masaja 
masi/masidu
masuja
masuri
matapu
mateti = 370
matiti 
matizaite 
matu 
maza/mazu 
meda
medakidi
mekidi
mepajai
mera 
merasasaa/merasasaja (very common)  = 380
mesasa 
mesenurutu
meto 
meturaa 
meza 
mia
midai 
midani 
midamara2 (midamarai)
midara = 390
midemidiu
mie
miima 
mijanika
mijuke 
mikidua
mikisena
minaminapii
minedu
mini/miniduwa  = 400
minumi
minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) 
mio/miowa
mipa
mireja 
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita = 410
miturea 
mizase
mujatewi
muko 
mupi 
murito
muru
musaja 

naa
nadare = 420
nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi
nadiwi
nadu
nadunapu2a
naisizamikao   
naka
nakiki
nakininuta
nakuda
namarasasaja  = 430
namatiti
nami
namikua/namikuda
namine 
nanau 
nanipa3
napa3du
narepirea
naridi
narinarikui  = 440
narita
naroka
naru 
nasarea
nasekimi 
nasi 
nasisea
nataa/nataje
natanidua
natareki (common)  = 450
nati 
nazuku/nazuru
nea 
neakoa  
nedia
nedira
neka/nekisi 
nemaduka
nemaruja
nemiduda = 460
nemusaa
Nenaarasaja 
neqa
neramaa
nerapa/nerapaa 
nere 
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
nesasawi
nesekuda
neta = 470
netapa 
netuqe
nidapa
nidiki/nidiwa 
niduti
nijanu
niku/nikutitii
nimi
nipa3  
nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nisai)  = 480
niro/niru 
nisi 
nisudu
nisupu
niti
nizuka
nizuuka
nua
nude
nuki/nukisikija  = 490
numida/numideqe 
nupa3ku (extremely common)
nupi
nuqetu 
nuti/nutini
Nutiuteranata  
nutu
nuwi

odami/odamia
opi = 500
ora2dine (oraidine)
osuqare
otanize
oteja 

pa (common)/paa
padaru
padasuti 
pade
padupaa
Paito = Phaistos = 510
pa3a/pa3ana
pa3da 
pa3dipo
pa3katari 
pa3kija 
pa3ku
pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi
pa3pa3ku
pa3qa
pa3roka  = 520
pa3sase
pa3waja
paja/pajai/pajare
paka (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka 
pamanuita  
panuqe 
para 
parane 
paria 
paroda = 530
parosu
pasarija
pase 
pasu 
pata/patada/pataqe/patu 
patane 
pia/pii 
pija/pijani/pijawa 
piku/pikui/pikuzu
pimata  pimento = 540
pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) 
pina/pini 
pirueju
pisa
pita/pitaja 
pitakase/pitakesi
pitara 
piwaa
piwaja
piwi = 550
posa 
potokuro
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 
pu3pi
pu3tama
puko
punikaso
puqe
pura2  = 560
pusa/pusi
pusuqe

qara2wa 
qa2ra2wa
qajo
qaka
qanuma
qapa3 (qapai) 
qapaja/qapajanai
qaqada = 570
qaqaru 
qareto 
Qaqisenuti  
qaro 
qasaraku 
qatidate 
qati/qatiki 
qatiju 
qedeminu
qeja = 580
qeka 
qenamiku 
qenupa
qepaka
qepita 
qepu
qequre 
qera2u/qera2wa
qeri
qero = 590
qerosa 
qesite
qesizue
qesupu
qesusui
qeta2e
qeti/qetiradu 
qetune 
qisi
qoroqa = 600 
quqani 

raa
rada/radaa/radakuku/radami
radarua 
radasija
radizu
radu 
ra2i
ra2ka 
ra2madami   = 610
ra2miki
ra2natipiwa 
ra2pu/ra2pu2
ra2ri (rairi)  = lily
ra2rore
ra2ru
ra2saa 
raja/raju
rakaa 
raki/rakii/rakisi/raku = 620
ranatusu
rani 
raodiki 
rapa/rapu
rapu3ra
raqeda
rarasa
rarua
rasa/rasi 
rasamii = 630
rasasaa/rasasaja
rata/ratapi 
ratada
ratise (ritise?) 
razua
rea 
reda (common)/redana/redasi 
redamija
redise 
reduja = 640
reja/rejapa 
rekau 
rekotuku 
reku/rekuqa/rekuqe 
rema/rematuwa 
remi
renara/renaraa 
renute
repa 
Repu2dudatapa   = 650
repu3du
reqasuo
reradu
rera2tusi
reratarumi 
rerora2
rese/resi/resu  See sere
retaa/retada
retaka 
retata2 = 660
retema 
reza
rezakeiteta 
ria (common) 
ridu
rikata
rima 
rimisi 
ripaku
ripatu = 670
riqesa
rira/riruma
rirumate
risa
Risaipa3dai  
Risumasuri  
ritaje 
rite/ritepi
ritoe 
rodaa/rodaki = 680
roika
roke/roki/roku
romaku 
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka 
rosa  = rose 
rosirasiro 
rotau 
roti = 690
rotwei 
rua 
rudedi
ruiko
ruja  
rujamime 
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike 
Rukito
ruko
rukue = 700
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase 
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi
rutari 
rutia 
ruzuna

sadi
saja/sajama/sajamana = 710
sajea
saka
sama/samaro
samidae 
samuku 
sanitii
sapo/sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2 (sarai)/sarara =720
sareju 
saro/saru/sarutu 
sasaja
sasame  = sesame
sasupu 
sato 
sea/sei 
sedina 
sedire
seikama = 730
Seimasusaa
seitau
sejarapaja  
sejasinataki  
sekadidi
sekatapi
sekidi  
Sekiriteseja  
sekutu 
semake = 740
semetu 
senu
sepa
sere 
sesapa3
Sesasinunaa  
Setamaru
Seterimuajaku
setira 
Setoija   = 750
Sewaude   
sezami 
sezanitao
sezaredu
sezatimitu 
sia 
sidare/sidate
sidi/sidija 
sii/siida/siisi  
siitau = 760
sija 
Sijanakarunau
sika 
siketapi
sikine 
Sikira/sikirita
sima 
simara 
simita 
simito/simitu  = mouse = 770
sina
sinada
sinae  
sinakanau (common)
sinakase  
sinamiu
sinatakira
sinedui
sipiki 
sipu3ka = 780
sire/siro/siru/sirute 
siriki 
Sirumarita2   
Sitetu  
situ 
siwamaa
sokanipu  
sokemase 
sudaja 
suja = 790
Sukirita/Sukiriteija  = Sybrita
suniku (common)
supa3 (supai) 
supi/supu 
sure 
Suria  
suropa 
sutu/sutunara
suu
suzu = 800

taa
tadaki/tadati
tadeuka 
taikama
Tainaro
tainumapa
Ta2merakodisi 
ta2re/ta2reki 
ta2riki
Ta2rimarusi    = 810
ta2tare
ta2tite
ta2u 
tajusu 
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui
tamaduda
tanamaje
tanate/tanati
Tanunikina  = 820
tamaru 
tami/tamia/tamisi 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti  
tapa 
tapiida
tapiqe
tara/tarina
tarasa
tarawita = 830
tarejanai 
tarikisu 
taritama
tasa/tasaja 
tasise 
tata/tati 
tateikezare
tedasi/tedatiqa
tedekima
teepikia = 840
Teizatima  
tejai 
tejare 
tekare
teke/teki
tekidia
temada/temadai
temeku 
temirerawi 
tenamipi = 850
tenata/tenataa 
tenatunapa3ku  
tenekuka 
teneruda
teniku 
tenitaki
tenu/tenumi (common)
tepi
tera/tere/teri tera 
teraseda = 860
tereau 
tereza
teri/teridu 
terikama
tero/teroa
terusi (extremely common) 
tesi/tesiqe 
Tesudesekei 
tetita2
tetu = 870
Tewirumati
Tidama  
tidata 
tidiate
tiditeqati 
tiduitii/tiisako 
tija 
tika 
tikiqa
tikuja = 880
Tikuneda
timaruri/timaruwite
timasa 
timi 
timunuta
tina 
Tinakarunau
tinata (common)/tinita
tinesekuda
tininaka = 890
tinu/tinuka 
tinusekiqa 
tio
tiqatediti 
tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu
tiraduja 
tira2 
tirakapa3
tire 
tisa = 900
tisiritua 
tisudapa
Tita
titema
titiku
titima
tiu
tiumaja
tizanukaa
toipa = 910
tome
toraka  = Linear B toraka
toreqa
tuda
tujuma
tukidija
tukuse
tuma/tumi/tumitizase
tunada/tunapa
tunapa3ku = 920
Tunija
tupadida
tuqe
turaa 
Turunuseme 
turusa
tusi/tusu/tusupu2
tute/tutesi

udami/udamia 
udimi = 930
udiriki
uju 
uki
Uminase  
unaa
unadi (common) 
unakanasi  
unana 
unarukanasi/unarukanati
upa = 940
uqeti 
urewi 
uro
uso/usu
uta/uta2 
utaise
utaro 
uti 

waduko
waduna = 950
Wadunimi  
waja
wanai 
wanaka 
wapusua  
wara2qa
watepidu
watumare 
wazudu
wetujupitu = 960
widina
widui
wija 
Wijasumatiti  
Winadu
winipa
winu 
winumatari 
wiraremite 
wireu = 970
wirudu
Wisasane  
witero 

zadeu/zadeujuraa
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata = 980
zirinima
zudu
zukupi
zuma
zupaku
zusiza
zusu
zute = 988

VERSUS Younger = 774 ( – numeric syllabograms + long strings + broken series of syllabograms). Hence Youngers lexicon amounts to 78.3 % of this one, i.e. this lexicon contains 214 more entries and is 21.7 % longer.


Minoan Linear A scribal hands: vowels A E I O U

vowels

 


Digital enhancement of Linear A & B tablets: #6 Linear A tablet ARKH 2 (Arkhanes)

Linear A tablet ARKH 2 Arkhanes digitized


Digital enhancement of Linear A & B tablets: #5 Linear A tablet MA 1 (Malia)

Linear A Malia MA 1 digitized


Digital enhancement of Linear A & B tablets: #4 Linear A tablet KH 11 (Khania)

Linear A tablet KH 11 Khania digitized

 


Digital enhancement of Linear A & B tablets: #3 Linear A tablet KH 10 (Khania)

Linear A tablet KH 10 Khania digitized

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