Tag Archive: syllabaries



Why I consider the Linear B syllabary to be a streamlined refinement of the Linear A syllabary and not a new syllabary:

Keyboard assignments Linear A:

Minoan Linear A keyboard assignments620

Note that this verifies that the Linear A syllabary has at least 49 syllabograms and homophones in common with Linear B.

Keyboard assignments Linear B:

Linear B sylabary cf. Linear A 620

Note that this verifies that the Linear B syllabary has at least 49 syllabograms and homophones in common with Linear A. Since the Linear B table of syllabograms contains 49 syllabograms and homophones in common with Linear A out of a total of 67, the total percentage of Linear A syllabograms and homophones in common with Linear B = 49/67 or 73 %. This percentage is high enough to justify the hypothesis that the Linear B syllabary is a direct descendant of Linear A, such that for all intents and purposes, the base syllabary plus a few homophones of both is close to equivalent in both syllabaries. This is why I consider the two syllabaries actually to be one, with Linear B a refinement of Linear A. We note in particular the the syllabogram WE was added to Linear A just before that syllabary was abandoned in favour of the newer streamlined Linear B syllabary. We also note that Linear B abandoned scores of ideograms and a few numeric syllabograms in Linear A, which are themselves indecipherable, because we do not know their phonetic values. This makes them irrelevant to the Linear B syllabary.

The implications of this hypothesis for the decipherment of Linear A are highly significant.


Potential Pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) & Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) words in Linear A = 305/1076 in the entire Linear A Lexicon:

banner Greek-like words in Linear A

adai OM + See [18] below. adakisika NM a0dakissi/ka = adorned with ivory Cf. qaqisenuti NM 
xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative), hence, probably a chaplet in fine bronze adorned with ivy  
adidakitipaku OM adida (unknown) NM kiti ki/sth = chest, box + pagu/j = giant, large
adoro MOSB NM a1doroj = receiving no gifts; unpaid; giving no gifts
Akanu/Akanuzati  PGS TOP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) – or- a large bowl, from Semitic akanu
Akanuzati NEW PGS NM A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) + za/qi <- za/qoej = for the most holy or sacred Archanes = 5
aka -or- kaa = askas LIG NM  a0ska/ <- a0sko/j = leather bag, wine skin
ake -or- kae = aske (instr. sing.) LIG NM  a0skei/ (arch. acc.) <- a0sko/j = with a leather bag, wine skin
akara/akaru = akaras/akarus NM a1kra - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field, from Hittite, akkala = furrow  
akarakitanasijase NM   a1kra (arch. acc.) - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field + kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj = a field with terebinth trees. See also kitanisija NEW

akiro NM a1kairoj = not in season, unseasonable -or- a1grioj = living in the fields; uncultivated, unreclaimed

akoane NM = This is the Mycenaean attempt to translate the name of the Minoan goddess, Atana, Greek Athena A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja -or- from: akunasatisa = Knossos (Luwian) = 10

akumina akuminas PGS a0ku/mina = without cumin?
amaja NM a3maca= wagon
amarane... (truncated) NM a0malli/ <- a0mallo/j = without fleece (a privative instrumental) amawasi NM a3mai#asi = with violets
amita NM a0mi/nqa <- mi/nqoj = without mint = 15
anatu NM? a=na/tu <- a=nastado/n = upright, standing? (could make sense in context)
apaki NM a0parxh/ = first part of a sacrifice, firstlings for sacrifice, first-fruits 
apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine  Cf. Linear B apero 
api NM a0spi/j = shield – or- OM plough, from Hittite apin 
ara NM a0ra/ = a prayer = 20
araju NM a0ra=u <- a0ra=oj = prayed for? – used with no. 123 
arako NM a0ra/c = weaver Cf. Linear B arakateya a0laka/teiai = weavers

arakokuzu OMNM1 = weavers establishment? (agglutinative)

arati NM a0ra=ti/ <- a0ra/toj = with something unblessed Cf. makarite  below
aratiatu NM a0ra=ti a/stu = a prayer for the town, community <- Linear B  #a/stu = city, town 
aratu/aratumi... (truncated) = 25
aresana NM a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup 
arija... NM a=0ri=a <- a=0rai=a (truncated) = prayed to, accursed (fem.) NEW
aripa NM a1leifar = cream, ointment Cf. Linear B arepa NEW 
arokaku NM a1ro xalku/ = o0rei/xalkoj, oreikhalkos (from o1roj, oros, mountain and xalko/j  chalkos, copper), meaning mountain copper.  Cf. Linear B kako xalko/j. See Appendix 3  = 30
aro/arote /aru NM au=loc te\ = (and) furrow, ploughed land, corn-land
arura NM a0rou/ra = unit of land -or- plough Cf. Linear B arura 
arudara MOSE NM a1lutra <- a1lutron = threshing instrument (arch. acc.) 
aruma NM a3rwma (neuter) = arable land -or- spice
asadaka asadakas MOSE NM a1staxa <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn = 40
Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax – or- OM = white, from Hittite asara
asidatoi NM a0si/datoi = without pomegranate (dat. sing.)
asikira asikas NM1 <- khro/j = without wax 
Asuja  TOP Cf Linear B Asiwiya A0si/#ia
atade NM a1ttade = from father = 45
atanate NM a0qa/na=te = without an immortal (instr. sing.) 

A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja NM Ata/noj = Earth goddess Atano

atare NM a0ta=lei/ <- a0ta=lo/j = tender; delicate (of crops?) -or- a0qa/lei <- a0qa/loj = without a branch, twig; without an olive branch -or- MOS NM a9dro/j = full-grown – or – a0qa/rh = groats, meal, green fodder, forage, provender Cf. kupari = galingale
atika NM? au0t/ika= = immediately 
atiru NM? a0ti/lu <- a0te/loj = without boundaries = 50
atu NM a1stu/ = town See also Luwian atiwati = in the town
auta NM au0ta/ = self, oneself; alone + deponiza NM... the mistress herself  KO Zf 2

damate PGS NM Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate Cf. damate = Earth Mother (Pelasgian) - or- da/matei = in the village 
dare NM da=lei/ <- da=lo/j = (with) a firebrand or torch/daro LIG NM da=lo/j = firebrand 
datara/datare NM da=ta/ra da=ta/rei <- da=th/rioj = distributing, for distribution -or- OM sacred grove of olive trees -or- a kind of flowering plant = 55
Dawa OM = place name Cf. LB dawo Da/#oj / Da/#on 
deka -or- kade LIG NM ka/de (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = pitcher, jar, pail
depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa (Luwian = bowl, cup)
deponiza NM de/spoina = mistress, lady KO Zf 2 Cf. Linear B deponiya
dewa -or- wide LIG NM de/#a = goddess? = 60
dija/dije NM Di/ #a Cf. Linear B Diwija Di#i/a = priestess of Zeus
Dikate PGS TOP = Mount Dikte Cf. Linear B Dikatade Diktai/ade = towards Mt. Dikte
dima/dimaru NM dh=ma <- dh=moj = land, country
dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup 
dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)
ditamana  PGS = dittany = 65
Dupu3re TOP Cf. Linear B Dupu2razo Dupurai/zoj 
dura2 NM  dou/lai = slaves (fem.) Cf. Linear B doera doe/la 

eka ekas NM e3gxa spear, lance <- e3gxoj = spear Cf. Linear B eko
ero NM e0llo/j = young deer, fawn 
esija MOSA NM e3sti/a = hearth of a house = 70
etori NM? e1tori <- e1toj = for a year – or – OM = food, from Hittite etri

ia i0a/  NM (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija NM? See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) 
Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3  = Mount Ida PGS TOP
Idamate/Idamete PGS ONO  0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida  Cf. Idaian Mother (Pelasgian)
Idarea ONO PGS  0Idar9ea = Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida = 75
ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate  i0a/ter
ima imas NM i9ma/c = leather strap, thong; (lash of) a whip
ipinama/ipinamina MOS NM i0pneume/na (fem. sing.) = baked (bread)
ira2 NM i1la=i = troops, companies, squadrons
iruja NM i0e/ruia = priestess Cf. Linear B iyereya i0e/reia  = 80
Itinisa PGS ONO? female resident of Itanos?  

jai NM ? gai/i = for (mother) earth 
jaiterikisu (agglutinative) NM gai/i + teli/ + kisso/j = topmost (i.e. ripe) ivy for/with (mother) earth
jaja gai/a = mother earth
jamauti NM i1amauti = as a means of healing <- i1ama i1amatoj = healing, remedy = 85
januti NM ga/nuti = a form of the verb or noun for shining  
jari/jarina/jarinu NM gali/ galh/ <- gale/h = cat
jarisapa (agglutinative) OM PGS = some kind of dress? Cf. Linear B sapa
jasaja NM  0Ia=sai/a <-  0Ia=sw/ of/from the goddess of healing and health  
jasapai NM1OM related to related to - jasaja – above? - something to do with healing = 90
jasidara NM i0a=sida=la/ = healing torch/firebrand (arch. acc.)
jasea/jasepa NM i0a=sea = healing, goddess of healing 
jasie  NM i0a=sie = for healing, for the goddess of healing
jate/jateo NM i0a=th/r = physician 
jatimane NM i0a=th/j mannei= = with the bread of healing (agglutinative) = 95
jawi NM gau=li = with a milk-pail, bucket -or- with a merchant vessel NEW
[13] jemanata NM ge/manata = full of
[14] jua NM gu/a <- gu/hj = measure of land, plough land, corn land 
juraa NM gu=ra/a <- gu=ro/j = round, curved See [14] above 

kadi MOSE NM kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine = 100
kadusi NM ka/dusi <= ka/doj = with buckets or pails (instr. pl.)
kairo NM kairo/j = due measure 
kaki/kaku NM xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
kakunete/kakusunetu  OM+ NM xalku/ = bronze alloy - or – crafted in bronze (agglutinative) 
kami  NM ka/mi (dat./instr. sing.) <- ka/ma = (on a) unit of land Cf. Linear B ka/ma = 105
kana/kanatiti/kanau PGS TOP Kanna
kanaka kanakas PGS kna/ka = saffron Cf Linear B kanako kna/koj
kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi NM karpa/ (arch. acc.) + karpa/te\ = fruit, and fruit, with fruit -or- ripe crops Cf. Linear B kapo karpo/j
kaporu NM karpo/ru <- karpoj = fruit, corn, harvest, produce 
kara/karu  NM kara/ = head Cf. Linear B kara(pi) kara/afi = 110
karopa2 (karopai) OM = kylix with 2 handles-or- MOSE NM ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase – or – karpu = vessel name (Semitic)
karu  NM ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine, ornamental 
karunau NM kallu/nau <- kallu/nw = to beautify, embellish
kasi NM kasi/ <- kasi/a= = with Arabian spice 
kasitero OMNM kasite/loj = boundary of...? (agglutinative) = 115
kataro NM ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup
kati NM ka/rtij = a kind of pot, hydria (water flask) Cf. Linear B kati hydria (water flask) 
keda PGS = cedar 
keire NM kh=lei <- kh/lon = with an arrow
Kekiru PGS TOP Ke/kru = Kekros = 120
kera/kero NM ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera
keta/kete/ketu NM ga/da  ga/de <- gado/j <- i0xqu/j = fish,  here = fish-goddess
kida/kidi kidas NM kh=da kh=dei <- kh=doj = (with) mourning, burial 
kidaro MOSC NM kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro
kikadi PGS = cicada (cricket) = 125
kimu NM xeimu/ <- xeimw=n = frost, cold; storm, tempest? (uncertain)
kina PGS TOP Kinna 
kira NM xei=la <- xei=loj = edge, brim, rim
kireta2 (kiretai) NM kri/qai = barley
kiretana NM kriqani/aj = like barley, barley (attributive) = 130
kiretaiwinu NM kri/qai = barley + winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj, hence kiretaiwinu =  kri/qai#i/nu 
kiso NM kisso/j = ivy
kitai/kitei  NM = kestai/ kestei/ = embroidered (lit.), but in context = basketry, basket(s)
kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj
kitina NM ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj = border of a plot of  land/territory Cf. Linear B  kotona = 140 kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land 
kiti NM ki/sth = chest, box 
kito NM xitw/n = chiton Cf. Linear B kito
koiru NM koi/ru <- koi/roj = hollow (ships) 
koru NM ko/ruj = helmet Cf. Linear B koru = 145
Kosaiti TOP Cf. Linear B Kutaito Ku/taistoj (not necessarily the same place)
kuda NM ku=da <- ku=doj glory, fame, renown? (uncertain) 
Kukudara TOP Cf. Linear B Kukudaro 
kuminaqe NM = and cumin See also Linear B kumino ku/minon
kupa/kupi NM ku=fa/ ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = bent, curved, with something bent, possibly a scythe. See also – kupaja (genitive singular) – below – or – OM cypergrass, henna (Semitic) = 150
kupaja NM ku=fai/a <- ku=fo/j = of something curved; of a scythe?
kupari NM ku/pairi (instr. sing.) <- ku/pairoj = marsh-plant used to feed horses, galingale or ginger? (uncertain)
kupazu NM kou/fazu <- kou/fazoj = light (of wine)
kupi NM? ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = with something curved; with a scythe? On Linear A tablet ZA 14 kuro/kurotu NM ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total  Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa Cf. kol = total (Semitic) = 155
kuto/kutu NM ku/toj = shield, cuirass
kuruku PGS kro/koj = crocus, saffron 
Kutiti TOP (locative sing.) Kutaistos Cf. LB Kutaito
kutu NM ku/tu <- ku/toj = vase, jar, pot, urn
kuwa -or- waku LIG NM ku/#a = girl Cf. Linear B kowa ko/#a – or – #a0sku/ <- #a0sko/j = leather bag or wineskin = 160

makarite MOSC NM makari/thj = one who is blessed -or- magarei=te\  = and with a cooking pot (instr. Sing.) <- mageirei=on = cooking pot
mana/manapi (common) PGS Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert, or simply bread” -or- Mana = Minos (Luwian)   
maniki NM maniki/ <- maniko/j = with revelry? (uncertain)
maro/maru/maruku/maruri NM  mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool
masa/masaja NM ma/=ssa  ma/=ssaia <= ma/=sswn = larger, bigger  - 0r – OM = goat, from Hittite, mas = 165
masuri NM mallu/ri <- mallo/j = with fleece
maza/mazu  NM ma=za  = kneaded or unbaked bread, barley bread/cake
Mekidi ONO Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great – or – OM = income, revenue, from Hittite melkitu 
mera NM mela/j = black  - or – me/la (arch. accus.) = honey 
meto NM mesto/j = full, filled = 170
meza NM me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj 
mini/miniduwa NM mh/ni <- mh/n = for a month + mh/nidu#a = for two months 
mireja NM mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep 
miru NM mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit 
mita NM mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita = 175
miturea NM mi/toj 9Re/a= thread of a warp for Rhea (agglutinative)
muko NM mu=xo/j = innermost place, inmost nook, corner, recess 
murito NM mu/lito <- mu/lac = with a millstone
muru NM mu/ron = sweet oil extracted from plants; sweet oil; unguent; perfume

naka nakas NM na/ka <- na/koj = sheep’s fleece = 180
nami NM na=mi <- na=ma = in/with a stream – or - swiftly   
narepirea OMNM1 narepir9e/a = Rhea, goddess of the snake/ snake goddess? (agglutinative)
naridi NM na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with (spike)nard
nasarea OMNM = Rhea, goddess of ... ? (agglutinative)
nasi NM na=si <- na=soj = on an island, peninsula? (uncertain) = 185
nasisea OMNM1 nasise/a = goddess of the island 
nea NM ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
neka/nekisi NM neka/j neki/si = (with a) heap of the slain 
nemi -or- mine (ligature) NM Mi/noj = with Minos? (instr. sing.)
nerapa/nerapaa NM neura/=pa neaura/=fa <- neura/= (with a) sinew, tendon, bow-string, sling shot = 190
neta NM nhta/ <- nhto/j = heaped up 
nipa3 NM nhfai/a <- nafa/lioj  = unmixed with wine 
nise/nisi NM nh=si <- nh=soj = on an island
niti/nitinu NM nh=stij = fasting

odami/odamia NM ou0dami/a = no one (fem.) = 195
oteja NM PK1 o1steia <- o1streia = oyster pigment; oyster purple Cf. Linear B otawero o1streioj 

pa3e NM paie=/ <- pai=/an = with a physician
pa3karati NM pagkra/dh = all-powerful, almighty, all-ruling 
pa3waja OMNM1 pai#ai/a = something to do with land (agglutinative)
paiki... (truncated right) 
Paito NM1 Phaistos Faisto/j = Phaistos Cf. Linear Paito Faisto/j See also Payata (Luwian) = 200
paku NM paxu/j = great, large; rich, wealthy – or- OM, paku, = holy, sacred from Hittite, parkui
para NM para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. - or- viceroy, prince -or- double axes (Luwian) 
parane NM paranhne/ < - parhne/w = heaped up beside
parosu NM fa/losu <-> fa/loj = horn of a helmet 
pasarija = NM pa=sa + OM rija = all-encompassing, international? (agglutinative) = 205
pase NM fa/rse <- fa/rsoj = with a part, portion 
pasu fa/rsuj <- fa/rsoj = a part, portion
piku/pikui/pikuzu NM fhgu/j <- fhgo/j = a species of oak
pimata PGS = pimento 
pita/pitaja MOSE NM pista/kion = pistachio-nut = 210
pitakase/pitakesi MOSE NM pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts (instr. pl.) 
piwaja OM NM pi#ai/a = land division/divided land/shared land/shared plots?
posa NM po/sa= (arch. acc.) <- poi/si=j = drink(ing), beverage -or- po/sa <- po/soj = how great, how much, of what value? 
posi -or- sipo LIG NM posi/ = on, upon Cf. Linear B posi -or- sipo = si/fwn = reed, straw, siphon 
potokuro NM poto/n +  ku/rwn = reaching a full drink, a full draught (agglutinative) – used with no. 65 – or – OM = grand total Cf. putu kol = grand total (Semitic) = 215
puko OM = tripod Cf. Linear B pukoso pu/coj = box-wood. Apparently unrelated 
punikaso PGS NM funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson 
Qara2wa ONO/TOP Cf. Linear B Qara2wo + Qa2ra2wa ONO/TOP? (variation)
qajo NM ba/i"on = a palm branch (Kafkania pebble)
qaqisenuti NM xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative) = 220
qaro NM ba=lo/j = threshold 
qedeminu MA 1 (x2)... OM qede + NM Mi/nu = Minos -or- mh/nu =  month of qede
qero NM be/loj = arrow, dart -or- beryl	vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)
qoroqa NM ko/lon kai\ = and broken (of a spear) (see Kafkania Pebble)

radu/rade NM r9a/bdu <- r9a/bdoj = rod, switch; spear-staff or shaft = 225
ra2ka NM r9aika (fem. sing.) <- r9aiw = shattered, from – to shatter
ra2ri (rairi) PGS OM = lily
ra2ti (raiti) NM r9aisth/r = a hammer, crusher
Raja/Raju PGS ONO TOP  9Rai/a = Raia Cf. Linear B Raja 
raka/rakaa raskas NM r9axa/ <- r9axo/j = thorn bush -or- ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- NM r9anatusu < - r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify. See also tusu = 230
rani NM r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise
ratise (ritise?) NM = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.)
rea PGS r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
rima rimas NM lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts  (dative/instrumental plural) 
roe NM r90o/e r90o/ei < - r9o/oj = in a stream = 235
roika NM  9roika/ (fem. sing.) = crooked Cf. Linear B roiko  9roiko/j 
roke/roki/roku NM = lo/foj = crest of a helmet
rosa  PGS = rose 
rosirasiro OM PGS = rosebush (agglutinative/contextual) 
Rukito PGS TOP Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj – or – Lycians = 240
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff 
rutari NM r9utari/ <- r9utw/n = with a drinking cup (running to a point with a small hole  through which wine ran) 

saka sakas NM sa/kka <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made of wicker See also saqqu (Akkadian) See also – saqa - below
sama/samaro PGS or NM sama/ro = burial ground Cf. Linear B Sama/ra sama/ra = place name -or- monument -or- grave mound OR sa/meron = today
saro/saru/sarutu NM sa/ron = broom, threshing floor -or- flax (inflected) – or- barley, from saru (Semitic) = 245
sasame PGS sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
sato/sata PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement
sea/sei NM se/a se/ei (dat. sing.) = goddess 
sedina PGS = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon
seikama NM = seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess = 250
sere -or- rese LIG NM seirei/ <- seira/ = with a cord or rope (instrumental sing.)
setamaru OMNM (agglutinative) = something to do with wool/spun wool?
side/sidi/sidija/sidare/sidate/sidatoi NM si/dh si/dia = pomegranate tree
sija NM si/a <- si/a = goddess – or- seed, from Hittite siya
sika sikas NM shka/ <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen = 255
Sikine PGS TOP loc. sing. of Sikinos -or- OM = a type of grain
Sikira/Sikirita PGS ONO/TOP -or- NM si/kera = sweet fermented liquor LB sikiro
Sima PGS TOP Si/ma = Sima Cf. Linear B Sima -or- sh=ma = sign, mark, token; omen; mound; grave, tomb Cf. sama/samaro above
simita PGS = mouse (arch. acc.) simito/simitu PGS  = zmi/nqoj mouse 
sire/siro/siru/sirute NM? si=re/ si=rei/ si=ro/j = a pit for keeping corn in = 260
sita2 (sitai) -or- ta2si (taisi) LIG NM  si/tai = with a small amount of wheat 
sitetu  NM See -  situ – below (inflected)
situ NM si/tu si/tun = wheat Cf. Linear B sito si/ton 
Sukirita/Sukiriteija  TOP = Sybrita Cf. Linear B Sukirita Su/grita
suniku (common) NM su/noiku <- su/noikoj  living together, joint inhabitant,  dweller
sure number NM? su=le < su=lon = with seizure of cargo? = no. = 108 used with olive oil
Suria PGS TOP = 265
suzu NM su/zuc = yoked together; paired Cf. Linear B zeukesi zeu/gesi = yoked (instr. pl.)

taikama OM tai + NM ka/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre?  
ta2re/ta2reki NM sta=rei<-  stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei
tai2si (taisi) NM stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.)
taki/taku/takui NM ta=xei/ <- ta=xu/j = quick, swift, speedy -or- with a large container 
for liquid (instr. singular) Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) – or – OM = tax, from Hittite taksessar = tax = 270
tapa NM ta/rfa = thick, close Cf. Linear B tapa
tarasa PGS = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa 
tarawita PGS = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
tarina MM qalli/na (arch. acc.) <- qallo/j = a young shoot, twig; festive olive-branch 

taro MOSE NM tau=roj = bull – or- OM = tree, from Hittite, taru = tree = 275

tejai qei/ai = goddesses
Tejare TOP Cf. Linear B Tejaro qei/aroj = place of the gods?
terikama NM te/leika/ma = extent of land, i.e. something like acreage, lit. land to its extent or boundary (agglutinative)
tero/teroa NM te/loj = end, boundary 
tetu NM th=tou <- th=tej = of this year (gen. sing.) Cf. Linear B weto #e/toj = this year? = 280
timi NM qemi/ <- qemw/n = in a heap 
tiri NM qhri/ <- qh/r or qhri/on = with a wild beast or beast of prey
toraka torakas PGS qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B toraka 
toro NM tau/roj = bull -or- qolo/j = dome or circular vault; vaulted building. See bibliography 77, Smithsonian
tuma/tumei/tumi MOSD NM qumi/a = incense = 285

tunu/tunuja NM qu/nnu <- qu/nnoj = tunney-fish?

turunuseme NM1OM = throne room (agglutinative)
tusi/tusu NM tu/rsij = (in a) tower, castle -or- to/soj = so great, so much, so long, so strong, so little 
tute/tutesi NM quste/ quste/si <- qusta/j = dat. sing. & pl. (for) sacrificial purposes 

udiriki NM u3driki <- u3droj = with water = 290
Uminase OM TOP  Cf. Linear B Aminiso = harbour – or- town, from umina (Luwian)
unaa NM oi0nai/a = wine vessel, wine jug, wine jar 
uro NM ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total 


waja NM #ai/a = earth, land
wanaka PGS #a/nac  = king Cf. Linear B wanaka = 295

wasato NM #a/stu a1stu = town Cf. Lnear B wato #a/stu. See also, Luwian, ati wati = in the town)

Wasatomaro NM + OM TOP = the town of Wasatomaro?

widunimi OM widu NM nh=mi <- nh=ma = with (some kind of) thread or yard (instr. sing.) 
winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado
winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj Cf. Luwian wainu & Hittite, wiyana = 300
winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative) 
wireu NM #i0eru/ <- #i0ero/j = priest Cf. Linear B iyero i0ero/j

zokutu NM zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-bar
zuma NM zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic
zute NM  zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer  See also Hittite, sessar = 305

This is a preliminary count of the number of potential Greek-like words in Linear A, and the total may have to be revised slightly downwards after every last word has been cross-checked for contextual accuracy with every last Linear A tablet on which they appear.

TOTAL number of potential pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan words (NM) = 305
TOTAL number of words in the Linear Z Lexicon = 1076
Percentage of Greek-like words in the Lexicon = 28 %
 
NOTE that these Greek words in Linear A do not include words derived from other ancient languages antecedent to Linear A. I shall post those in the next post, and then add all of the Greek-like words to words of other origins, to arrive at the grand total of potentially deciphered words in Linear A, which will clearly exceed 30 %.

Overlap between Linear A and Linear B syllabaries is so high that the latter should be considered a refinement of the former, and not a new syllabary:

Minoan Linear A keyboard assignments620

In the keyboard assignments for Linear A syllabograms above, I have indicated where Linear A and Linear B syllabograms (almost) coincide with the tag lb just below and slightly to the right of each LA syllabogram for which the Linear B equivalent is (almost) identical or very similar. As it turns out, in the Linear A syllabary of 54 syllabograms, 48 ! are either (almost) identical or very similar to their Linear B counterparts. This leads me to draw the inexorable conclusion that the Linear B syllabary is not a new syllabary at all, but that it should rather be considered a refinement of the Linear A syllabary. The Linear B syllabary standardized several syllabograms which had first appeared in the Linear A syllabary, and eliminated perhaps as much as 100 ideograms, logograms and ligatures originally found in Linear A, replacing some (but far from all) of the latter by new ideograms, logograms and ligatures (in Linear B). Nevertheless, the high statistical overlap between the Linear A and Linear B syllabaries argues in favour of a single syllabary in evolution. Of the 54 syllabograms in Linear A, 48 are either (almost) identical or very similar to their Linear B counterparts, and of the 61 in Linear B, again 48 fall into the same zone.

So is Linear A a new syllabary, or is it merely a refinement and standardized version of Linear A? You may draw your own conclusions. I have already drawn mine.

The implications of this hypothesis for the further decipherment of Linear A are staggering.


The supersyllabogram PA pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi OM = millet -or- spelt -or- pa3qe, paiqe (+ ideogram for wheat) LIG = a kind of grain similar to wheat:

millet or spelt

The supersyllabogram PA pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi OM = millet -or- spelt -or- pa3qe, paiqe (+ ideogram for wheat) LIG = a kind of grain similar to wheat appears on all of these tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), Petras (PE), Tylissos (TY) and Zakros (ZA)

HT 43 gr HT 93 gr (x2) HT 120 gr (x3) HT 125 oo HT 128 gr KH 27 gr PE 1 (x2) TY 3 oo ZA 6 gr (x3) ZA 11 (x5) ZA 18 gr ZA 28 gr

all of which which deal with grains, with the exception of HT 125, dealing with olive oil. The decipherment of millet or spelt (one or the other) is confirmed. It is impossible to decipher PA in the instance of olive oil.


The supersyllabogram ME meza NM1 me/za (fem. sing.) probably means greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj

Knossos, Iraklion, Crete

It appears on Tylissos tablet TY 3 oo, dealing with olive oil and on Zakros tablet ZA 15 wi, dealing with wine. It would seem to imply that the vessels in which these commodities are stored are larger than usual.


The supersyllabogram KI kitina in Linear A probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land?

Plot-of-land-in-Crete

The supersyllabogram KI kitina NM1 ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land. There is no way of substantiating this claim. However, it does make sense, given that it appears on all of rhe following Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), on one from Tylissos (TY) and one from Zakros (ZA):

HT 8 oo HT 9 wi HT 16 oo HT 28 oo HT 44 gr HT 50 oo (x2) HT 91 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 116 (x2) HT 125 oo HT 129 oo HT 140 oo (x2) TY 3 (x3) ZA 18 oo

All of these tablets except one apparently deal with olive trees, rather than olive oil. The one exception is HT 44, which deals with grain, another crop which is grown on plots of land.


The supersyllabogram WI in Linear A winu, winadu, winumatari

Minoan wine presses

The supersyllabogram WI in Linear A means any of the following,winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado -or- winu NM1 #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj -or- winumatari NM1 #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative). The most likely interpretation is winu = wine, but the other two are not out of the question. This supersyllabogram appears on only one tablet, Khania KH 5 wi.


The supersyllabogram NE in Linear A = nere larger amphora size (fem. pl.)

amphorae Knossos

NE nere OM = larger amphora size (fem. plural)

HT 23 oo HT 32 oo (x2) HT 100 oo

This supersyllabogram is found on 3 tablets from Haghia Triada, all of which deal with olive oil. This would seem to confirm our interpretation.


the supersyllabogram SU in Linear A, a small cup with handles & the largest pithos size:

Minoan Pithos and small cup with a handle

The supersyllabogram SU in Linear A has two meanings, context dependent. The first is:

1. SU = supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) OM = a small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo. The word depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu (acc.?) = cup occurs in Linear A. Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa

and the second is:

2. SU = supi/supu/supu2 OM = largest size pithos;

but not MOSE * NM1 supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal tub. MOSE * = decryption by Prof. Yuriy Mosenkis. This interpretation flies in the face of context on any Linear A tablet or fragment. It is all fine and well to conjecture a proto-Greek or Mycenaean-derived Greek word, but if you check your decipherment against extant tablets, then you may find it invalidated. This must always be done. Otherwise, you will end up with a meaning which is simply out of the question.


the supersyllabogram KA = with with a jar or vessel for water or wine:

Minoanand Mycenaeanflasks

kadi MOSE NM1 kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine

This supersyllabogram appears on Haghia Triada tablets HT HT 28 wi HT 88 ma & HT 100 ma, in conjunction with the ideogram for wine on the first one and for man on the second and third. It would appear that the second and third tablets refer to a man or person using a jar or vessel for water or wine.


POST 1,702: The supersyllabogram DI in Linear A, dipa3a (dipaia) + dipaja = from a cup

Minoan cups

The supersyllabogram DI in Linear A, dipa3a (dipaia) almost certainly refers to a cup. It is debatable whether or not this form is Linear A nominative singular; however, the form dipaja = from a cup, is likely to be genitive singular.

DI = dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup 
or
DI = dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)


The supersyllabogram AKA in Linear A = either wine skin or an embossed cup:

ancient wine skin and the Vapheio cup

BOLD: n. e.g. 1. A = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is either certain or highly probable.

Italics: n. e.g. 7. KI = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is possible.

Standard font: n. e.g. 2 = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is unlikely or questionable.

It is almost certain that the supersyllabogram A in Linear A means either a wine skin or an embossed cup.

1. A aka = aska = a0ska = wine skin -or- apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine Cf. Linear B apero -or- aresana NM1 a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM1 a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup

Note that it appears on HT 2 (Haghia Triada) dealing with olive oil, which is sometimes served from a vessel and on the other 3 tablets, same provenance, all of which deal with vessels, hence the reading, embossed cup:

HT 2 oo HT 39 ve KH 83 ve MA 10 ve

oo = olive oil

ve = vessels


4-sided Cretan pictogram bar with end shown & interpretations of pictograms:

4-sided Cretan pictogram bar with end shown

 


Cretan pictograms – the first 14: the origins of syllabograms:

syllabary like Cretan pictograms

Cretan pictograms – the first 14: the origins of syllabograms:

There are 14 Cretan syllabary-like pictograms, most of which look like primitive syllabograms in Linear A, but almost certainly are not syllabograms. But all of them but one (the crescent moon on its side) are (almost) identical to the Linear A syllabograms A, DA, DI, NI, NU, RU, QE, SE, TA, TE and TU. But it is without a shadow of a doubt a mistake to identify any of them as syllabograms as such. They are the primordial templates of the latter.

In my previous posts on Cretan pictograms, I asserted that there were only 45 of them. That was a grievous mistake. I was way off the mark. Upon close examination of all of the Cretan pictograms so meticulously identified by Sir Arthur Evans in Scripta Minoa (1909, 1952), I discovered to my amazement that there are around 200 of them, exclusive of numerics, which have been successfully deciphered by Evans. From here on in, all posts on Cretan pictograms, whether (possibly/probably/definitely) known or unknown, i.e indecipherable, will be numbered sequentially until the absolute total of them all is reached. As we can see, the first 14 are those which look like Linear A syllabograms. In the next post, I shall introduce the Cretan pictograms for crops, which number sequentially from 15 to 23. Subsequent posts will identify Cretan pictograms from 24 onward.

In spite of the fact that many researchers call Cretan pictograms hieroglyphs, they simply cannot be, since 200 is far too small a figure for hieroglyphics or for scripts like Cuneiform. Both of the latter contain at least 1,000 figures or characters. This clearly disqualifies Cretan pictograms as hieroglyphs. In 1909 Sir Arthur Evans correctly identified them as pictograms right from the outside, and his conclusions are sound.


The third example of Cretan ideograms/logograms, Malia label Mu MA/M Hf, possibly decipherable:

Cretan label Malia Quartier Mu MA M Hf

Click on the label, FRAGRANTICA, for more information about saffron as an ancient aromatic.

This is the third example of Cretan ideograms/logograms, Malia label Mu MA/M Hf. Surprising as it is, this label may be largely decipherable. It is subdivided into 3 sections. The first S1 is blank. The second, S2, appears to spill over from the first side to the second, while the third, S3, is found on the second side alone. The first ideogram in S2 (section 2) is probably the one for “saffron”, while the second is still indecipherable. The third is clearly some sort of representation of a woman. The X, which is indecipherable, is followed by the number 100. S2 continues on side 2, which begins with what is clearly the ideogram for “textiles/cloth”, followed by what appear to be 3 ideograms for “sword(s)”. If these 3 ideograms in fact designate “swords”, they are practically identical to those for “swords” in Linear B. Section 3 (S3) begins with what appears to be an ideogram for “garment(s)”, followed once again by textiles, and followed in turn by an indecipherable ideogram, which might possibly relate to cutting, S3 ending with the number 100.

A partial decipherment might read: aromatic saffron + ? + a weaver or weavers (all weavers were women) weaving 100 rolls of cloth, 3 of which serve to wrap 3 swords in + 100 garments of some kind of (cut) textiles (saffron dyed?).


Special post for Linear B students: how to convert from Linear B to the ancient Greek alphabet and vice versa:

The following tables illustrate how to convert from Linear B to the ancient Greek alphabet and vice versa.

A: Linear B to ancient Greek:

linear b syllabary with ancient Greek alphabet correspondences

B: ancient Greek to Linear B:

ancient greek alphabet with Liniear B correspondences

 


How circular language in the movie, Arrival, determines the aspacial/atemporal nature of logograms throughout the ages:

In the movie, Arrival (2016), which chronicles the arrival on earth of 12 mysterious ships, apparently from outer space, the following statements leap out at us:

parsing the language of the heptapods in the movie, Arrival

1. Unlike all written languages, the writing is semiseriographic. It conveys meaning. It doesn't represent sound. Perhaps they view our form of writing as a wasted opportunity.  
2. How heptapods write: ... because unlike speech,  a logogram is free of time. Like their ship, their written language has forward or backward direction. Linguists call this non-linear orthography, which raises the question, is this how they think? Imagine you wanted to write a sentence using 2 hands, starting from either side. You would have to know each word you wanted to use as well as much space it would occupy. A heptapod can write a complex sentence in 2 seconds effortlessly.

The key to all of this is the phrase a logogram is free of time. Allow me to illustrate. Logograms are also often called ideograms, and that is what I prefer to call them. Another word to describe them is icon. When we examine ancient Linear A and B ideograms and compare them with modern ones, the results are astonishing, to wit:

ArrivalParadeandswords

horsesLinearBandmodern

manwomanscaleswheel

All of the aforementioned examples make it quite clear that ideograms, whether they be as ancient as those in Linear A and Linear B (i.e. about 3,400 years old) or modern ... or for that matter, neolithic or even earlier, all bear a striking resemblance to one another. Take for instance the Linear A ideogram for “scales” and compare it with just one modern one (among so many others), and we see immediately that they are extremely similar. Now take the Linear B ideograms for man” and “woman” and compare these with the washroom symbols for the same and once again the similarity is almost too good to be true. Then there is the Linear B ideogram for a four-spoke wheel compared with a modern one for an eight-spoke wheel. The number of spokes is not relevant to this discussion, only the fact that the ancient Linear B ideogram for “wheel” is practically identical to the modern one.

The implications for the decipherment of ideograms in any language, ancient or modern (let alone Linear A and Linear B) versus those in any modern language are staggering. We can be sure that the ancient ideograms varied little from one language to another, let alone between Minoan and Mycenaean. In fact, the syllabogram TE, which sometimes represents wheat, in Linear A and Linear B is almost identical to the same ideograms in cuneiform!

It is patently obvious that since the distinction between the ancient ideograms and their modern equivalents enumerated above is so thin, all of these ideograms (or logograms or icons) are not only time independent (atemporal) and spatially independent (aspatial), they are also language independent. This is a stunning phenomenon.

The implications for the further decipherment of Linear A are simply overwhelming.

And this is why in the movie, Arrival, the heptapods assert, “There is no time.”



Linear B syllabograms, homophones and special characters missing from the Linear A syllabary:

Linear B syllabograms and homophones not in Linear A

A considerable number of Mycenaean Linear B syllabograms, homophones and special characters missing from the Linear A syllabary. But the same can be said for a fairly large number of Linear A syllabograms, homophones and special characters missing from Linear B. Thus, students of both syllabaries must master, first the overlap, which accounts for most of the characters in both syllabaries, and secondly, the discrepancies, of which there are scores. There is simply no way around it. If you are a student of both Linear A and Linear B you have to learn the syllabograms, homophones and special characters found in one of the syllabaries but missing in the other.

Notably, the O series of syllabograms in Linear B suffers from several lacunae in Linear A. This is simply because Linear A has an aversion the ultimate O, and nothing more. Words which terminate in O in Linear B, which is to say, masculine and neuters, much more commonly end in U in Linear A. And this includes a great many exograms which are common to both syllabaries.

Above all else, the masculine and neuter genitive singular always terminates in O in Linear B, and always in U in Linear A. The feminine genitive singular ultimate in Linear A, just as we find in Linear B, appears to be ija, and there are plenty of examples (for instance, jadireja, kiraja, kupa3rija, musajanemaruja, namarasasaja, nenaarasaja, nemaruja, nenaarasaja, nukisikija, sejarapaja, sidija, sudaja and Sukirteija, to cite just a few) . The problem is that no examples of masculine or neuter genitive singular with the ultimate ijo exist. Only a few words terminate in iju, (aju, araju, kumaju, kureju, pirueju and sareju), but these are almost certainly masculine and/or neuter genitive singular, hence likely validating the notion that the feminine genitive singular is ija.


Preview of the most Complete Linear A Lexicon of 1029 words ever compiled in history soon to be published on academia.edu just uploaded:

preview of comprehensive Linear A Lexicon

This Preview of the most Complete Linear A Lexicon of 1029 words ever compiled in history soon to be published on academia.edu.pdf is in and of itself a lengthy article (14 pages long), offering full insight into the massive extent and impact of the actual lexicon, Comprehensive Lexicon of 1029 New Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan words, with extensive commentaries, soon to be published on my academia.edu account (sometime in July 2017). The actual Lexicon will be at least 45 pages long, and will include all of the following elements:

1. An in-depth introduction, comparing this Lexicon, with its 1029 Linear A terms with the Linear A Reverse Lexicon of Prof. John G. Younger, containing 774 intact Linear A words. To date, Prof. Younger’ Lexicon has always been considered the de facto standard of Linear A lexicons; but it falls far short of the mark. From scanning through every last Linear A tablet on Prof. Younger’s site, Linear A texts in phonetic transcription, I discovered scores of Linear A words which he missed in his Reverse Lexicon. I have also spent the last two years ransacking the Internet for every last scrap of evidence of extant Linear A tablets, fragments, roundels, pendants and inscriptions on pottery, only to unearth even more Linear words entirely overlooked by Prof. Younger, to the extent that I uncovered a total of 1029 Linear A exograms, 225 more than he did. Thus, our Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon is 27.7 % larger than his.
2. The Lexicon itself, containing 1029 words, of which over 160 are Mycenaean-derived New Minoan, some 85 are either toponyms or eponyms, a few score fall within the pre-Greek substratum and at least 80 are Old Minoan words I have been able to decipher, more or less conclusively. As for the remainder of the Old Minoan substratum, i.e. the original pre-Greek Minoan language, I have been unable to decipher the rest of its vocabulary. But believe it or not, this factor is less of an impediment to the decipherment of Linear A than we might otherwise believe. I have been able to decipher at least 350 words out of a total of 1029, which is to say about 33 % of Linear A.
3. Each section of the final Comprehensive Lexicon, i.e. A: Mycenaean-derived New Minoan NM1 B: the pre-Greek substratum C: eponyms and toponyms D: Old Minoan vocabulary and E: ligatured logograms is accompanied by a detailed analysis and survey of its contents.
4. The final Lexicon contains a comprehensive bibliography of 84 items on every aspect I have detailed of the decipherment of Linear A as outlined in this preview.  

 

 


Our site moderator, Richard Vallance Janke, April 30 2017


Richard Vallance Janke April 30 2017


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