Tag Archive: Proto-Semitic

Total number of words derived from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A: 

banner antecedents to Linear A in Linear A
Below we find the potential total of the number of words derived from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A. This figure = 87 or 8 % of Linear A may need to be revised downwards upon re-checking each word against each and every Linear A tablet on which it may appear.
This is also true of the total of 305 = 28 % of the Greek-like words in the previous post. It is likely that the grand total of 36 % will thus also eventually need to be revised downwards. I will only be able to verify the final results after the exercise of cross-correlation with Linear A tablets, prior to the publication of the Revised Linear A Lexicon early in 2018.

Akanu/Akanuzati  PGS TOP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) – or- a large bowl, from Semitic akanu
akara/akaru = akaras/akarus NM a1kra - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field, from Hittite, akkala = furrow  
ama OM = armas = moon? (Hittite/Luwian origin?)
ana not NM a0na/ ana = upwards, above, through; according to etc. OM = tin, from Hittite, anna, Akkadian, anaku 
api NM a0spi/j = shield – or- OM plough, from Hittite apin  = 5
Arenesidi  ONO = for Nesidis (Hittite)
ari/arinita OM = flower? + arinata = flowery, from Hittite alil 
arisu OM = cow or bull or ox, permuted. See also qaqaru, riruma
asadaka asadakas MOSE NM a1staxa <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn
asamune OM = goblet, from Semitic assummun 
Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax – or- OM = white, from Hittite asara = 10
asasarame NM? Used in conjuction with the Mycenaean attempt to translate the name of the Minoan goddess, Atana, Greek Athena A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja – or- Asherah (Semitic) 
asijaka – used in conjunction with – uminasi – OM asijaka = entrance to a port? - or- Sfardak = from Sardis (Luwian)
asona = possibly Asona peoples of Africa, whose totem is a crow or snake, thus possibly snake. atu NM a1stu/ = town See also Luwian atiwati = in the town
daka/daki/daku/dakuna/dakusene(ti) (last agglutinative) OM = black? (Luwian, dakkuis) + Dakusene OM ONO Cf. Takusenni (Khurritic)
damate PGS NM Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate Cf. damate = Earth Mother = 15 (Pelasgian) - or- da/matei = in the village 
darunete – See also dirunete. See also Hittite, daru = tree, wood
depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa (Luwian = bowl, cup)
dideru OM PGS = einkorn wheat – or- oats (Semitic) Cf. Linear B didero
etori NM? e1tori <- e1toj = for a year – or – OM = food, from Hittite etri
Idamate/Idamete PGS ONO  0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida  Cf. Idaian Mother (Pelasgian) = 20
ija OM = ram from Hittite iya
jako/jaku/jakute OM = grain? from Hittite, halki
Kanijami ONO Kaniamis fem. (Ugaritic)
kanuti OM ONO = Kanuties (Phrygian)
karopa2 (karopai) OM = kylix with 2 handles-or- MOSE NM ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase – or – karpu = vessel name (Semitic) = 25
kataro NM ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup
kiro/kirisi/kiru OM = deficit, owed Cf. Linear B oporo = they owed Cf. kilu, kalum = deficit (Semitic)
kunisu OM = emmer wheat (derivation: Semitic kunnisu) 
kupa/kupi NM ku=fa/ ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = bent, curved, with something bent, possibly a scythe. See also – kupaja (genitive singular) – below – or – OM cypergrass, henna (Semitic)
Kupa3nu OM ONO (Ugaritic) = 30
kupari OM = legume. Cf. gopali = annual legume (Sanskrit)
kuro/kurotu NM ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa Cf. kol = total (Semitic)
mana/manapi (common) PGS Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert, or simply bread” -or- Mana = Minos (Luwian)   
maro/maru/maruku/maruri NM  mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool  = 410
masa/masaja NM ma/=ssa  ma/=ssaia <= ma/=sswn = larger, bigger  - 0r – OM = goat, from Hittite, mas = 35
matiti OM = with a mat? (instrumental sing.) Cf. matta (Phoenician)
Mekidi ONO Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great – or – OM = income, revenue, from Hittite melkitu 
mesiki -or- sikime -or- kimesi etc. LIG  Cf. Hittite, mekki = much, many  
midai OM = red, from Hittite mida = red, ochre
minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) OM = pulse crop, any one of broad beans (faba/fava), chick peas, lentils or vetch (permuted) See minutum = standard type of grain (Semitic) = 40
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi + OM nesidi = Hittite (Pelasgian) 
Paito NM1 Phaistos Faisto/j = Phaistos Cf. Linear Paito Faisto/j See also Payata (Luwian) = paka OM =  (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka Cf. pancha  = drink from alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, tea or spices (Sanskrit) – or – OM = whole, entire, from Hittite, panku
paku NM paxu/j = great, large; rich, wealthy – or- OM, paku, = holy, sacred from Hittite, parkui
para NM para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. - or- viceroy, prince -or- double axes (Luwian)
pata/patada/pataqe/patu OM = small handle-less cups Cf. Linear B dipa anowe, dipa anowoto Cf. pataqu = wine cup (Semitic) = 45
pisa OM TOP?  Cf. Luwian, Pisaru = Pisaros
potokuro NM poto/n +  ku/rwn = reaching a full drink, a full draught (agglutinative) – used with no. 65 – or – OM = grand total Cf. putu kol = grand total (Semitic)
punikaso PGS NM funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson Cf. Phoenician
qaqaru OM = a livestock animal, probably a cow or bull or ox – or – talent (gold) (Pelasgian)
qati/qatiki OM = portion Cf. bhakti = portion Sanskrit)
qera2u/qera2wa/qera2ja... (truncated)  OM = a type of grain, probably millet or spelt (inflected) – or – toasted grain, from Semitic qalu = 50
qeria/qeriu OM = probably millet or spelt – or - – or – toasted grain, from Semitic qalu
qero NM be/loj = arrow, dart -or- beryl	vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)
qeti (instr. sing.)/qetiradu OM/PGS = a very large pot, pithos Cf. Linear B PGS qeto pi/qoj
qetune/qitune OM = linen, from kutum (Semitic)   
raki/rakii/rakisi/raku OM = lacquer Cf. lākṣā (Sanskrit)
ruqa/ruqaqa (common) OM = to kindle? from Hittite ruki ?
saka sakas NM sa/kka <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made of wicker See also saqqu (Akkadian) See also – saqa – below = 55
saqa saqas OM = sack Cf. saqqu (Akkadian)
saro/saru/sarutu NM sa/ron = broom, threshing floor -or- flax (inflected) – or- barley, from saru (Semitic)
sasaja OM = of a seal, from Luwian, sasa = seal
sasara(me) OM ONO = Sasarah (a god) from Asherah (Lycian)  
sato/sata PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement = 60
semetu PGS ONO= Semitic?
sija NM si/a <- si/a = goddess – or- seed, from Hittite siya
suniku (common) NM su/noiku <- su/noikoj  living together, joint inhabitant,  dweller
supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) OM =small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo – or -   sapu = vessel name  (Semitic)
supi/supu/supu2 OM = largest size pithos but not MOSE NM supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal tub, because no tablet justifies this interpretation – or- sappu = bowl (Semitic)
takaa/takari = large container for liquid Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) = 65
taki/taku/takui NM ta=xei/ <- ta=xu/j = quick, swift, speedy -or- with a large container
for liquid (instr. singular) Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) – or – OM = tax, from Hittite taksessar = tax
tara = possibly a cat/also zatara,  found in modern English

taro MOSE NM tau=roj = bull – or- OM = tree, from Hittite, taru = tree

tenita(ki) OM Tanit, Tinnit (Semitic) = 70
teri/teridu OM = three, from Hittite teriyas
terota -or- rotate -or- tatero etc. LIG – variation of the above?
terusi OM = delivery (Akkadian/Luwian) (extremely common) 
tiditeqati (agglutinative) rel. Cf. qati above 
tinata (common)/tinita OM =  tithe (Luwian)  = 75
titiku OM = ONO = Titiku = Titis (Pelasgian)
toreqa OM = ball of wool? (from Luwian, tolype?) 
Utinu OM ONO = personal name Cf. itti (Proto-Canaanite) 
Wadunimi TOP = the place or town of Waduna? (locative sing.?) Cf. Badunimis (Pelasgian)

wasato NM #a/stu a1stu = town Cf. Lnear B wato #a/stu. See also, Luwian, ati wati = in the town) = 80

winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj Cf. Luwian wainu & Hittite, wiyana
witero = with, found in modern English
zute NM  zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer  See also Hittite, sessar= beer

TOTAL number of words from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A = 83/1076
Percentage of of words from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A = 8 %
TOTAL  percentage of all words (Greek-like) and from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A = 28 % + 8 % = 36 %

CRITICAL POST: Ancient words from 3,000 – 1,200 BCE in modern English:

First the ancient words in modern English, and in the next two posts, how words infiltrate from earlier to diachronically close later languages. These posts are real eye-openers, explaining how words from earlier languages trickle into later, e.g. Akkadian and Sanskrit into Linear A (Minon) and Linear B (Mycenaean) + how all of the ancient words here infiltrate English.

Akkadian/Assyrian (3,000 BCE):


babel babilu = Babylon; gate of God (Akkadian)

bdellium budulhu = pieces (Assyrian)

canon, canyon qanu = tube, reed (Assyrian)

cumin kumunu = carrot family plant (Akkadian)

natron sodium (Akkadian)

myrrh murru (Akkadian)

sack saqqu (Akkadian)

shalom = hello sholom/shlama = hello (also Hebrew)

souk saqu = narrow (Akkadian)

Semitic (2,000-1,000 BCE):

arbiter arbiter (Latin from Phoenician)

byssus bwtz = linen cloth, to be white (Semitic)

chemise gms = garment (Ugaritic)

deltoid dalt (Phoenician)

fig pag (paleo-Hebrew)

iotacism iota (Phoenician)

map (Phoenician)

mat matta (Phoenician)

shekel tql (Canaanite)

Egyptian (2690 BCE):

Egyptian-Papyrus 19k BCE






baboon 5

barge, bark, barque, to embark




chemistry 10

copt, coptic




endive 15





lily 20





myth 25





phoenix 30



sack See also saqqu (Akkadian)


Susan(na), Phineas, Moses, Potiphar, Potiphera 35


stibium = eye paint


uraeus (emblem on the headdress of the pharaoh)39

Sanskrit (2,000 BCE):


aniline nili (Sanskrit)

Aryan aryas = noble, honourable

atoll antala

aubergine vātigagama = eggplant, aubergine

avatar avatara = descent

bandana bandhana = a bond

banyan vaṇij = merchant

basmati vasa

beryl vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)

bhakti bhakti = portion

candy khaṇḍakaḥ, from khaṇḍaḥ = piece, fragment

cashmere shawl made of cashmere wool

cheetah chitras = uniquely marked

chintz chitras = clear, bright

cot khatva

cobra kharparah = skull

crimson krmija = red dye produced by a worm

crocus kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow

datura dhattūrāh = a kind of flowering plant

dinghy dronam = tiny boat

ginger srngaveram, from srngam “horn” + vera = body

guar gopali = annual legume

gunny goni = sack

guru gurus = bachelor

jackal srgalah = the howler

Java/java = island/coffee Yavadvipa= Island of Barley, from yava

= barley + dvipa =island

juggernaut jagat-natha-s = lord of the world

jungle jangala = arid

jute jutas = twisted hair

karma karman = action

kermes kṛmija = worm-made

lacquer lākṣā

lilac nila = dark blue

loot lotam = he steals

mandala mandala = circle

mandarin mantri = an advisor

mantra mantras = holy message or text

maya maya = illusion

Mithras mitrah = friend

mugger makara = sea creature, crocodile

musk mus = mouse

nard naladam = nard

nirvanas nirvanas = extinction, blowing out (candle)

opal upalah = opal

orange narangas = orange tree

pal bhrata = brother

palanquin palyanka = bed, couch

panther pāṇḍara = pale

pepper pippali = long pepper

punch pancha = drink from alcohol, sugar, lemon, water,

tea or spices

pundit paṇdita =learned

rajah rajan = king

rice vrihi-s = rice, derived from proto-Dravidian

rupee rūpyakam =silver coin

saccharin sarkarā

sandal wood candanam = wood for burning incense

sapphire sanipriya = sacred to Shani (Sanskrit) = Greek,


sari sati = garment

shawl sati = strip of cloth

sugar sharkara = ground sugar

swami svami = master

tank tadaga-m =pond, lake pool, large artificial

container for liquid

thug sthaga = scoundrel

tope stupah

yoga yogas = yoke, union

yogi yogin = one who practices yoga, ascetic

zen dhyana = meditation

Linear A (1,800-1,500 BCE):

linear a tablet kh5 khania

cedar keda = cedar

cumin kuminaqe = and cumin See also Linear B kumino

kumi/non Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant


lily rairi (also Egyptian) -or- nila = dark blue


pimento			pimata = pimento
rose				rosa  = rose 
sack				saka sa/kka  <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from 
				goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made
				of wicker See also saqqu = sack (Akkadian)

Linear A & Linear B (1,800-1,200 BCE):

Linear B tablet with ideogram

agriculture akara/akaru a1kra (arch. acc.) – or – = end, border

+ akaru a0gro/j = field Cf. Linear B akoro a0gro/j

democracy		dima/dimaru dh=maj <- dh=moj = land, country;
				people Cf. Linear B	damo = village da=moj
				Mother goddess of Mount Ida	Idamate/Idamete
Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida Idarea  0Idar9ea 
healer			ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate
calligraphy		karu = ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine,
copper			kaki/kaku xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
crimson			punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
crocus			kuruku kro/koj = crocus, saffron Cf. crocus
				kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow (Sanskrit)
Lykinthos			Rukito Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj
minth			mita mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita 
nard				naridi na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with nard. See also
				naladam (Sanskrit)
new				nea ne/a (feminine) = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new     
pistachio-nut		pitakase/pitakesi pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts
				(instr. pl.) 
Phoenician		punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
Phaistos			Paito Faisto/j Cf. Linear Paito 
Rhea			rea r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
sack				saka sa/kka (arch. acc.) <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of
				hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj
				a shield made of wicker Cf. See also
				saqqu (Akkadian)
sesame			sasame sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
terebinth tree		tarawita = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano 
				ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
thalassian		tarasa = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa
thorax			toraka  qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B
throne			turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B torono
wine 			winu  #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono = wine, vine
wine dedicated to Mother Earth winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine
				dedicated	to Mother Earth
yoked			zokutu zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-		
zone				zuma zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic 

Mycenaean Linear B (1,600-1,200 BCE):

aeon eo e0wn = being

anemometer anemo a0ne/mwn = wind

angel akero a0ngge/loj = messenger

agora akora a0gora/ = market

axles akosone a1conej = axles

amphorae aporowe a0mfore#ej

armaments amota a3rmo/ta = chariot

anthropology atoroqo a0nqrw/poj = man, human being

aulos (musical instrument)auro a0ulo/j = flute, musical instrument

cardamon kadamiya kardami/a = cardamon

celery serino se/linon = celery

chiton kito xitw/n = chiton

circular kukereu kukleu/j = circle

coriander koriyadana koli/adna

cumin kumino kum/minon Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant


curator korete kore/ter = governor

cypress kuparo ku/pairoj

divine diwo Di/#oj = Zeus

duo dwo du#o/ = two

elephant erepa e0le/faj = ivory (in Mycenaean)

eremite eremo e1remoj = desert

foal poro pw/loj = foal

gynecology kunaya gunai/a = woman

heterosexual hatero a3teroj e3teroj = other

hippodrome iqo i3ppoj = horse

labyrinth dapuritoyo = labyrinth laburi/nqoj

linen rino li/non

lion rewo le/#wn = lion

mariner marineu marineu/j = sailor, mariner

maternal matere ma/ter = mother

Mesopotamia Mesopotomo Mesopota/moj = Mesopotamia

metropolis matoropuro matro/puloj = mother city

nautical nao nau/j = ship

non-operational noopere nwfe/lioj = useless

operation opero o1feloj = operation

paternal pate pa/ter = father

paramedic 		para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of,
				beyond etc.
pharmaceutical	pamako fa/rmakon = medicine
polypod			porupode polu/pode polu/pouj = octopus
progressive		poro pro\ = in front of 
purple			popureyo pofurei/a = purple
quartet			qetoro tetta/rej = four

schinus kono skoi/noj (flowering pepper)

strategic tatakeu startageu/j = general

stylobate			tatamo staqmo/j = standing post, door post
temenos			temeno (piece of land assigned as an official
				domain (to royalty)
theological		teo qe/oj = god
trapeze			topeza to/rpeza tra/peza = table
tripod			tiripode tri/pwj = tripod
vision			wide #ei/de = to see 
xenophobic		kesenuwiyo ce/n#ioj = stranger

© by Richard Vallance Janke 2017

2 Minoan Linear A words under SI-SU of possible proto-Greek and 1 of probable proto-Semitic origin:


In this table, two of the words are quite likely of proto-Greek origin, while the third, SURIA, probably means “Syria”, especially in light of the fact that since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of the Neolithic centres of culture (known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A), where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. 

This brings our cumulative total of Minoan Linear A words of proto-Greek, proto-Hebrew and proto-Semitic origin to 46.

1 Minoan Linear A word under SA-SE of putative proto-Hebrew origin, sato = saton?


There appears to be a single word under the syllabograms SA-SE in Minoan Linear A, which is of putative proto-Hebrew origin, and it is sato, which apparently is the equivalent of (proto-) Hebrew saton, a unit of measurement.

Just uploaded to academia.edu:
The Gezer Agricultural Calendar Almanac in Paleo-Hebrew (ca. 925 BCE) and its Translation into Mycenaean Linear B, Coupled with the Profound Implications of the Powerful Impact of Supersyllabograms aka Surcharged Adjuncts on Linear B:

category Linear B 
This highly significant article, which is the ultimate lead up to my talk,"The Rôle of Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B", which I will be giving at the interdisciplinary Conference,"Thinking in Symbols", at the Pultusk Academy of the Humanities, Pultusk, Warsaw, on July 1st. or 2nd., is highly revealing of the primary focus my presentation at that time: Click on the banner below to visit the academia.edu page, where it is presently posted and available for download in PDF format. here: Click the banner below to retrieve it:

Paleo-Hebrew Gezer Calnder translated into Mycenaean Linear B
I am quite sure that anyone genuinely interested in Mycenaean Linear B will find it fascinating reading.

I would also like to point out that, even though I have been on academia.edu for less than a month, my papers have skyrocked to the top 1% of all research documents on the that site, which has surprised and astonished me beyond my wildest expectations. The number of followers I have garnered has risen from 55 last week to 90 today.




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