Tag Archive: pre-Greek



Potential Pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) & Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) words in Linear A = 305/1076 in the entire Linear A Lexicon:

banner Greek-like words in Linear A

adai OM + See [18] below. adakisika NM a0dakissi/ka = adorned with ivory Cf. qaqisenuti NM 
xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative), hence, probably a chaplet in fine bronze adorned with ivy  
adidakitipaku OM adida (unknown) NM kiti ki/sth = chest, box + pagu/j = giant, large
adoro MOSB NM a1doroj = receiving no gifts; unpaid; giving no gifts
Akanu/Akanuzati  PGS TOP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) – or- a large bowl, from Semitic akanu
Akanuzati NEW PGS NM A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) + za/qi <- za/qoej = for the most holy or sacred Archanes = 5
aka -or- kaa = askas LIG NM  a0ska/ <- a0sko/j = leather bag, wine skin
ake -or- kae = aske (instr. sing.) LIG NM  a0skei/ (arch. acc.) <- a0sko/j = with a leather bag, wine skin
akara/akaru = akaras/akarus NM a1kra - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field, from Hittite, akkala = furrow  
akarakitanasijase NM   a1kra (arch. acc.) - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field + kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj = a field with terebinth trees. See also kitanisija NEW

akiro NM a1kairoj = not in season, unseasonable -or- a1grioj = living in the fields; uncultivated, unreclaimed

akoane NM = This is the Mycenaean attempt to translate the name of the Minoan goddess, Atana, Greek Athena A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja -or- from: akunasatisa = Knossos (Luwian) = 10

akumina akuminas PGS a0ku/mina = without cumin?
amaja NM a3maca= wagon
amarane... (truncated) NM a0malli/ <- a0mallo/j = without fleece (a privative instrumental) amawasi NM a3mai#asi = with violets
amita NM a0mi/nqa <- mi/nqoj = without mint = 15
anatu NM? a=na/tu <- a=nastado/n = upright, standing? (could make sense in context)
apaki NM a0parxh/ = first part of a sacrifice, firstlings for sacrifice, first-fruits 
apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine  Cf. Linear B apero 
api NM a0spi/j = shield – or- OM plough, from Hittite apin 
ara NM a0ra/ = a prayer = 20
araju NM a0ra=u <- a0ra=oj = prayed for? – used with no. 123 
arako NM a0ra/c = weaver Cf. Linear B arakateya a0laka/teiai = weavers

arakokuzu OMNM1 = weavers establishment? (agglutinative)

arati NM a0ra=ti/ <- a0ra/toj = with something unblessed Cf. makarite  below
aratiatu NM a0ra=ti a/stu = a prayer for the town, community <- Linear B  #a/stu = city, town 
aratu/aratumi... (truncated) = 25
aresana NM a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup 
arija... NM a=0ri=a <- a=0rai=a (truncated) = prayed to, accursed (fem.) NEW
aripa NM a1leifar = cream, ointment Cf. Linear B arepa NEW 
arokaku NM a1ro xalku/ = o0rei/xalkoj, oreikhalkos (from o1roj, oros, mountain and xalko/j  chalkos, copper), meaning mountain copper.  Cf. Linear B kako xalko/j. See Appendix 3  = 30
aro/arote /aru NM au=loc te\ = (and) furrow, ploughed land, corn-land
arura NM a0rou/ra = unit of land -or- plough Cf. Linear B arura 
arudara MOSE NM a1lutra <- a1lutron = threshing instrument (arch. acc.) 
aruma NM a3rwma (neuter) = arable land -or- spice
asadaka asadakas MOSE NM a1staxa <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn = 40
Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax – or- OM = white, from Hittite asara
asidatoi NM a0si/datoi = without pomegranate (dat. sing.)
asikira asikas NM1 <- khro/j = without wax 
Asuja  TOP Cf Linear B Asiwiya A0si/#ia
atade NM a1ttade = from father = 45
atanate NM a0qa/na=te = without an immortal (instr. sing.) 

A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja NM Ata/noj = Earth goddess Atano

atare NM a0ta=lei/ <- a0ta=lo/j = tender; delicate (of crops?) -or- a0qa/lei <- a0qa/loj = without a branch, twig; without an olive branch -or- MOS NM a9dro/j = full-grown – or – a0qa/rh = groats, meal, green fodder, forage, provender Cf. kupari = galingale
atika NM? au0t/ika= = immediately 
atiru NM? a0ti/lu <- a0te/loj = without boundaries = 50
atu NM a1stu/ = town See also Luwian atiwati = in the town
auta NM au0ta/ = self, oneself; alone + deponiza NM... the mistress herself  KO Zf 2

damate PGS NM Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate Cf. damate = Earth Mother (Pelasgian) - or- da/matei = in the village 
dare NM da=lei/ <- da=lo/j = (with) a firebrand or torch/daro LIG NM da=lo/j = firebrand 
datara/datare NM da=ta/ra da=ta/rei <- da=th/rioj = distributing, for distribution -or- OM sacred grove of olive trees -or- a kind of flowering plant = 55
Dawa OM = place name Cf. LB dawo Da/#oj / Da/#on 
deka -or- kade LIG NM ka/de (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = pitcher, jar, pail
depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa (Luwian = bowl, cup)
deponiza NM de/spoina = mistress, lady KO Zf 2 Cf. Linear B deponiya
dewa -or- wide LIG NM de/#a = goddess? = 60
dija/dije NM Di/ #a Cf. Linear B Diwija Di#i/a = priestess of Zeus
Dikate PGS TOP = Mount Dikte Cf. Linear B Dikatade Diktai/ade = towards Mt. Dikte
dima/dimaru NM dh=ma <- dh=moj = land, country
dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup 
dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)
ditamana  PGS = dittany = 65
Dupu3re TOP Cf. Linear B Dupu2razo Dupurai/zoj 
dura2 NM  dou/lai = slaves (fem.) Cf. Linear B doera doe/la 

eka ekas NM e3gxa spear, lance <- e3gxoj = spear Cf. Linear B eko
ero NM e0llo/j = young deer, fawn 
esija MOSA NM e3sti/a = hearth of a house = 70
etori NM? e1tori <- e1toj = for a year – or – OM = food, from Hittite etri

ia i0a/  NM (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija NM? See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) 
Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3  = Mount Ida PGS TOP
Idamate/Idamete PGS ONO  0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida  Cf. Idaian Mother (Pelasgian)
Idarea ONO PGS  0Idar9ea = Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida = 75
ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate  i0a/ter
ima imas NM i9ma/c = leather strap, thong; (lash of) a whip
ipinama/ipinamina MOS NM i0pneume/na (fem. sing.) = baked (bread)
ira2 NM i1la=i = troops, companies, squadrons
iruja NM i0e/ruia = priestess Cf. Linear B iyereya i0e/reia  = 80
Itinisa PGS ONO? female resident of Itanos?  

jai NM ? gai/i = for (mother) earth 
jaiterikisu (agglutinative) NM gai/i + teli/ + kisso/j = topmost (i.e. ripe) ivy for/with (mother) earth
jaja gai/a = mother earth
jamauti NM i1amauti = as a means of healing <- i1ama i1amatoj = healing, remedy = 85
januti NM ga/nuti = a form of the verb or noun for shining  
jari/jarina/jarinu NM gali/ galh/ <- gale/h = cat
jarisapa (agglutinative) OM PGS = some kind of dress? Cf. Linear B sapa
jasaja NM  0Ia=sai/a <-  0Ia=sw/ of/from the goddess of healing and health  
jasapai NM1OM related to related to - jasaja – above? - something to do with healing = 90
jasidara NM i0a=sida=la/ = healing torch/firebrand (arch. acc.)
jasea/jasepa NM i0a=sea = healing, goddess of healing 
jasie  NM i0a=sie = for healing, for the goddess of healing
jate/jateo NM i0a=th/r = physician 
jatimane NM i0a=th/j mannei= = with the bread of healing (agglutinative) = 95
jawi NM gau=li = with a milk-pail, bucket -or- with a merchant vessel NEW
[13] jemanata NM ge/manata = full of
[14] jua NM gu/a <- gu/hj = measure of land, plough land, corn land 
juraa NM gu=ra/a <- gu=ro/j = round, curved See [14] above 

kadi MOSE NM kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine = 100
kadusi NM ka/dusi <= ka/doj = with buckets or pails (instr. pl.)
kairo NM kairo/j = due measure 
kaki/kaku NM xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
kakunete/kakusunetu  OM+ NM xalku/ = bronze alloy - or – crafted in bronze (agglutinative) 
kami  NM ka/mi (dat./instr. sing.) <- ka/ma = (on a) unit of land Cf. Linear B ka/ma = 105
kana/kanatiti/kanau PGS TOP Kanna
kanaka kanakas PGS kna/ka = saffron Cf Linear B kanako kna/koj
kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi NM karpa/ (arch. acc.) + karpa/te\ = fruit, and fruit, with fruit -or- ripe crops Cf. Linear B kapo karpo/j
kaporu NM karpo/ru <- karpoj = fruit, corn, harvest, produce 
kara/karu  NM kara/ = head Cf. Linear B kara(pi) kara/afi = 110
karopa2 (karopai) OM = kylix with 2 handles-or- MOSE NM ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase – or – karpu = vessel name (Semitic)
karu  NM ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine, ornamental 
karunau NM kallu/nau <- kallu/nw = to beautify, embellish
kasi NM kasi/ <- kasi/a= = with Arabian spice 
kasitero OMNM kasite/loj = boundary of...? (agglutinative) = 115
kataro NM ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup
kati NM ka/rtij = a kind of pot, hydria (water flask) Cf. Linear B kati hydria (water flask) 
keda PGS = cedar 
keire NM kh=lei <- kh/lon = with an arrow
Kekiru PGS TOP Ke/kru = Kekros = 120
kera/kero NM ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera
keta/kete/ketu NM ga/da  ga/de <- gado/j <- i0xqu/j = fish,  here = fish-goddess
kida/kidi kidas NM kh=da kh=dei <- kh=doj = (with) mourning, burial 
kidaro MOSC NM kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro
kikadi PGS = cicada (cricket) = 125
kimu NM xeimu/ <- xeimw=n = frost, cold; storm, tempest? (uncertain)
kina PGS TOP Kinna 
kira NM xei=la <- xei=loj = edge, brim, rim
kireta2 (kiretai) NM kri/qai = barley
kiretana NM kriqani/aj = like barley, barley (attributive) = 130
kiretaiwinu NM kri/qai = barley + winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj, hence kiretaiwinu =  kri/qai#i/nu 
kiso NM kisso/j = ivy
kitai/kitei  NM = kestai/ kestei/ = embroidered (lit.), but in context = basketry, basket(s)
kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj
kitina NM ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj = border of a plot of  land/territory Cf. Linear B  kotona = 140 kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land 
kiti NM ki/sth = chest, box 
kito NM xitw/n = chiton Cf. Linear B kito
koiru NM koi/ru <- koi/roj = hollow (ships) 
koru NM ko/ruj = helmet Cf. Linear B koru = 145
Kosaiti TOP Cf. Linear B Kutaito Ku/taistoj (not necessarily the same place)
kuda NM ku=da <- ku=doj glory, fame, renown? (uncertain) 
Kukudara TOP Cf. Linear B Kukudaro 
kuminaqe NM = and cumin See also Linear B kumino ku/minon
kupa/kupi NM ku=fa/ ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = bent, curved, with something bent, possibly a scythe. See also – kupaja (genitive singular) – below – or – OM cypergrass, henna (Semitic) = 150
kupaja NM ku=fai/a <- ku=fo/j = of something curved; of a scythe?
kupari NM ku/pairi (instr. sing.) <- ku/pairoj = marsh-plant used to feed horses, galingale or ginger? (uncertain)
kupazu NM kou/fazu <- kou/fazoj = light (of wine)
kupi NM? ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = with something curved; with a scythe? On Linear A tablet ZA 14 kuro/kurotu NM ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total  Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa Cf. kol = total (Semitic) = 155
kuto/kutu NM ku/toj = shield, cuirass
kuruku PGS kro/koj = crocus, saffron 
Kutiti TOP (locative sing.) Kutaistos Cf. LB Kutaito
kutu NM ku/tu <- ku/toj = vase, jar, pot, urn
kuwa -or- waku LIG NM ku/#a = girl Cf. Linear B kowa ko/#a – or – #a0sku/ <- #a0sko/j = leather bag or wineskin = 160

makarite MOSC NM makari/thj = one who is blessed -or- magarei=te\  = and with a cooking pot (instr. Sing.) <- mageirei=on = cooking pot
mana/manapi (common) PGS Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert, or simply bread” -or- Mana = Minos (Luwian)   
maniki NM maniki/ <- maniko/j = with revelry? (uncertain)
maro/maru/maruku/maruri NM  mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool
masa/masaja NM ma/=ssa  ma/=ssaia <= ma/=sswn = larger, bigger  - 0r – OM = goat, from Hittite, mas = 165
masuri NM mallu/ri <- mallo/j = with fleece
maza/mazu  NM ma=za  = kneaded or unbaked bread, barley bread/cake
Mekidi ONO Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great – or – OM = income, revenue, from Hittite melkitu 
mera NM mela/j = black  - or – me/la (arch. accus.) = honey 
meto NM mesto/j = full, filled = 170
meza NM me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj 
mini/miniduwa NM mh/ni <- mh/n = for a month + mh/nidu#a = for two months 
mireja NM mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep 
miru NM mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit 
mita NM mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita = 175
miturea NM mi/toj 9Re/a= thread of a warp for Rhea (agglutinative)
muko NM mu=xo/j = innermost place, inmost nook, corner, recess 
murito NM mu/lito <- mu/lac = with a millstone
muru NM mu/ron = sweet oil extracted from plants; sweet oil; unguent; perfume

naka nakas NM na/ka <- na/koj = sheep’s fleece = 180
nami NM na=mi <- na=ma = in/with a stream – or - swiftly   
narepirea OMNM1 narepir9e/a = Rhea, goddess of the snake/ snake goddess? (agglutinative)
naridi NM na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with (spike)nard
nasarea OMNM = Rhea, goddess of ... ? (agglutinative)
nasi NM na=si <- na=soj = on an island, peninsula? (uncertain) = 185
nasisea OMNM1 nasise/a = goddess of the island 
nea NM ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
neka/nekisi NM neka/j neki/si = (with a) heap of the slain 
nemi -or- mine (ligature) NM Mi/noj = with Minos? (instr. sing.)
nerapa/nerapaa NM neura/=pa neaura/=fa <- neura/= (with a) sinew, tendon, bow-string, sling shot = 190
neta NM nhta/ <- nhto/j = heaped up 
nipa3 NM nhfai/a <- nafa/lioj  = unmixed with wine 
nise/nisi NM nh=si <- nh=soj = on an island
niti/nitinu NM nh=stij = fasting

odami/odamia NM ou0dami/a = no one (fem.) = 195
oteja NM PK1 o1steia <- o1streia = oyster pigment; oyster purple Cf. Linear B otawero o1streioj 

pa3e NM paie=/ <- pai=/an = with a physician
pa3karati NM pagkra/dh = all-powerful, almighty, all-ruling 
pa3waja OMNM1 pai#ai/a = something to do with land (agglutinative)
paiki... (truncated right) 
Paito NM1 Phaistos Faisto/j = Phaistos Cf. Linear Paito Faisto/j See also Payata (Luwian) = 200
paku NM paxu/j = great, large; rich, wealthy – or- OM, paku, = holy, sacred from Hittite, parkui
para NM para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. - or- viceroy, prince -or- double axes (Luwian) 
parane NM paranhne/ < - parhne/w = heaped up beside
parosu NM fa/losu <-> fa/loj = horn of a helmet 
pasarija = NM pa=sa + OM rija = all-encompassing, international? (agglutinative) = 205
pase NM fa/rse <- fa/rsoj = with a part, portion 
pasu fa/rsuj <- fa/rsoj = a part, portion
piku/pikui/pikuzu NM fhgu/j <- fhgo/j = a species of oak
pimata PGS = pimento 
pita/pitaja MOSE NM pista/kion = pistachio-nut = 210
pitakase/pitakesi MOSE NM pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts (instr. pl.) 
piwaja OM NM pi#ai/a = land division/divided land/shared land/shared plots?
posa NM po/sa= (arch. acc.) <- poi/si=j = drink(ing), beverage -or- po/sa <- po/soj = how great, how much, of what value? 
posi -or- sipo LIG NM posi/ = on, upon Cf. Linear B posi -or- sipo = si/fwn = reed, straw, siphon 
potokuro NM poto/n +  ku/rwn = reaching a full drink, a full draught (agglutinative) – used with no. 65 – or – OM = grand total Cf. putu kol = grand total (Semitic) = 215
puko OM = tripod Cf. Linear B pukoso pu/coj = box-wood. Apparently unrelated 
punikaso PGS NM funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson 
Qara2wa ONO/TOP Cf. Linear B Qara2wo + Qa2ra2wa ONO/TOP? (variation)
qajo NM ba/i"on = a palm branch (Kafkania pebble)
qaqisenuti NM xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative) = 220
qaro NM ba=lo/j = threshold 
qedeminu MA 1 (x2)... OM qede + NM Mi/nu = Minos -or- mh/nu =  month of qede
qero NM be/loj = arrow, dart -or- beryl	vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)
qoroqa NM ko/lon kai\ = and broken (of a spear) (see Kafkania Pebble)

radu/rade NM r9a/bdu <- r9a/bdoj = rod, switch; spear-staff or shaft = 225
ra2ka NM r9aika (fem. sing.) <- r9aiw = shattered, from – to shatter
ra2ri (rairi) PGS OM = lily
ra2ti (raiti) NM r9aisth/r = a hammer, crusher
Raja/Raju PGS ONO TOP  9Rai/a = Raia Cf. Linear B Raja 
raka/rakaa raskas NM r9axa/ <- r9axo/j = thorn bush -or- ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- NM r9anatusu < - r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify. See also tusu = 230
rani NM r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise
ratise (ritise?) NM = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.)
rea PGS r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
rima rimas NM lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts  (dative/instrumental plural) 
roe NM r90o/e r90o/ei < - r9o/oj = in a stream = 235
roika NM  9roika/ (fem. sing.) = crooked Cf. Linear B roiko  9roiko/j 
roke/roki/roku NM = lo/foj = crest of a helmet
rosa  PGS = rose 
rosirasiro OM PGS = rosebush (agglutinative/contextual) 
Rukito PGS TOP Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj – or – Lycians = 240
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff 
rutari NM r9utari/ <- r9utw/n = with a drinking cup (running to a point with a small hole  through which wine ran) 

saka sakas NM sa/kka <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made of wicker See also saqqu (Akkadian) See also – saqa - below
sama/samaro PGS or NM sama/ro = burial ground Cf. Linear B Sama/ra sama/ra = place name -or- monument -or- grave mound OR sa/meron = today
saro/saru/sarutu NM sa/ron = broom, threshing floor -or- flax (inflected) – or- barley, from saru (Semitic) = 245
sasame PGS sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
sato/sata PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement
sea/sei NM se/a se/ei (dat. sing.) = goddess 
sedina PGS = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon
seikama NM = seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess = 250
sere -or- rese LIG NM seirei/ <- seira/ = with a cord or rope (instrumental sing.)
setamaru OMNM (agglutinative) = something to do with wool/spun wool?
side/sidi/sidija/sidare/sidate/sidatoi NM si/dh si/dia = pomegranate tree
sija NM si/a <- si/a = goddess – or- seed, from Hittite siya
sika sikas NM shka/ <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen = 255
Sikine PGS TOP loc. sing. of Sikinos -or- OM = a type of grain
Sikira/Sikirita PGS ONO/TOP -or- NM si/kera = sweet fermented liquor LB sikiro
Sima PGS TOP Si/ma = Sima Cf. Linear B Sima -or- sh=ma = sign, mark, token; omen; mound; grave, tomb Cf. sama/samaro above
simita PGS = mouse (arch. acc.) simito/simitu PGS  = zmi/nqoj mouse 
sire/siro/siru/sirute NM? si=re/ si=rei/ si=ro/j = a pit for keeping corn in = 260
sita2 (sitai) -or- ta2si (taisi) LIG NM  si/tai = with a small amount of wheat 
sitetu  NM See -  situ – below (inflected)
situ NM si/tu si/tun = wheat Cf. Linear B sito si/ton 
Sukirita/Sukiriteija  TOP = Sybrita Cf. Linear B Sukirita Su/grita
suniku (common) NM su/noiku <- su/noikoj  living together, joint inhabitant,  dweller
sure number NM? su=le < su=lon = with seizure of cargo? = no. = 108 used with olive oil
Suria PGS TOP = 265
suzu NM su/zuc = yoked together; paired Cf. Linear B zeukesi zeu/gesi = yoked (instr. pl.)

taikama OM tai + NM ka/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre?  
ta2re/ta2reki NM sta=rei<-  stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei
tai2si (taisi) NM stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.)
taki/taku/takui NM ta=xei/ <- ta=xu/j = quick, swift, speedy -or- with a large container 
for liquid (instr. singular) Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) – or – OM = tax, from Hittite taksessar = tax = 270
tapa NM ta/rfa = thick, close Cf. Linear B tapa
tarasa PGS = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa 
tarawita PGS = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
tarina MM qalli/na (arch. acc.) <- qallo/j = a young shoot, twig; festive olive-branch 

taro MOSE NM tau=roj = bull – or- OM = tree, from Hittite, taru = tree = 275

tejai qei/ai = goddesses
Tejare TOP Cf. Linear B Tejaro qei/aroj = place of the gods?
terikama NM te/leika/ma = extent of land, i.e. something like acreage, lit. land to its extent or boundary (agglutinative)
tero/teroa NM te/loj = end, boundary 
tetu NM th=tou <- th=tej = of this year (gen. sing.) Cf. Linear B weto #e/toj = this year? = 280
timi NM qemi/ <- qemw/n = in a heap 
tiri NM qhri/ <- qh/r or qhri/on = with a wild beast or beast of prey
toraka torakas PGS qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B toraka 
toro NM tau/roj = bull -or- qolo/j = dome or circular vault; vaulted building. See bibliography 77, Smithsonian
tuma/tumei/tumi MOSD NM qumi/a = incense = 285

tunu/tunuja NM qu/nnu <- qu/nnoj = tunney-fish?

turunuseme NM1OM = throne room (agglutinative)
tusi/tusu NM tu/rsij = (in a) tower, castle -or- to/soj = so great, so much, so long, so strong, so little 
tute/tutesi NM quste/ quste/si <- qusta/j = dat. sing. & pl. (for) sacrificial purposes 

udiriki NM u3driki <- u3droj = with water = 290
Uminase OM TOP  Cf. Linear B Aminiso = harbour – or- town, from umina (Luwian)
unaa NM oi0nai/a = wine vessel, wine jug, wine jar 
uro NM ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total 


waja NM #ai/a = earth, land
wanaka PGS #a/nac  = king Cf. Linear B wanaka = 295

wasato NM #a/stu a1stu = town Cf. Lnear B wato #a/stu. See also, Luwian, ati wati = in the town)

Wasatomaro NM + OM TOP = the town of Wasatomaro?

widunimi OM widu NM nh=mi <- nh=ma = with (some kind of) thread or yard (instr. sing.) 
winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado
winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj Cf. Luwian wainu & Hittite, wiyana = 300
winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative) 
wireu NM #i0eru/ <- #i0ero/j = priest Cf. Linear B iyero i0ero/j

zokutu NM zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-bar
zuma NM zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic
zute NM  zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer  See also Hittite, sessar = 305

This is a preliminary count of the number of potential Greek-like words in Linear A, and the total may have to be revised slightly downwards after every last word has been cross-checked for contextual accuracy with every last Linear A tablet on which they appear.

TOTAL number of potential pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan words (NM) = 305
TOTAL number of words in the Linear Z Lexicon = 1076
Percentage of Greek-like words in the Lexicon = 28 %
 
NOTE that these Greek words in Linear A do not include words derived from other ancient languages antecedent to Linear A. I shall post those in the next post, and then add all of the Greek-like words to words of other origins, to arrive at the grand total of potentially deciphered words in Linear A, which will clearly exceed 30 %.

Just uploaded to academia.edu = Exhaustive Linear A lexicon of 1030 New Minoan and Old Minoan words, with extensive sectional commentaries.pdf 


exhaustive linear a lexicon of 1030 Minoan words with extensive sectional commentaries


What with its 1030 entries of New Minoan (NM1), Pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan terms, this is the most exhaustive Linear A Lexicon ever published in history, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s (at 774 intact words) by 226, with the emphasis squarely on intact exograms (words). Every possible origin of Linear A words is investigated, with extensive sectional commentaries. This lexicon, 65 pp. long, includes 4 appendices and a bibliography of 108 items. 

You will not want to miss out on reading this paper, representing one of the most significant historical breakthroughs in the decipherment of the Linear syllabary. If you are a member of academia.edu, please download it, and read it at your leisure. If you are not already a member of academia.edu, you can sign up for free, and then download it.

My recent research into (Minoan) Linear A has meant that I have been catapulted from the top 5 % to the top 0.1 % of users on academia.edu in the past three weeks, here:

Richard Vallance profile academia.edu




Decipherment of the RECTO of Linear A tablet HT 86 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A Haghia Triada HT 86

It is possible to decipher this tablet and several others dealing with grain crops with a reasonable degree of accuracy and, in the case of some words, with complete accuracy. The Linear A word akaru is almost certainly the equivalent of akaro, and not of akareu, in Linear B, the latter interpretation of John G. Younger being utterly out of the question in context. The standard Old Minoan words for emmer wheat and “roasted einkorn” are kunisu and dideru. The second of these words, dideru, is equivalent to Linear B, didero, but neither word appears in any later ancient Greek dialect, leading me to draw the inference that dideru/didero is either archaic proto-Mycenaean Greek or that it falls within the pre-Greek substratum or alternatively that it is Old Minoan (OM). As for dame, it appears to be dative singular for damu (Linear A) or damo (Linear B), hence grains for the village wheat”. Finally, minute would appear to signify “and for one month”, te being enclitic, meaning “and”, with the entire phrase derived from mini = “month”. The actual case structure for the ultimate u has yet to be determined for Old Minoan. Unfortunately, it will be some time before I can tackle Old Minoan grammar (declensions and conjugations), as I must first decipher as many Old Minoan, pre-Greek substratum and Mycenaean-derived words as I can in Linear A. And these run to at least 300 out of 988 Minoan words I have isolated.


Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words, the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever by far, with at least 250 terms more than Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon:

comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words

At this juncture in my ongoing endeavour to decipher Linear A, I have run across so many tablets with New Minoan Mycenaean derived superstratum words that I am confident I am well on the way to deciphering New Minoan. Such is not the case with Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language a.k.a. the Minoan substratum. But even there I have managed to decipher at least 100 words more or less accurately, bringing the total of Old Minoan, New Minoan and pre-Greek substratum vocabulary to around 250 out of the 969 Linear A words I have isolated in my Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon, by far the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever to appear online, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon by at least 250.

Since this new Lexicon is so large and I intend to publish it soon in its entirety on my academia.edu account, there is no point rehashing it here. Instead, I shall tantalize you with just a few excerpts, to give you at least a notion of how far I have taken this labour-intensive project.   

*******************************************************     

Excerpta from the Complete Linear A lexicon of 969 words:

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Linear A Reverse Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former. By my count, there are 969 words, some 250 more than in Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed as one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna 
dakusene(ti)
japa/japadi/japaku
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri 
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu 
reda/redamija/redana/redasi 
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are.
2 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

KEY:
OM = Old Minoan, the original Minoan language, denominated the Minoan substratum. Words are tagged OM only where I have been able to decipher any of them.
PGS = pre-Greek substratum, i.e. words, man of which are non-Indo-European, in existence before Mycenaean and ancient Greek, but which entered Greek and were probably present in Old Minoan, even if many of them do not appear on Linear A tablets or fragments. 
NM = New Minoan, Mycenaean derived or words of Mycenaean origin in Linear A

a
adai 
adakisika
adara/adaro/adaru OM
ade/adu OM -or- NM = ades-, ados- sort of cereal 
adunitana
adureza OM
aduza
ajesa 
aju 10
Akanu PGS = Archanes (Crete) 

... passim ...
 
dame/dami (sing. damai) PGS
daminu
danasi 80
danekuti
daqaqa
daqera OM
dare
darida OM
daropa OM
darunete
daserate
dasi OM
datapa 90
datara/datare
data2 OM
datu OM 
Dawa PGS (Haghia Triada) 
daweda OM

... passim ...

kanaka PGS
kanita
kanuti
kapa/kapaqe/kapi NM 
kaporu NM
kapusi NM?
kaqa/kaqe
kara NM
karona NM?
karopa2 (karopai) OM 260
karu NM?
karunau
kasaru
kasi
kasidizuitanai
kasikidaa
kasitero NM

... passim ...

mini/miniduwa NM
minumi
minute (sing. minuta2 - minutai)
mio/miowa 400
mipa
mireja
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita PGS

Paito = Phaistos
pa3a/pa3ana NM?
pa3da
pa3dipo
pa3katari
pa3kija 510

... passim ...

pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) OM
pina/pini 
pirueju
pisa
pita/pitaja 540
pitakase/pitakesi NM
pitara
piwaa/piwaja
piwi
posa NM
potokuro NM?
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 
pu3pi
pu3tama 550
puko OM = tripod

... passim ...

roke/roki/roku
romaku
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka
rosa PGS = rose
rosirasiro PGS = planted rose (rose + hole sunk in the ground)
rotau 680
roti OM = a type of grain or wheat (Petras)
rotwei
rua
rudedi
ruiko
rujamime
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike
Rukito (topo) PGS
ruko NM?
rukue 690
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi 
rutari
rutia
ruzuna

... passim ...

sadi
saja/sajama/sajamana OM 700
sajea
saka NM
sama/samaro
samidae PGS?
samuku OM
sanitii
sapo/sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2 (sarai)/sarara PGS = sharia wheat 690 710

... passim ...

taikama OM PGS
tainumapa
ta2merakodisi
ta2re/ta2reki
ta2riki
ta2rimarusi
ta2tare
ta2tite
ta2u
tajusu 800
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui NM
tamaduda
tanamaje
tanate/tanati NM
tanunikina
tamaru
tami/tamia/tamisi NM 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti 810 
tapa NM = Linear B

... passim ...

udami/udamia NM?
udimi
udiriki
uju NM?
uki NM?
uminase OM 
unaa
unadi (common) 920
unakanasi
unarukanasi/unarukanati
upa
uqeti
urewi
uro NM
uso/usu
uta/uta2
utaise
utaro 930
uti

waduko
wadunimi
waja NM
wanai
wanaka PGS
wapusua
wara2qa
watepidu NM
watumare 940
wazudu
wetujupitu
widina
widui
wija NM
wijasumatiti
Winadu PGS (topomastics)
winipa
winu NM
winumatari NM 950
wiraremite
wireu NM
wirudu 
wisasane
witero NM?

zadeu/zadeujuraa
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa 960
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata 
zirinima 
zudu
zukupi
zuma
zupaku
zusiza
zute 969 


Minoan Linear provides significant evidence of the presence of proto-Greek or even (proto) – Mycenaean in its vocabulary:

Minoan Linear provides significant evidence of the presence of proto-Greek or even (proto) – Mycenaean in its vocabulary, as attested by this Table (Table 2a & Table 2B), which I have had to divide into two parts because it is so long. So we have

Table 2a Minoan words of apparent proto-Greek origin… or are they in the pre-Greek substratum? A-M:

 

Minoan Linear A apparent proto-Greek Table 2 a 620

and Table 2b: N-W:

Table 2b minoan apparent proto-greek 620

It is readily apparent from this Table in two parts that all of the words listed in it may be interpreted as proto-Greek or possibly even (proto-) Mycenaean. But the operative word is may, not certainly. This is because (a) Minoan Linear A, like Mycenaean Linear B, makes no distinction between Greek short and long vowels and (b) like Mycenaean Linear B, the Linear A syllabary is deficient in representing a number of Greek consonants, which otherwise might have been the initial consonants of the successive syllabic series, e.g. da de di do du, ka ke ki ko ku, ta te ti to tu etc. The following Greek consonants, first illustrated in this table of the ancient Greek alphabet including the archaic digamma, which was in widespread use in Mycenaean Linear B, are tagged with an asterisk * :

 

ancient Greek alphabet with digamma

and here Latinized for accessibility to our visitors who cannot read Greek, i.e. b, g, eita (long i) , ksi, fi (pi), chi (as in Scottish loch), psi and omega. Because of these lacuna and the notable ambiguities which arise from it, it is not possible to verify that the so-called proto-Greek or (proto-) Mycenaean words listed in Tables 2a & 2b are in fact that. However, chances are good that they are proto-Greek. Additionally, it is not possible to verify whether or not a few, some or even all of the words in Tables 2a and 2b, which appear to be proto-Greek actually fall within the pre-Greek substratum. If the latter scenario is true, then it is more likely than not that a few, some or even all of these words are in fact Minoan. There is no way to verify this for certain. Nevertheless, numerous international researchers into Minoan Linear A, most notably, Urii Mosenkis, one of the world’s most highly qualified linguists specializing in diachronic historical linguistics, including, but not limited to Minoan Linear A, who stands in the top 0.1 % of 40 million users on academia.edu:

 

Urii Mosenkis academia.edu

have provided significant convincing circumstantial evidence that there are even hundreds of proto-Greek words in Minoan Linear A, which begs the question, is Minoan Linear A proto-Greek? But the answer to the question is not nearly so obvious as one might think, as I shall be demonstrating in my second article, Current prospects for the decipherment of Minoan Linear A”, which I will be submitting to the prestigious international annual journal, Archaeology and Science (Belgrade) by no later than April 17 2017, the deadline for submissions.

There is no positive, indisputable proof that there are any number of proto-Greek or proto-Greek words in Minoan Linear A, any more than there is any positive proof whatsoever that, as Gretchen Leonhardt would have us believe, that there are any number of proto-Altaic or proto-Japanese words, if any at all, in the Minoan language. As for her hypothesis, for which there not even any substantive circumstantial evidence whatsoever, it is my firm belief and contention that she is, to use the common expression, wasting her time and energy barking up the wrong tree.


3 Minoan Linear A words under TA of possible, even probable proto-Greek origin + 1 word in the pre-Greek substratum:

3-more-linear-a-words-under-ta-of-proto-greek-origin-1-in-the-pre-greek-substratum

In this table, we find 3 Minoan Linear A words under TA of possible, even probable proto-Greek origin + 1 word in the pre-Greek substratum. The 3 words of possible or probable proto-Greek origin are [1] TAKU = “quickly, soon” + [2a] TAMIA = “someone who cuts” or “a distributor”. Think of it! When someone is distributing items or merchandise, he or she is in fact cutting them into different categories for distribution + [3] TANI, which is an exact match with (proto-) Dorian for “this or that time of day”.

On the other hand, the Minoan Linear A word TAPA, which is identical to its Mycenaean Linear B equivalent, is NOT proto-Greek, but rather sits in the pre-Greek substrate, meaning of course that the Mycenaean Linear B is also in the pre-Greek substratum. This should really come as no surprise, since Mycenaean Greek contained a number of archaic words which never resurfaced in any later East Greek dialects. In other words, they were archaic and anachronistic right from the outset even in Mycenaean Greek. The Mycenaean Greek word tapa is in fact the exact same word as its Minoan Linear A forbear, implying that both are in the pre-Greek substratum. As I have already pointed out in previous posts, there are in fact a few other (Minoan Linear A?) words in the pre-Greek substratum in Mycenaean Linear B.

This brings the cumulative total number of new Minoan Linear A words to 50, increasing the 107 Minoan Linear A words = 21.5 % of the total lexicon of extant 510 Minoan Linear A words in my original Minoan Linear A Glossary to 157 or 30.7 % of the total Linear B Lexicon. This is a significant leap in the number of Minoan Linear B terms I have already deciphered since I set out on the journey to REVISE the original Minoan Linear A Glossary of 107 words.

And I still have yet to extrapolate further decipherments as far as the syllabogram ZU.


KEY POST: A significant advance in the decipherment of Minoan Linear A: 7 new Minoan Linear A words under NE of possible, even probable proto-Greek origin for a total of 140 terms to date:

minoan-linear-a-words-under-ne-of-possible-proto-greek-origin

Under the syllabogram NE in Minoan Linear A, we find no fewer than 7 new Minoan Linear A words of possible proto-Greek or proto-Mycenaean origin. Of these 7 terms, 4 [1] [3] [6] & [7] are probably of proto-Greek origin. [2] & [3] may be on target, but they are less convincing than the previous 4.  [4] may also be valid, but since the Mycenaean Linear B equivalent to nemaruja, which is epididato, is not a match, this casts some doubt on the decipherment of “distributed” in Minoan Linear A, especially in light of the fact that I have already posited an alternative decipherment of this exact word in my current version of the Glossary of Minoan Linear A terms, that word being kaudeta. While [5] nesa is almost a perfect match with the ancient Greek for “duck”, this decipherment is rather fanciful, even funny, as I have to wonder what possible interest Minoan Linear A, let alone Mycenaean Linear B, scribes would have had in ducks! But you never know. Perhaps they kept track of the number of ducks served at royal feast for the king and queen and company.  Weird, but hey, why not?

The most striking thing about the cumulative effect of the total number of Minoan Linear A words of putative proto-Greek or proto-Mycenaean origin, already tallied at 33, even though we have only arrived at the syllabogram NE in Minoan Linear A (the last being ZU) is this:
The cumulative number of Minoan Linear A terms in our REVISED Minoan Linear A Glossary has already reached 140, i.e. 27.5 % of all 510 attributed Minoan Linear A terms by my arbitrary count, up from the original count of 107 or 21.5 % of 51o. Since this trend is bound to result in a somewhat exponential increase in the summative total of all Minoan Linear A terms I am bound to extrapolate by the time I reach the syllabogram ZU, it is well within the realm of reason that we will end up with at least 160 terms or about 31.5 % of all 510 extant Minoan Linear A terms. That would represent a substantial chunk of the Minoan Linear A lexicon. Potentially, this implies that we shall be able to posit the conclusion that we shall have deciphered, more or less accurately, not just a relatively small portion of the Minoan language, but almost 1/3 of it!

This would account for a substantive leap in the potential decipherment of Minoan Linear A.  And as everyone will see by the time I publish my second article on the partial, though significant, decipherment of Minoan Linear A, to be published in the prestigious international annual, Archaeology and Science in around 2018 or 2019, I shall have made signal inroads into the eventual almost complete decipherment of Minoan Linear A.  


Are there any proto-Greek words under the syllabogram NA in Minoan Linear A?  It is doubtful.

minoan-linear-a-words-under-na-of-possible-proto-greek-origin

The 3 words of putative proto-Greek origin in Minoan Linear A I have flagged under the syllabogram NA are all doubtful. So I cannot in good conscience add them to the revised Glossary of Minoan Linear A words.


5 more putative proto-Greek or pre-Greek Minoan Linear A words, MI-MU & 1 is a winner!

minoan-linear-words-mi-mu-of-possible-proto-greek-origin

The preceding table lists 5 more  putative proto-Greek or pre-Greek Minoan Linear A words from MI-MU.  Of these 5, [3] mita = “minth”, is by far the most compelling because it is identical to the Mycenaean Linear B word, right down to orthography. Both words may be either proto-Greek or part of the pre-Greek substratum. The next most convincing decipherment is [1] mini, which very likely means “month”, and which is probably proto-Greek or proto-Mycenaean. [4] muko = “recesss/corner”  also makes quite a lot of sense, in view of the fact that it appears to be an architectural term. Such terms are relatively common in Mycenaean Linear B; so it stands to reason that they may also be so in Minoan Linear A.  [5] musaja might possibly mean “shut/closed”, if it is an adjective, but this is a bit of stretch.


3 more Minoan Linear A words of possible proto-Greek or proto-Mycenaean origin. But are they really?

minoan-linear-a-words-in-ma-of-possible-proto-greek-origin

One of them definitely is not of proto-Greek origin; nor is it pre-Greek. It is manna, which is (proto-) Hebrew. The Hebrew word manna lasted right on through classical Greek to New Testament Greek.  Mannafii may be instrumental plural, meaning “for (the storage of) grains”, but only if the Minoan instrumental plural (if there was one) was similar to the instrumental plural in archaic Greek, which is unfortunately doubtful. The word maru definitely means “wool” in Linear A, corresponding to Mycenaean Linear B mari. It appears that both the Minoan and Mycenaean words are in the pre-Greek substratum. Masi, which is Doric Greek, is probably not a Minoan word, unless the Doric Greek word is in the pre-Greek substratum, in which case it could have co-existed in both Minoan and proto-Doric Greek. But it is rather doubtful. 

The Minoan Linear A word, kuruku, almost certainly means “crocus” :

minoan-linear-a-kuruku-crocus-or-saffron

Moreover, it is more likely than not pre-Greek and not proto-Greek. This implies that the Mycenaean Linear A word, kuruku or kuroko, is also pre-Greek.

Nothing surprising there at this point.


6 more Minoan Linear A putative proto-Greek or proto-Mycenaean words: DA-DI. But are they proto-Greek at all?

minoan-linear-a-pre-greek-substrate-da-di

As we forge our way through Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon, in which he Latinizes the orthography of Minoan Linear A words,  we now arrive at Linear A words beginning with the syllabograms DA through to DI.  It is absolutely de rigueur to read the Notes in the table above; otherwise, my tentative decipherments of 6 more Minoan words in Linear A as being possibly proto-Greek or proto-Mycenaean will not make any sense at all.  The table also draws attention to those words which are of moderate frequency (MF) on Minoan Linear A tablets and fragments, with the far greater proportion of them appearing on mere fragments. I cannot emphasize this point enough. In view of the fact that the vast majority of Minoan Linear A extant remnants are just that, remnants or fragments and nothing more, it is of course next to impossible to verify whether or not the 6 words I have extrapolated (or for that matter any other so-called proto-Greek words)  as possibly being  proto-Greek or proto-Mycenaean are that at all. 

Add to this caveat that researchers and linguists specializing in ancient Greek often hypothesize that, and I quote verbatim:

It is possible that Greek took over some thousand words and proper names from such a language (or languages), because some of its vocabulary cannot be satisfactorily explained as deriving from the Proto-Greek language (italics mine). Among these pre-Greek substratum words we find Anatolian loanwords such as:
dépas ‘cup; pot, vessel’, Mycenaean di-pa, from the Luwian = tipa = sky, bowl or cup, one of the pre-Greek substratum words right in the table above! 
+ eléphas ‘ivory’, from Hittite lahpa;
+ kýmbachos ‘helmet’, from Hittite kupahi ‘headgear’; 
+ kýmbalon ‘cymbal’, from Hittite huhupal ‘wooden percussion instrument’; 
+ mólybdos ‘lead’, Mycenaean mo-ri-wo-do, from Lydian mariwda(s)k ‘the dark ones’ etc.

But there is more, significantly more. Wikipedia, Greek language:

wikipedia-greek-language

has this to say about Greek vocabulary.

Vocabulary:

Greek is a language distinguished by an extensive vocabulary. Most of the vocabulary of Ancient Greek was inherited, but it includes a number of borrowings from the languages of the populations that inhabited Greece before the arrival of Proto-Greeks. (italics mine) [25] Words of non-Indo-European origin can be traced into Greek from as early as Mycenaean times; they include a large number of Greek toponyms. 

Further discussion of a pre-Greek substratum continues here:

wikipedia-pre-greek-substrate

Where, in addition to the pre-Greek substratum words I have already cited above, we find, and again I quote verbatim:

The Pre-Greek substrate consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric Greece before the settlement of Proto-Greek speakers in the area (italics mine). It is thought possible that Greek took over some thousand words and proper names from such a language (or languages), because some of its vocabulary cannot be satisfactorily explained as deriving from the Proto-Greek language  

Possible Pre-Greek loanwords
Personal names: Odysseus; 
Theonyms: Hermes; 
Maritime vocabulary: thálassa = sea; 
Words relating to Mediterranean agriculture: elai(w)a = olive & ampelos = vine 
Building technology: pyrgos = tower; 
Placenames, especially those terminating in -nth- : Korinthos, Zakynthos
& in -ss- : Parnassos & in and -tt- : Hymettus

And, to ram my point home, one of the pre-Greek substrata identified is the Minoan language itself. It is on this basis and upon this foundation, among others, that I posit the following hypothesis:

Pre-Greek substratum words are both proto-Greek and not, simultaneously!

The assumption that certain Minoan words in Linear A appear to be proto-Greek or even proto-Mycenaean (if we wish to stretch the notion one small step further, which I believe is entirely justified) does not in and of itself necessarily imply that some or even quite possibly most of them are de facto actually of proto-Indo-European proto-Greek origin, when quite plainly (so) many of them are not of such origin. In other words, we find ourselves face to face with an apparent contradiction in terms, a dye-in-the-wool linguistic paradox: some, many or even most of the so-called pre- + proto-Greek words we encounter in Minoan Linear A are likely to be proto-Greek, but only insofar as they crop up again and again in later ancient Greek dialects, right on down from the earliest East Greek dialect, Mycenaean, through Arcado-Cypriot on down to Ionic and Attic Greek and beyond, while simultaneously being of non-Indo-european origin, if you can wrap your head around that notion... which I most definitely can.  

So if anyone dares claim that all of those words in Minoan (of which there seem to be quite a substantial number) are de facto proto-Greek, that person should think again. Think before you leap. It is much too easy for us to jump to spurious conclusions with respect to the supposed proto-Greek origin(s) of many words in Minoan Linear A.

To compound the matter further, let us consider the situation from the opposite end of the spectrum. It is widely known, by both intellectual non-linguists, i.e. intelligent native speakers of any given language, and by professional linguists alike, that pretty much every modern language borrows not just thousands, but tens of thousands and even hundreds of thousands of words from prior languages. The one modern language which exemplifies this phenomenon par excellence is non other than English, in which we find hundreds of thousands of loanwords from ancient Greek, Latin and Norman French.

Now it goes without saying that all languages, ancient and modern, follow the same pattern of accumulating some and even as many as thousands of loanwords. Ancient Latin did so with ancient Greek. And here lies the rub. So must have Mycenaean Greek with the Minoan language. In Chris Tslentis Linear B  Lexicon, we find many words which cannot possibly be accounted for as being proto-Greek, but which must be of some other origin. And one of the most likely origins for a relatively large subset of these words is probably the Minoan language itself. Allow me to cite just a few of the more glaring examples:

adete = binder 
Akireu = Achilles
Aminiso = Amnisos harbour (Cf. Linear A, Uminaso)
Damate = Demeter (Cf. Linear A, Idamate)
dipa = cup (Cf. Linear A, depa)
erepa = ivory
kama = a unit of land
kanako = safflower, saffron (Cf. Linear A, kanaka)
kidapa = (ash) wood?
mare/mari = wool (Cf. Linear A, maru)
opa = workshop?
serino = celery (Cf. Linear A, sedina)
tarasa = sea

Now if even most of the so-called Mycenaean Greek terms listed here are actually Minoan, then it is stands to reason that Mycenaean Greek inherited them from the Minoan language itself, and ergo, that they are not necessarily proto-Greek words at all.  It is as if we were in a flip-flop. Either way, whether or not any of the words which we have flagged (and shall continue to tag) as possibly being proto-Greek in the Minoan language or the other way around, whether or not certain words in Mycenaean Greek are not proto-Greek at all, and not even of proto-Indo-European origin, we find ourselves floundering in a Saragossa Sea of linguistic incertitude from which we really cannot extricate ourselves.

So to all those researchers, past and present, into the Minoan language who make the claim, categorical or not, that much of the vocabulary of the Minoan language is proto-Greek, I say Beware! lest you fall into a trap from which you cannot reasonably hope to extricate yourselves.

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