Tag Archive: Norwegian

Now on academia.edu. Verb paradigms in Hittite infinitives present past imperative participles substantives

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I have been learning Hittie for the past 5 months and I have fully mastered the language. Hittie is the first ever Indo-European language, from which Minoan Linear A, Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek, Latin and all modern Occidental languages are derived.

Here is list of Verb paradigms in Hittite infinitives present past imperative participles substantives:

Common verbs classified:	+ Linear A (LA=) + Linear B (LB=) + Greek (gr=) & Latin (la=) (where applicable) + English + français


es = to be = la = essere = to be = English = is = français = être/es/est LB = eesi = they are  gr = ei0mi
essa/issa = to realize, do 
tahr? to be able to 
tarna = to let, allow; to abandon; to leave; to forgive; to let, put (a spoon in a liquid) 
huinu = to cause
asas/ases = to sit  = English = sit = français = s'asseoir LA = ase/asi =  to sit, to settle, to put into
ki/kikki = to lie down gr = kei=mai
aniya = to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) 
samn?i = to create, bring up, raise = English = to assemble = français = assembler

ad/ed = to eat + azzikk = to eat again + hassik/ispai = to eat until full = English = edible
eku = to drink	
akkusk = to drink a lot

life & death:

ak/ek/akkisk = to die 
armaniya/irmaliya = to fall ill = English = harm
dassanu = to make strong 
has = to open; to give birth (for a woman); to testify (for a man) 
huis/huisw?i = to live, to stay alive 
haddules = to recover
maliskunu = to weaken = English = malaise = français = mal, malade, malaise
ses/suppariya = to sleep, to fall asleep = English = supine 
teshaniya = to sleep, dream 


uh/usk//sakuwai = to see
usk = to see often
istamas = to hear = English = to listen gr = i3sthmi = to stand


dariyanu = to call 
halz?i = to call, name + halzessa = to call , to name; to read  = English = hail 
lamniya = to name; to call; to order; to assign, appoint
mem?i = to talk, say; to announce = la = memoria = memory English = memory = français = mémoire
talliya = to call, invite; to implore 
te/tar (2 infinitives) = to speak
tarsik = to talk again, proclaim 
tarsikk = to say/speak/talk several times
tekkus(sa)nu = to indicate; to show; to accuse = English = accuse = français = accuser gr = dei/knumi
tekuss?i = to appear, show  
s?kiya = to declare gr = fa/skw
tarkumm?i = to announce, report 
watarnah = to order; to entrust; to inculcate; to command, lead; to ask; to inform 
punus = to ask, to examine 
uesk = to implore = English = ask 
wek = to wish, ask, demand, claim = English = wish/ask LB = eukoto = he wishes
wewakk(iya) = to ask again LB = eukoto = he wishes


hatrai = to write = English = write LA = jatikutu = to write?
handai = to add = English = hand/handle 
kupawi/kappuwar = to count = English = cut = français = couper
sak/sek = to know = English = to seek
annanu= to teach, educate
ishiullah = to teach 
lazziya = to rectify, set straight LA = kireza?
siy?i = to open (by pushing), push; to stamp, flatten; ? to draw; ? to seal; to cover with a seal = English = to seal gr = shmai/nw = to signify, mark, seal


uwa = to come
?nna = to drive; to receive; to come, hurry
pai = to go gr = bai/nw = to go
arr?sa p?war = to go 
d?la/d?liya = to leave = English = dally
tiya = to move forward
watkunu = to drive away, to dismiss 
huwai(huya) = to run, to flee = English = flee = français = fuir 
pars = to run, to flee = français = partir = je pars 
piddai  = to run, hasten, flee + to pay = English = pittance LA = daipita =  to lay, put, sit, pay
as  = to stay, to come to stay
sakuwantariya = to stop, rest 
zenna/zinna = to end, finish; to settle, put an end to; to demolish 
husk = to wait
istand?i = to remain, stay; to hesitate, wait, tarry = English = stand gr = i3sthmi = to stand
ispart = to escape = la = evanescere = to disappear English = escape = français = disparaître
kark = to disappear 
sanna = to conceal, hide 
maus = to fall 
waktu = to jump
wahnu/weh = to turn
up = to rise (the sun) = English = up 


dai/te/ti/tai = to put
tittanu = to put, set. awan arha t. : to remove, withdraw
tittiya = to put, set out 
ep = to grab
iya = to do
hark(iya) = to hold, to have + to collapse LA = apieke LB = oka +  LB = ekee= to have + ekei = he has + ekonsi = they have
d? = to take; to take as possession; ? to take for oneself + to decide in favor of s.o. 
huitiya = to pull
hamenk= to attach, to link; to marry
tarm?i = to attach, fix 
karp = to lift
w?k = to bite, bite off = English = to whack
duwarn?i = to break 
parsiya = to break LA = parosu
la = to detach
mark = to cut, distribute = English = mark LA = makarite, almost definite!
tuhs/tuhhus  = to cut; to separate (a girl from her lover) 
mat/maz/mazas = to support = français = mettre
sarkuwai = to tighten
wesuriya = to squeeze
maninkuwah/maninkues = to shorten
wete= to build + wetenu = to have sth. built, reinforced, fortified  Linear B = wete = he works gr = e1rgon = work
sarlai = to raise = la = sublevare = to raise = français = soulever
taks/takkes/taggas = to gather; to implement, undertake; ? to found, buildLB = akere = to collect + LB = apeeke  = to let go gr = ta/cij = arranging, putting in place, order, arrangement etc.
zikk = to put several times
has/hes = to open
siy?i = to open (by pushing), push; to stamp, flatten; ? to draw; ? to seal; to cover with a seal =  la = consignare = to seal = English = to seal gr = shmai/nw = to signify, mark, seal
hatk = to close 
istap = to close; to block = la = subsistere = to stand = English = stop gr = i3sthmi = to stand
less?i = to pick up = français = laisser
karsanu = to omit 
kanes = to point out; to obtain, get; to find out, realize; to acknowledge, accept LB = dekasato = to be accepted
harp?i = to pile, to heap = English = heap  
sarnink = to replace
was/wes = to buy/to dress + wessiya = to dress

arnu = to bring, to send; to address 
uwate = to bring
uda = to bring; to cause (distress) LB = pere = to bring
piya = to send
uppa = to send 
piyanna = to give = English = pay = français = payer
ussaniya = to give, sell 
piyan?i = to reward, give a present = la = dependere = to pay = English = pay = français = payer
maniyahh = to give back
pesk = to give several times
dask = to take several times LB = dosei = he gives
wemiya = to find
sah/sahn = to search
n?i/ne = to guide, lead; to turn sth.
nann? = to drive, shove, push  
pehute = to supply
assanu/asnu =  to prepare/obtain = la = assignare = to assign = English = assign (absolutely the same word!) 
newah = to renew = la = novus = newb= English = new/renew  gr = ne/oj = new
pahs = to protect
pahsanu = to ensure; to guarantee, protect; to strenghten, reinforce 
hap (Mid.) = to succeed 
wek = to require = la = egere = call for = English = require LB = weke = to work gr= e1rgon
handalliya = to dare, risk 
mal?i = to approve 
markiya = to disagree 

agriculture & vessels/pottery:

ahu(w?i) =  to pour; to empty (a container) = English = wash LA = ra2sa (raisa?)/rua?/rujami?
+ lahu(w?i) = to pour; to empty (a container) LA = ra2sa (raisa?)/rua?/rujami?
ishuw?i = to pour + ishuwann?i = la = effusus = pouring rain = to pour out = English = wash
less?i = to pick up LB = resi?
suhha = to pour
suppiyahh = to clean
parkunu = to cleanse; to excuse = la = purus = clean
arra = to wash français = arrosser =to water
hat = to dry = English = hot
salliya = to melt (away), dissolve = la = (dis)solvi = to dissolve = English = dissolve
m?i = to grow, blossom; to prosper + mid. miyari =  he/she is born
makkes = to become many, grow =  la = maximus = the greatest = English = maximum/maximize = français =  maximum
salles = to grow, increase = la = salio = to spring, to jump, to leap LA =  sareju?
parkiya = to raise, grow; to remove; to flatter 
maknu = to multiply, increase, pile up = = la = maximus = the greatest =  English = maximum/maximize = français =  maximum
mes (Mid.) =  to grow, prosper = la = maxime = the most (adv.) = English = most
uliliya = to grow, blossom  
ul?i = to unite, blend
zanu/zeya = to cook 
sallanu = to make larger; to stretch; to raise, bring up = la = salio = to spring, to jump, to leap
dankues = to get dark = la = obscurus = dark = English = dark LA = dakusene
luk =  to light; to set ablaze + middle = to brighten, get light = English = light
maiszasti = to glow, shine = la = micare = to glitter
teth?i = to thunder = = la = (in)tonare = to thunder = English = to thunder
war/+warnu (set on fire) = to burn = English = warm
wars = to wipe off, slip off; to pluck, harvest = English = wash
wesiya/wisiya = to graze (trans.) 


tamas = to squeeze; to press; to attack, pester, force = English = pester
dammesh?i = to damage, strike, punish = English = to damage = français = endommager
dannattah = to devastate, ravage = = la = damno = to condemn, sentence, punish = English = to damage 
tarh(za) = to defeat, submit, conquer (with -za) 
harni(n)k = to destroy
hull?i/hulliya = to fight = to topple (a decree) 
hullanz?in = to give battle 
harr/kuskus  = to crush = la = fungere = to crush = English = crush
kakkur = to cut, maim = la = caedere = to cut = English = cut gr = ko/ptw
t?ya = to rob, steal; to abduct 
s?ruw?i = to plunder 
ispar = to spread; to cover; to crush, tread on = la = dissipare = to disperse =  English = disperse = français = disperser, éparpiller gr = spei/rw = to sow, scatter, spread
ninik= to mobilize
hatkesnu = to bother, disturb; to attack, plague, press; to add 
h?ni(n)k = to injure, to damage, to hurt = = English = hurt
wen = to harm 
hurna = to hunt  
hatukes = to worsen 
kuen = to strike, kill = la = caedere = to kill = English = kill gr = a0poktei/nw
walh = to strike; to attack
zah = to strike
zahhiya = to fight
walhann?i = to hit, beat 
hazziknu = to beat, hit, strike; to fight s.o. 
hazziya = to push, stab, strike
pessiya = to throw, push, project; to dismiss, reject, abolish = English = push/press = français = presser
hatt?i = to put to death; to cut off  = English = hit
hariya = to bury 
taksul?i = to be friendly, peaceful, tolerate each other; to sign a treaty 
hassuw?i/hassuizn?i = to govern as king 


dusk = to rejoice, be happy 
m?g?i = to complain = la = mugire = to rumble, groan
ilaliya = to desire, envy 
nah = to fear
uwai = to worry = English = worry
wiya = to lament/wesk = iterative of wiya
sa= to be angry
waggariya = to be indignant, rebel = English = to wag indignant


ha = to believe
walla/wallu = to glorify, praise; to pride oneself on sth. 
ariya = to study an oracle, ask an oracle =la =oraculum = oracle = Eng= oracle = fr = oracle
azzikk = to adore (all the time)
assiya = to love 
hahhars = to laugh = English = haha
parkus/parkues = to become pure = = la = parcere = to spare, economize = English = pure = français = pur gr = kaqaro/j = pure + kaqai/rw = to purify
warressa = to hasten to help = English = hasten
hanna = to judge, decide
has = to open; to give birth (for a woman); to testify (for a man) 
tuwadd = to have mercy, pity  
hanti tiya = to accuse 
wasta = to sin = English = waste
idalawes = to become evil = la = idolon = a spectre = English = idol/idolize = français =  idole/idolizer
idalawahh = to behave badly = la = idolon = a spectre = English = idol/idolize = français =  idole/idolizer
huwap = to do evil 
huek = to swear  (under oath) + to throw down = English = heck/heckle
sull?i/sulliya = to argue, quarrel; to scold, rebuke = English = sully
zammur?i = to offend, insult 
h?wart?- : to swear, curse 
link = to swear
mald= to vow, swear
wars/warsiya = to calm down (intrans.)

Conjugations follow

35 pp. 

summer haiku d’été – our forest cat = notre chat forestier

our forest cat
stands at his swinging door –
nah! who wants in?

Norwegian forest cat 620

notre chat forestier
est à sa porte battante –
zut ! je reste dehors

Richard Vallance

The cat in this photo taken by Louis-Dominique Genest when he was in Norway in June 2018 is a Norwegian forest cat. These cats are stunningly beautiful.

Le chat est dans la photo prise par Louis-Dominique Genest quand il était en Norvège en juin 2018. C’est un chat forestier norvégien. Ces chats sont admirablent beaux !    

Is it even possible to determine what the word for “fig(s)” is in Minoan Linear A? You may be surprised!

Among several other tablets in both Minoan Linear A and Mycenaean Linear B, Linear A tablet HT 88 contains the supersyllabogram NI on the second line:


The question is, what is the actual word for “fig(s)” in Minoan Linear A? Apparently, no-one knows. The odd thing about this supersyllabogram NI is that it was taken over lock-stock-and-barrel by the Mycenaeans. We will never know why, but it is clear that they thought it convenient simply to hang onto it. It may very well be that that the Mycenaeans continued to use the Minoan word for “fig” alongside their early Greek suza. If that is the case, it is all the more relevant for us to attempt to reconstruct the Minoan word for “fig”. Whatever the circumstances, we are still left with the perplexing question, what is the word for “fig” in Minoan Linear A anyway?

In spite of apparently insurmountable obstacles, it may not be so difficult to reconstruct as we might imagine. If we stop to consider even briefly what the word for “fig” is that I have methodically selected in 13 languages, ancient and modern, belonging to 6 different classes, we discover that all but one of them are either monosyllabic or disyllabic. In one instance only is it trisyllabic, pesnika, in Serbian. This does not come as any surprise to me as a linguist, though it may to the so-called  “common person” . Here are the words for “fig” in 16 languages belonging to 6 different languages classes: 
KEY to language classes:

AU = Austronesian/ IN = Indo-European/ LI = language isolate/ NC = Niger-Congo/ SE = Semitic/ UR = Uralic. A language isolate is one which does not belong to any international language class whatsoever, but which stands entirely on its own. 

AU: Indonesian ara Malay rajah Maori piki
IN: French figue German Feige Greek (Mycenaean) suza (Attic) suchon Italian fico Latin ficus Norwegian fiken Portuguese figo Serbian pesnika Spanish higo
LI: Basque piku
NC: Swahili mtimi (sub-class = Bantu)
SE: Maltese tin (the only Semitic language in Latin script)
UR: Finnish kuva

Under the circumstances, I am given to wonder whether or not the Minoan Linear A word for “fig” is monosyllabic, disyllabic or possibly even trisyllabic. It is clear that it cannot be monosyllabic, because the supersyllabogram for “fig” in both Minoan Linear A and Mycenaean Linear B is NI. And supersyllabograms are always the first syllable only of di- tri- or multi-syllabic words in both of these languages. Given this scenario, is it possible or even feasible to reconstruct the Minoan Linear A for “fig”? Surprisingly enough, the answer is yes. Why so? It just so happens that most Minoan Linear A words which are diminutives are feminine with the ultimate being either pa3 or ra2. Under the circumstances, it only takes one small step to restore the two mostly likely candidates for the Minoan Linear A for “fig”. And these are:


It is of course possible to argue that the Minoan word for “fig” is trisyllabic, but this is highly unlikely, since the only trisyllabic word for “fig” in all 13 of the languages cited above is the Serbian, pesnika. Hence, I am reasonably convinced that the Minoan Linear A word for “fig(s)” is either nipa3 (nipai) or nira2 (nirai).

Finally, as it is clear that since the word for “fig(s)” does not even remotely correspond to any of the 13 words in 6 language classes, ancient and modern, above, not even Basque, it may very well turn out that, like Basque, the Minoan language is also a language isolate. I should not be the least but surprised if it were.  

This discussion will be part and parcel in my upcoming article in Vol. 12 (2016) of Archaeology and Science (Belgrade) ISSN 1452-7448, “Pylos tablet Py TA 641-1952 (Ventris), the Rosetta Stone to Minoan Linear A tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) vessels and pottery” and a Glossary of 110 words”, the third article in a row I shall have published in this prestigious international annual by the beginning of 2018 at the very latest.

Je suis Charlie - in French, English & Greek + 11 modern languages & 3 ancient Greek dialects!


I beg you, please be sure to RETWEET this, folks! As a polyglot Canadian, fluent in English and French, conversant with both modern languages and ancient, especially ancient Greek, with some 20 dialects under my belt, including Mycenaean Linear B & Arcado-Cypriot Linear C, I hope to reach not only everyone alive now, but as many of our ancestors as possible. I do this out of love for all the millions upon millions of people who have been slaughtered by warmongers, manaics, religious fanatics & terrorists, past, present and... God forbid... future!

Je vous prie de tout mon coeur de faire des RETWEETs de ce message des plus urgents! Tout en étant canadien parfaitement bilingue, je suis également polyglotte, connaisseur de plusieurs langues modernes et anciennes, dont une vingtaine de dialèctes grecs tels que le mycénien en linéaire B et le chypro-arcadien en linéaire C. Dans ce but, j’espère communiquer ce message de solidarité bienveillante à tous ceux qui sont encore vivants autant qu’à tous nos ancêtres, dont d’innombrables millions qui ont perdu la vie, tous massacrés par des bellicistes, des maniaques, des fanatiques religieuses et des terroristes d’antan, de nos jours et... à Dieu ne plaise ... incontournablement à l’avenir.

Richard Vallance Janke,
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada


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