Tag Archive: Mycenaean



Potential Pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) & Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) words in Linear A = 305/1076 in the entire Linear A Lexicon:

banner Greek-like words in Linear A

adai OM + See [18] below. adakisika NM a0dakissi/ka = adorned with ivory Cf. qaqisenuti NM 
xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative), hence, probably a chaplet in fine bronze adorned with ivy  
adidakitipaku OM adida (unknown) NM kiti ki/sth = chest, box + pagu/j = giant, large
adoro MOSB NM a1doroj = receiving no gifts; unpaid; giving no gifts
Akanu/Akanuzati  PGS TOP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) – or- a large bowl, from Semitic akanu
Akanuzati NEW PGS NM A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) + za/qi <- za/qoej = for the most holy or sacred Archanes = 5
aka -or- kaa = askas LIG NM  a0ska/ <- a0sko/j = leather bag, wine skin
ake -or- kae = aske (instr. sing.) LIG NM  a0skei/ (arch. acc.) <- a0sko/j = with a leather bag, wine skin
akara/akaru = akaras/akarus NM a1kra - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field, from Hittite, akkala = furrow  
akarakitanasijase NM   a1kra (arch. acc.) - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field + kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj = a field with terebinth trees. See also kitanisija NEW

akiro NM a1kairoj = not in season, unseasonable -or- a1grioj = living in the fields; uncultivated, unreclaimed

akoane NM = This is the Mycenaean attempt to translate the name of the Minoan goddess, Atana, Greek Athena A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja -or- from: akunasatisa = Knossos (Luwian) = 10

akumina akuminas PGS a0ku/mina = without cumin?
amaja NM a3maca= wagon
amarane... (truncated) NM a0malli/ <- a0mallo/j = without fleece (a privative instrumental) amawasi NM a3mai#asi = with violets
amita NM a0mi/nqa <- mi/nqoj = without mint = 15
anatu NM? a=na/tu <- a=nastado/n = upright, standing? (could make sense in context)
apaki NM a0parxh/ = first part of a sacrifice, firstlings for sacrifice, first-fruits 
apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine  Cf. Linear B apero 
api NM a0spi/j = shield – or- OM plough, from Hittite apin 
ara NM a0ra/ = a prayer = 20
araju NM a0ra=u <- a0ra=oj = prayed for? – used with no. 123 
arako NM a0ra/c = weaver Cf. Linear B arakateya a0laka/teiai = weavers

arakokuzu OMNM1 = weavers establishment? (agglutinative)

arati NM a0ra=ti/ <- a0ra/toj = with something unblessed Cf. makarite  below
aratiatu NM a0ra=ti a/stu = a prayer for the town, community <- Linear B  #a/stu = city, town 
aratu/aratumi... (truncated) = 25
aresana NM a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup 
arija... NM a=0ri=a <- a=0rai=a (truncated) = prayed to, accursed (fem.) NEW
aripa NM a1leifar = cream, ointment Cf. Linear B arepa NEW 
arokaku NM a1ro xalku/ = o0rei/xalkoj, oreikhalkos (from o1roj, oros, mountain and xalko/j  chalkos, copper), meaning mountain copper.  Cf. Linear B kako xalko/j. See Appendix 3  = 30
aro/arote /aru NM au=loc te\ = (and) furrow, ploughed land, corn-land
arura NM a0rou/ra = unit of land -or- plough Cf. Linear B arura 
arudara MOSE NM a1lutra <- a1lutron = threshing instrument (arch. acc.) 
aruma NM a3rwma (neuter) = arable land -or- spice
asadaka asadakas MOSE NM a1staxa <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn = 40
Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax – or- OM = white, from Hittite asara
asidatoi NM a0si/datoi = without pomegranate (dat. sing.)
asikira asikas NM1 <- khro/j = without wax 
Asuja  TOP Cf Linear B Asiwiya A0si/#ia
atade NM a1ttade = from father = 45
atanate NM a0qa/na=te = without an immortal (instr. sing.) 

A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja NM Ata/noj = Earth goddess Atano

atare NM a0ta=lei/ <- a0ta=lo/j = tender; delicate (of crops?) -or- a0qa/lei <- a0qa/loj = without a branch, twig; without an olive branch -or- MOS NM a9dro/j = full-grown – or – a0qa/rh = groats, meal, green fodder, forage, provender Cf. kupari = galingale
atika NM? au0t/ika= = immediately 
atiru NM? a0ti/lu <- a0te/loj = without boundaries = 50
atu NM a1stu/ = town See also Luwian atiwati = in the town
auta NM au0ta/ = self, oneself; alone + deponiza NM... the mistress herself  KO Zf 2

damate PGS NM Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate Cf. damate = Earth Mother (Pelasgian) - or- da/matei = in the village 
dare NM da=lei/ <- da=lo/j = (with) a firebrand or torch/daro LIG NM da=lo/j = firebrand 
datara/datare NM da=ta/ra da=ta/rei <- da=th/rioj = distributing, for distribution -or- OM sacred grove of olive trees -or- a kind of flowering plant = 55
Dawa OM = place name Cf. LB dawo Da/#oj / Da/#on 
deka -or- kade LIG NM ka/de (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = pitcher, jar, pail
depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa (Luwian = bowl, cup)
deponiza NM de/spoina = mistress, lady KO Zf 2 Cf. Linear B deponiya
dewa -or- wide LIG NM de/#a = goddess? = 60
dija/dije NM Di/ #a Cf. Linear B Diwija Di#i/a = priestess of Zeus
Dikate PGS TOP = Mount Dikte Cf. Linear B Dikatade Diktai/ade = towards Mt. Dikte
dima/dimaru NM dh=ma <- dh=moj = land, country
dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup 
dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)
ditamana  PGS = dittany = 65
Dupu3re TOP Cf. Linear B Dupu2razo Dupurai/zoj 
dura2 NM  dou/lai = slaves (fem.) Cf. Linear B doera doe/la 

eka ekas NM e3gxa spear, lance <- e3gxoj = spear Cf. Linear B eko
ero NM e0llo/j = young deer, fawn 
esija MOSA NM e3sti/a = hearth of a house = 70
etori NM? e1tori <- e1toj = for a year – or – OM = food, from Hittite etri

ia i0a/  NM (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija NM? See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) 
Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3  = Mount Ida PGS TOP
Idamate/Idamete PGS ONO  0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida  Cf. Idaian Mother (Pelasgian)
Idarea ONO PGS  0Idar9ea = Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida = 75
ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate  i0a/ter
ima imas NM i9ma/c = leather strap, thong; (lash of) a whip
ipinama/ipinamina MOS NM i0pneume/na (fem. sing.) = baked (bread)
ira2 NM i1la=i = troops, companies, squadrons
iruja NM i0e/ruia = priestess Cf. Linear B iyereya i0e/reia  = 80
Itinisa PGS ONO? female resident of Itanos?  

jai NM ? gai/i = for (mother) earth 
jaiterikisu (agglutinative) NM gai/i + teli/ + kisso/j = topmost (i.e. ripe) ivy for/with (mother) earth
jaja gai/a = mother earth
jamauti NM i1amauti = as a means of healing <- i1ama i1amatoj = healing, remedy = 85
januti NM ga/nuti = a form of the verb or noun for shining  
jari/jarina/jarinu NM gali/ galh/ <- gale/h = cat
jarisapa (agglutinative) OM PGS = some kind of dress? Cf. Linear B sapa
jasaja NM  0Ia=sai/a <-  0Ia=sw/ of/from the goddess of healing and health  
jasapai NM1OM related to related to - jasaja – above? - something to do with healing = 90
jasidara NM i0a=sida=la/ = healing torch/firebrand (arch. acc.)
jasea/jasepa NM i0a=sea = healing, goddess of healing 
jasie  NM i0a=sie = for healing, for the goddess of healing
jate/jateo NM i0a=th/r = physician 
jatimane NM i0a=th/j mannei= = with the bread of healing (agglutinative) = 95
jawi NM gau=li = with a milk-pail, bucket -or- with a merchant vessel NEW
[13] jemanata NM ge/manata = full of
[14] jua NM gu/a <- gu/hj = measure of land, plough land, corn land 
juraa NM gu=ra/a <- gu=ro/j = round, curved See [14] above 

kadi MOSE NM kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine = 100
kadusi NM ka/dusi <= ka/doj = with buckets or pails (instr. pl.)
kairo NM kairo/j = due measure 
kaki/kaku NM xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
kakunete/kakusunetu  OM+ NM xalku/ = bronze alloy - or – crafted in bronze (agglutinative) 
kami  NM ka/mi (dat./instr. sing.) <- ka/ma = (on a) unit of land Cf. Linear B ka/ma = 105
kana/kanatiti/kanau PGS TOP Kanna
kanaka kanakas PGS kna/ka = saffron Cf Linear B kanako kna/koj
kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi NM karpa/ (arch. acc.) + karpa/te\ = fruit, and fruit, with fruit -or- ripe crops Cf. Linear B kapo karpo/j
kaporu NM karpo/ru <- karpoj = fruit, corn, harvest, produce 
kara/karu  NM kara/ = head Cf. Linear B kara(pi) kara/afi = 110
karopa2 (karopai) OM = kylix with 2 handles-or- MOSE NM ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase – or – karpu = vessel name (Semitic)
karu  NM ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine, ornamental 
karunau NM kallu/nau <- kallu/nw = to beautify, embellish
kasi NM kasi/ <- kasi/a= = with Arabian spice 
kasitero OMNM kasite/loj = boundary of...? (agglutinative) = 115
kataro NM ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup
kati NM ka/rtij = a kind of pot, hydria (water flask) Cf. Linear B kati hydria (water flask) 
keda PGS = cedar 
keire NM kh=lei <- kh/lon = with an arrow
Kekiru PGS TOP Ke/kru = Kekros = 120
kera/kero NM ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera
keta/kete/ketu NM ga/da  ga/de <- gado/j <- i0xqu/j = fish,  here = fish-goddess
kida/kidi kidas NM kh=da kh=dei <- kh=doj = (with) mourning, burial 
kidaro MOSC NM kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro
kikadi PGS = cicada (cricket) = 125
kimu NM xeimu/ <- xeimw=n = frost, cold; storm, tempest? (uncertain)
kina PGS TOP Kinna 
kira NM xei=la <- xei=loj = edge, brim, rim
kireta2 (kiretai) NM kri/qai = barley
kiretana NM kriqani/aj = like barley, barley (attributive) = 130
kiretaiwinu NM kri/qai = barley + winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj, hence kiretaiwinu =  kri/qai#i/nu 
kiso NM kisso/j = ivy
kitai/kitei  NM = kestai/ kestei/ = embroidered (lit.), but in context = basketry, basket(s)
kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj
kitina NM ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj = border of a plot of  land/territory Cf. Linear B  kotona = 140 kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land 
kiti NM ki/sth = chest, box 
kito NM xitw/n = chiton Cf. Linear B kito
koiru NM koi/ru <- koi/roj = hollow (ships) 
koru NM ko/ruj = helmet Cf. Linear B koru = 145
Kosaiti TOP Cf. Linear B Kutaito Ku/taistoj (not necessarily the same place)
kuda NM ku=da <- ku=doj glory, fame, renown? (uncertain) 
Kukudara TOP Cf. Linear B Kukudaro 
kuminaqe NM = and cumin See also Linear B kumino ku/minon
kupa/kupi NM ku=fa/ ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = bent, curved, with something bent, possibly a scythe. See also – kupaja (genitive singular) – below – or – OM cypergrass, henna (Semitic) = 150
kupaja NM ku=fai/a <- ku=fo/j = of something curved; of a scythe?
kupari NM ku/pairi (instr. sing.) <- ku/pairoj = marsh-plant used to feed horses, galingale or ginger? (uncertain)
kupazu NM kou/fazu <- kou/fazoj = light (of wine)
kupi NM? ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = with something curved; with a scythe? On Linear A tablet ZA 14 kuro/kurotu NM ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total  Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa Cf. kol = total (Semitic) = 155
kuto/kutu NM ku/toj = shield, cuirass
kuruku PGS kro/koj = crocus, saffron 
Kutiti TOP (locative sing.) Kutaistos Cf. LB Kutaito
kutu NM ku/tu <- ku/toj = vase, jar, pot, urn
kuwa -or- waku LIG NM ku/#a = girl Cf. Linear B kowa ko/#a – or – #a0sku/ <- #a0sko/j = leather bag or wineskin = 160

makarite MOSC NM makari/thj = one who is blessed -or- magarei=te\  = and with a cooking pot (instr. Sing.) <- mageirei=on = cooking pot
mana/manapi (common) PGS Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert, or simply bread” -or- Mana = Minos (Luwian)   
maniki NM maniki/ <- maniko/j = with revelry? (uncertain)
maro/maru/maruku/maruri NM  mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool
masa/masaja NM ma/=ssa  ma/=ssaia <= ma/=sswn = larger, bigger  - 0r – OM = goat, from Hittite, mas = 165
masuri NM mallu/ri <- mallo/j = with fleece
maza/mazu  NM ma=za  = kneaded or unbaked bread, barley bread/cake
Mekidi ONO Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great – or – OM = income, revenue, from Hittite melkitu 
mera NM mela/j = black  - or – me/la (arch. accus.) = honey 
meto NM mesto/j = full, filled = 170
meza NM me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj 
mini/miniduwa NM mh/ni <- mh/n = for a month + mh/nidu#a = for two months 
mireja NM mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep 
miru NM mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit 
mita NM mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita = 175
miturea NM mi/toj 9Re/a= thread of a warp for Rhea (agglutinative)
muko NM mu=xo/j = innermost place, inmost nook, corner, recess 
murito NM mu/lito <- mu/lac = with a millstone
muru NM mu/ron = sweet oil extracted from plants; sweet oil; unguent; perfume

naka nakas NM na/ka <- na/koj = sheep’s fleece = 180
nami NM na=mi <- na=ma = in/with a stream – or - swiftly   
narepirea OMNM1 narepir9e/a = Rhea, goddess of the snake/ snake goddess? (agglutinative)
naridi NM na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with (spike)nard
nasarea OMNM = Rhea, goddess of ... ? (agglutinative)
nasi NM na=si <- na=soj = on an island, peninsula? (uncertain) = 185
nasisea OMNM1 nasise/a = goddess of the island 
nea NM ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
neka/nekisi NM neka/j neki/si = (with a) heap of the slain 
nemi -or- mine (ligature) NM Mi/noj = with Minos? (instr. sing.)
nerapa/nerapaa NM neura/=pa neaura/=fa <- neura/= (with a) sinew, tendon, bow-string, sling shot = 190
neta NM nhta/ <- nhto/j = heaped up 
nipa3 NM nhfai/a <- nafa/lioj  = unmixed with wine 
nise/nisi NM nh=si <- nh=soj = on an island
niti/nitinu NM nh=stij = fasting

odami/odamia NM ou0dami/a = no one (fem.) = 195
oteja NM PK1 o1steia <- o1streia = oyster pigment; oyster purple Cf. Linear B otawero o1streioj 

pa3e NM paie=/ <- pai=/an = with a physician
pa3karati NM pagkra/dh = all-powerful, almighty, all-ruling 
pa3waja OMNM1 pai#ai/a = something to do with land (agglutinative)
paiki... (truncated right) 
Paito NM1 Phaistos Faisto/j = Phaistos Cf. Linear Paito Faisto/j See also Payata (Luwian) = 200
paku NM paxu/j = great, large; rich, wealthy – or- OM, paku, = holy, sacred from Hittite, parkui
para NM para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. - or- viceroy, prince -or- double axes (Luwian) 
parane NM paranhne/ < - parhne/w = heaped up beside
parosu NM fa/losu <-> fa/loj = horn of a helmet 
pasarija = NM pa=sa + OM rija = all-encompassing, international? (agglutinative) = 205
pase NM fa/rse <- fa/rsoj = with a part, portion 
pasu fa/rsuj <- fa/rsoj = a part, portion
piku/pikui/pikuzu NM fhgu/j <- fhgo/j = a species of oak
pimata PGS = pimento 
pita/pitaja MOSE NM pista/kion = pistachio-nut = 210
pitakase/pitakesi MOSE NM pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts (instr. pl.) 
piwaja OM NM pi#ai/a = land division/divided land/shared land/shared plots?
posa NM po/sa= (arch. acc.) <- poi/si=j = drink(ing), beverage -or- po/sa <- po/soj = how great, how much, of what value? 
posi -or- sipo LIG NM posi/ = on, upon Cf. Linear B posi -or- sipo = si/fwn = reed, straw, siphon 
potokuro NM poto/n +  ku/rwn = reaching a full drink, a full draught (agglutinative) – used with no. 65 – or – OM = grand total Cf. putu kol = grand total (Semitic) = 215
puko OM = tripod Cf. Linear B pukoso pu/coj = box-wood. Apparently unrelated 
punikaso PGS NM funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson 
Qara2wa ONO/TOP Cf. Linear B Qara2wo + Qa2ra2wa ONO/TOP? (variation)
qajo NM ba/i"on = a palm branch (Kafkania pebble)
qaqisenuti NM xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative) = 220
qaro NM ba=lo/j = threshold 
qedeminu MA 1 (x2)... OM qede + NM Mi/nu = Minos -or- mh/nu =  month of qede
qero NM be/loj = arrow, dart -or- beryl	vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)
qoroqa NM ko/lon kai\ = and broken (of a spear) (see Kafkania Pebble)

radu/rade NM r9a/bdu <- r9a/bdoj = rod, switch; spear-staff or shaft = 225
ra2ka NM r9aika (fem. sing.) <- r9aiw = shattered, from – to shatter
ra2ri (rairi) PGS OM = lily
ra2ti (raiti) NM r9aisth/r = a hammer, crusher
Raja/Raju PGS ONO TOP  9Rai/a = Raia Cf. Linear B Raja 
raka/rakaa raskas NM r9axa/ <- r9axo/j = thorn bush -or- ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- NM r9anatusu < - r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify. See also tusu = 230
rani NM r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise
ratise (ritise?) NM = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.)
rea PGS r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
rima rimas NM lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts  (dative/instrumental plural) 
roe NM r90o/e r90o/ei < - r9o/oj = in a stream = 235
roika NM  9roika/ (fem. sing.) = crooked Cf. Linear B roiko  9roiko/j 
roke/roki/roku NM = lo/foj = crest of a helmet
rosa  PGS = rose 
rosirasiro OM PGS = rosebush (agglutinative/contextual) 
Rukito PGS TOP Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj – or – Lycians = 240
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff 
rutari NM r9utari/ <- r9utw/n = with a drinking cup (running to a point with a small hole  through which wine ran) 

saka sakas NM sa/kka <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made of wicker See also saqqu (Akkadian) See also – saqa - below
sama/samaro PGS or NM sama/ro = burial ground Cf. Linear B Sama/ra sama/ra = place name -or- monument -or- grave mound OR sa/meron = today
saro/saru/sarutu NM sa/ron = broom, threshing floor -or- flax (inflected) – or- barley, from saru (Semitic) = 245
sasame PGS sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
sato/sata PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement
sea/sei NM se/a se/ei (dat. sing.) = goddess 
sedina PGS = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon
seikama NM = seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess = 250
sere -or- rese LIG NM seirei/ <- seira/ = with a cord or rope (instrumental sing.)
setamaru OMNM (agglutinative) = something to do with wool/spun wool?
side/sidi/sidija/sidare/sidate/sidatoi NM si/dh si/dia = pomegranate tree
sija NM si/a <- si/a = goddess – or- seed, from Hittite siya
sika sikas NM shka/ <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen = 255
Sikine PGS TOP loc. sing. of Sikinos -or- OM = a type of grain
Sikira/Sikirita PGS ONO/TOP -or- NM si/kera = sweet fermented liquor LB sikiro
Sima PGS TOP Si/ma = Sima Cf. Linear B Sima -or- sh=ma = sign, mark, token; omen; mound; grave, tomb Cf. sama/samaro above
simita PGS = mouse (arch. acc.) simito/simitu PGS  = zmi/nqoj mouse 
sire/siro/siru/sirute NM? si=re/ si=rei/ si=ro/j = a pit for keeping corn in = 260
sita2 (sitai) -or- ta2si (taisi) LIG NM  si/tai = with a small amount of wheat 
sitetu  NM See -  situ – below (inflected)
situ NM si/tu si/tun = wheat Cf. Linear B sito si/ton 
Sukirita/Sukiriteija  TOP = Sybrita Cf. Linear B Sukirita Su/grita
suniku (common) NM su/noiku <- su/noikoj  living together, joint inhabitant,  dweller
sure number NM? su=le < su=lon = with seizure of cargo? = no. = 108 used with olive oil
Suria PGS TOP = 265
suzu NM su/zuc = yoked together; paired Cf. Linear B zeukesi zeu/gesi = yoked (instr. pl.)

taikama OM tai + NM ka/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre?  
ta2re/ta2reki NM sta=rei<-  stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei
tai2si (taisi) NM stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.)
taki/taku/takui NM ta=xei/ <- ta=xu/j = quick, swift, speedy -or- with a large container 
for liquid (instr. singular) Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) – or – OM = tax, from Hittite taksessar = tax = 270
tapa NM ta/rfa = thick, close Cf. Linear B tapa
tarasa PGS = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa 
tarawita PGS = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
tarina MM qalli/na (arch. acc.) <- qallo/j = a young shoot, twig; festive olive-branch 

taro MOSE NM tau=roj = bull – or- OM = tree, from Hittite, taru = tree = 275

tejai qei/ai = goddesses
Tejare TOP Cf. Linear B Tejaro qei/aroj = place of the gods?
terikama NM te/leika/ma = extent of land, i.e. something like acreage, lit. land to its extent or boundary (agglutinative)
tero/teroa NM te/loj = end, boundary 
tetu NM th=tou <- th=tej = of this year (gen. sing.) Cf. Linear B weto #e/toj = this year? = 280
timi NM qemi/ <- qemw/n = in a heap 
tiri NM qhri/ <- qh/r or qhri/on = with a wild beast or beast of prey
toraka torakas PGS qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B toraka 
toro NM tau/roj = bull -or- qolo/j = dome or circular vault; vaulted building. See bibliography 77, Smithsonian
tuma/tumei/tumi MOSD NM qumi/a = incense = 285

tunu/tunuja NM qu/nnu <- qu/nnoj = tunney-fish?

turunuseme NM1OM = throne room (agglutinative)
tusi/tusu NM tu/rsij = (in a) tower, castle -or- to/soj = so great, so much, so long, so strong, so little 
tute/tutesi NM quste/ quste/si <- qusta/j = dat. sing. & pl. (for) sacrificial purposes 

udiriki NM u3driki <- u3droj = with water = 290
Uminase OM TOP  Cf. Linear B Aminiso = harbour – or- town, from umina (Luwian)
unaa NM oi0nai/a = wine vessel, wine jug, wine jar 
uro NM ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total 


waja NM #ai/a = earth, land
wanaka PGS #a/nac  = king Cf. Linear B wanaka = 295

wasato NM #a/stu a1stu = town Cf. Lnear B wato #a/stu. See also, Luwian, ati wati = in the town)

Wasatomaro NM + OM TOP = the town of Wasatomaro?

widunimi OM widu NM nh=mi <- nh=ma = with (some kind of) thread or yard (instr. sing.) 
winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado
winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj Cf. Luwian wainu & Hittite, wiyana = 300
winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative) 
wireu NM #i0eru/ <- #i0ero/j = priest Cf. Linear B iyero i0ero/j

zokutu NM zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-bar
zuma NM zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic
zute NM  zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer  See also Hittite, sessar = 305

This is a preliminary count of the number of potential Greek-like words in Linear A, and the total may have to be revised slightly downwards after every last word has been cross-checked for contextual accuracy with every last Linear A tablet on which they appear.

TOTAL number of potential pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan words (NM) = 305
TOTAL number of words in the Linear Z Lexicon = 1076
Percentage of Greek-like words in the Lexicon = 28 %
 
NOTE that these Greek words in Linear A do not include words derived from other ancient languages antecedent to Linear A. I shall post those in the next post, and then add all of the Greek-like words to words of other origins, to arrive at the grand total of potentially deciphered words in Linear A, which will clearly exceed 30 %.

CRITICAL POST: Ancient words from 3,000 – 1,200 BCE in modern English:

First the ancient words in modern English, and in the next two posts, how words infiltrate from earlier to diachronically close later languages. These posts are real eye-openers, explaining how words from earlier languages trickle into later, e.g. Akkadian and Sanskrit into Linear A (Minon) and Linear B (Mycenaean) + how all of the ancient words here infiltrate English.

Akkadian/Assyrian (3,000 BCE):

Akkadian

babel babilu = Babylon; gate of God (Akkadian)

bdellium budulhu = pieces (Assyrian)

canon, canyon qanu = tube, reed (Assyrian)

cumin kumunu = carrot family plant (Akkadian)

natron sodium (Akkadian)

myrrh murru (Akkadian)

sack saqqu (Akkadian)

shalom = hello sholom/shlama = hello (also Hebrew)

souk saqu = narrow (Akkadian)

Semitic (2,000-1,000 BCE):

arbiter arbiter (Latin from Phoenician)

byssus bwtz = linen cloth, to be white (Semitic)

chemise gms = garment (Ugaritic)

deltoid dalt (Phoenician)

fig pag (paleo-Hebrew)

iotacism iota (Phoenician)

map (Phoenician)

mat matta (Phoenician)

shekel tql (Canaanite)

Egyptian (2690 BCE):

Egyptian-Papyrus 19k BCE

http://www.egyptologyforum.org/AEloans.html

adobe

alabaster

alchemy

ammonia

baboon 5

barge, bark, barque, to embark

basalt

behemoth

bocal

chemistry 10

copt, coptic

desert

Egypt

ebony

endive 15

gum

gypsy

ibis

ivory

lily 20

oasis

obelisk

manna

mummy

myth 25

papyrus

paper

pharaoh

pharmacy

phoenix 30

pitcher

pyramid

sack See also saqqu (Akkadian)

sash

Susan(na), Phineas, Moses, Potiphar, Potiphera 35

sphinx

stibium = eye paint

tart

uraeus (emblem on the headdress of the pharaoh)39

Sanskrit (2,000 BCE):

Sanskrit

aniline nili (Sanskrit)

Aryan aryas = noble, honourable

atoll antala

aubergine vātigagama = eggplant, aubergine

avatar avatara = descent

bandana bandhana = a bond

banyan vaṇij = merchant

basmati vasa

beryl vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)

bhakti bhakti = portion

candy khaṇḍakaḥ, from khaṇḍaḥ = piece, fragment

cashmere shawl made of cashmere wool

cheetah chitras = uniquely marked

chintz chitras = clear, bright

cot khatva

cobra kharparah = skull

crimson krmija = red dye produced by a worm

crocus kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow

datura dhattūrāh = a kind of flowering plant

dinghy dronam = tiny boat

ginger srngaveram, from srngam “horn” + vera = body

guar gopali = annual legume

gunny goni = sack

guru gurus = bachelor

jackal srgalah = the howler

Java/java = island/coffee Yavadvipa= Island of Barley, from yava

= barley + dvipa =island

juggernaut jagat-natha-s = lord of the world

jungle jangala = arid

jute jutas = twisted hair

karma karman = action

kermes kṛmija = worm-made

lacquer lākṣā

lilac nila = dark blue

loot lotam = he steals

mandala mandala = circle

mandarin mantri = an advisor

mantra mantras = holy message or text

maya maya = illusion

Mithras mitrah = friend

mugger makara = sea creature, crocodile

musk mus = mouse

nard naladam = nard

nirvanas nirvanas = extinction, blowing out (candle)

opal upalah = opal

orange narangas = orange tree

pal bhrata = brother

palanquin palyanka = bed, couch

panther pāṇḍara = pale

pepper pippali = long pepper

punch pancha = drink from alcohol, sugar, lemon, water,

tea or spices

pundit paṇdita =learned

rajah rajan = king

rice vrihi-s = rice, derived from proto-Dravidian

rupee rūpyakam =silver coin

saccharin sarkarā

sandal wood candanam = wood for burning incense

sapphire sanipriya = sacred to Shani (Sanskrit) = Greek,

Saturn

sari sati = garment

shawl sati = strip of cloth

sugar sharkara = ground sugar

swami svami = master

tank tadaga-m =pond, lake pool, large artificial

container for liquid

thug sthaga = scoundrel

tope stupah

yoga yogas = yoke, union

yogi yogin = one who practices yoga, ascetic

zen dhyana = meditation

Linear A (1,800-1,500 BCE):

linear a tablet kh5 khania

cedar keda = cedar

cumin kuminaqe = and cumin See also Linear B kumino

kumi/non Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant

(Akkadian)

lily rairi (also Egyptian) -or- nila = dark blue

(Sanskrit)

pimento			pimata = pimento
rose				rosa  = rose 
sack				saka sa/kka  <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from 
				goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made
				of wicker See also saqqu = sack (Akkadian)

Linear A & Linear B (1,800-1,200 BCE):

Linear B tablet with ideogram

agriculture akara/akaru a1kra (arch. acc.) – or – = end, border

+ akaru a0gro/j = field Cf. Linear B akoro a0gro/j

democracy		dima/dimaru dh=maj <- dh=moj = land, country;
				people Cf. Linear B	damo = village da=moj
				Mother goddess of Mount Ida	Idamate/Idamete
				  0Idama/te
Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida Idarea  0Idar9ea 
healer			ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate
				i0a/ter
calligraphy		karu = ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine,
				ornamental
copper			kaki/kaku xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
crimson			punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
crocus			kuruku kro/koj = crocus, saffron Cf. crocus
				kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow (Sanskrit)
Lykinthos			Rukito Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj
minth			mita mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita 
nard				naridi na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with nard. See also
				naladam (Sanskrit)
new				nea ne/a (feminine) = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new     
pistachio-nut		pitakase/pitakesi pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts
				(instr. pl.) 
Phoenician		punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
Phaistos			Paito Faisto/j Cf. Linear Paito 
Rhea			rea r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
sack				saka sa/kka (arch. acc.) <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of
				hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj
				a shield made of wicker Cf. See also
				saqqu (Akkadian)
sesame			sasame sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
terebinth tree		tarawita = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano 
				ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
thalassian		tarasa = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa
thorax			toraka  qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B
				toraka
throne			turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B torono
				qo/rnoj
wine 			winu  #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono = wine, vine
				#oi/noj
wine dedicated to Mother Earth winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine
				dedicated	to Mother Earth
yoked			zokutu zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-		
				bar 
zone				zuma zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic 

Mycenaean Linear B (1,600-1,200 BCE):

aeon eo e0wn = being

anemometer anemo a0ne/mwn = wind

angel akero a0ngge/loj = messenger

agora akora a0gora/ = market

axles akosone a1conej = axles

amphorae aporowe a0mfore#ej

armaments amota a3rmo/ta = chariot

anthropology atoroqo a0nqrw/poj = man, human being

aulos (musical instrument)auro a0ulo/j = flute, musical instrument

cardamon kadamiya kardami/a = cardamon

celery serino se/linon = celery

chiton kito xitw/n = chiton

circular kukereu kukleu/j = circle

coriander koriyadana koli/adna

cumin kumino kum/minon Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant

(Akkadian)

curator korete kore/ter = governor

cypress kuparo ku/pairoj

divine diwo Di/#oj = Zeus

duo dwo du#o/ = two

elephant erepa e0le/faj = ivory (in Mycenaean)

eremite eremo e1remoj = desert

foal poro pw/loj = foal

gynecology kunaya gunai/a = woman

heterosexual hatero a3teroj e3teroj = other

hippodrome iqo i3ppoj = horse

labyrinth dapuritoyo = labyrinth laburi/nqoj

linen rino li/non

lion rewo le/#wn = lion

mariner marineu marineu/j = sailor, mariner

maternal matere ma/ter = mother

Mesopotamia Mesopotomo Mesopota/moj = Mesopotamia

metropolis matoropuro matro/puloj = mother city

nautical nao nau/j = ship

non-operational noopere nwfe/lioj = useless

operation opero o1feloj = operation

paternal pate pa/ter = father

paramedic 		para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of,
				beyond etc.
pharmaceutical	pamako fa/rmakon = medicine
polypod			porupode polu/pode polu/pouj = octopus
progressive		poro pro\ = in front of 
purple			popureyo pofurei/a = purple
quartet			qetoro tetta/rej = four

schinus kono skoi/noj (flowering pepper)

strategic tatakeu startageu/j = general

stylobate			tatamo staqmo/j = standing post, door post
temenos			temeno (piece of land assigned as an official
				domain (to royalty)
theological		teo qe/oj = god
trapeze			topeza to/rpeza tra/peza = table
tripod			tiripode tri/pwj = tripod
vision			wide #ei/de = to see 
xenophobic		kesenuwiyo ce/n#ioj = stranger

© by Richard Vallance Janke 2017


The supersyllabogram WI in Linear A winu, winadu, winumatari

Minoan wine presses

The supersyllabogram WI in Linear A means any of the following,winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado -or- winu NM1 #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj -or- winumatari NM1 #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative). The most likely interpretation is winu = wine, but the other two are not out of the question. This supersyllabogram appears on only one tablet, Khania KH 5 wi.


the supersyllabogram SU in Linear A, a small cup with handles & the largest pithos size:

Minoan Pithos and small cup with a handle

The supersyllabogram SU in Linear A has two meanings, context dependent. The first is:

1. SU = supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) OM = a small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo. The word depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu (acc.?) = cup occurs in Linear A. Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa

and the second is:

2. SU = supi/supu/supu2 OM = largest size pithos;

but not MOSE * NM1 supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal tub. MOSE * = decryption by Prof. Yuriy Mosenkis. This interpretation flies in the face of context on any Linear A tablet or fragment. It is all fine and well to conjecture a proto-Greek or Mycenaean-derived Greek word, but if you check your decipherment against extant tablets, then you may find it invalidated. This must always be done. Otherwise, you will end up with a meaning which is simply out of the question.


 

Comment by Nikos Papadopoulos (Greece) on my Linear A decipherment of beer as “with beer”, hence zute NM1 zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer

ancient depictions of beer consumption and brewing b

The rudiments are being revealed due to your diligence and systematic research. I will drink some Ζύθος (we use the word in modern Greek to denote the canning company e.g. Ζυθοποιία Άταλάντης) and propose a toast raising a glass of Cretan wine: May it be soon that whatever Linear A exists will be manifested translated for the world to acknowledge and admire.

NOTE by Richard Vallance

Lest anyone should be mislead into thinking that Linear A zute does not mean wine, consider this, that it is in the instrumental singular, meaning “with beer”, hence zute NM1 zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer. Nikos Papadopoulos is also quite confident that I am, slowly but surely, cracking at least 35 % of Linear A, which I trust I am.


The supersyllabogram AKA in Linear A = either wine skin or an embossed cup:

ancient wine skin and the Vapheio cup

BOLD: n. e.g. 1. A = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is either certain or highly probable.

Italics: n. e.g. 7. KI = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is possible.

Standard font: n. e.g. 2 = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is unlikely or questionable.

It is almost certain that the supersyllabogram A in Linear A means either a wine skin or an embossed cup.

1. A aka = aska = a0ska = wine skin -or- apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine Cf. Linear B apero -or- aresana NM1 a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM1 a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup

Note that it appears on HT 2 (Haghia Triada) dealing with olive oil, which is sometimes served from a vessel and on the other 3 tablets, same provenance, all of which deal with vessels, hence the reading, embossed cup:

HT 2 oo HT 39 ve KH 83 ve MA 10 ve

oo = olive oil

ve = vessels


Introduction to supersyllabograms on Linear A tablets: PART A

Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B:

The phenomenon of the supersyllabogram in Mycenaean Linear B was first introduced to the world at at the Third Interdisciplinary Conference, Thinking Symbols, on July 1, 2015, at the Pultusk Academy of Humanities, here:

role of supersyllabograms in Linear B Thinking Symbols

Prior to 2015, no researcher had ever identified supersyllabograms in Linear B. But what is a supersyllabogram? A supersyllabogram is the first syllabogram, i.e. the first syllable of a particular major Mycenaean Linear B word paired with a particular ideogram in any of the major sectors of the Mycenaean economy, agricultural, military, textiles, vessels and pottery. Initially, in 2015, 34 supersyllabograms were identified in this talk, which is brief enough for you to glean a clear conception of what supersyllabograms entail.

By 2016, this number had risen to 36, 35 syllabograms and 1 homophone or logogram (AI), published in Archaeology and Science, Vol. 11 (2015), ISSN 1452-7448, pp. 73-108, published in 2016, here:

Archaeology and Science decipherment of supersyllabograms in Linear B

 

Here is the abstract of that article:

A supersyllabogram is the first syllabogram, i.e. the first syllable of a major (never minor) economic indicator combined with a closely related ideogram in the four economic sectors of the Mycenaean economy, agricultural, military, textiles and vessels or pottery. With very few exceptions, change the economic sector and you change the meaning of any particular supersyllabogram. Of some 3,500 tablets and fragments from Knossos, about 800 or 23% contain at least one supersyllabogram and sometimes as many as four or five. The whole point of supersyllabograms is that they are meant to eliminate text on tablets to the greatest possible extent. In a syllabary of 61 syllabograms + one homophone (AI), 36 syllabograms or 59% are supersyllabograms. Supersyllabograms serve to greatly economize on the precious space available on the tiny inventory tablets in Linear B. Any complete decipherment of Linear B must fully account for the supersyllabogram as a unique phenomenon without which any approach to the interpretation of the Linear B syllabary is squarely compromised.

Supersyllabograms in Linear A:

As it turns out, supersyllabograms were not invented by the Mycenaeans, but by the Minoans. They first emerged in Linear A, not Linear B. In a syllabary of 54 syllabograms, 27 or 50 % are supersyllabograms. This compares favourably with the incidence of supersyllabograms in Linear B, in which 36 or 59 % of 61 syllabograms are supersyllabograms.

Linear A base syllabary

620 Table 5 Table of 27 supersyllabograms in Minoan Linear A

KEY to supersyllabograms in Linear A:

fi = figs

gr = grains (wheat)

ma = man, person

oo = olives, olive oil

pi = pigs

ra = rams

sh = sheep

te = textiles

ve = vessels

wi = wine & vinegar

Locales where Linear A tablets have been found:

HT = Haghia Triada

KH = Khania

MA = Malia

PE = Petras
PH = Phaistos

TH = Thera

TY = Tylissos

ZA = Zakros

The numeric value of each supersyllabograms is rated as follows:

BOLD: n. e.g. 21. TE = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is either certain or highly probable.

Italics: n. e.g. 1. A = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is possible.

Standard font: n. e.g. 2 = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is unlikely or questionable.

1. A aka = aska = a0ska = wine skin -or- apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine Cf. Linear B apero -or- aresana NM1 a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM1 a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup

HT 2 oo HT 39 ve KH 83 ve MA 10 ve

2. DA dadumata OM = harvesting? -or- grain(s) measured? -or- dadumina/dadumine OM= related to harvesting?

HT 133 gr

3. DI dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup -or- dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)

HT 12 oo HT 14 oo (x2) HT 28 oo (x5) HT 50 oo HT 90 oo HT 116 oo HT 121 oo HT 129 oo

4. E etori NM1 e1tori <- e1toj = for a year?

HT 2 oo HT 21 oo HT 34 gr HT 50 oo HT 58 oo MA 10 (x3)

5. KA kadi MOSE NM1 kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine

HT 28 wi HT 88 ma HT 100 ma

6. KE ?

HT 26 ve (x2)

7. KI kitina NM1 ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj = border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land?

HT 8 oo HT 9 wi HT 16 oo HT 28 oo HT 44 gr HT 50 oo (x2) HT 91 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 116 (x2) HT 125 oo HT 129 oo HT 140 oo? (x2) TY 3 (x3) ZA 18 oo

8. KU?

HT 38 te (x2) HT 61 gr HT 128 gr (x6) PH 31 sh (x7)

9. ME meza NM1 me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj?

TY 3 oo ZA 15 wi

10. MI ? HT 28 oo HT 50 oo HT 58 oo HT 90 oo HT 91 oo (x2) HT 100 oo HT 101 oo HT 116 oo (x2) HT 125 oo HT 137 oo TY 3 oo (x5)

11. NE nea NM1 ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new -or- nere OM = larger amphora size (fem. plural)

HT 23 oo HT 32 oo (x2) HT 100 oo

12. PA pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi OM = millet -or- spelt -or- pa3qe -or- qepa3 i.e. paiqe -or- qepai (+ ideogram for wheat”) LIG = a kind of grain similar to wheat

HT 43 gr HT 93 gr (x2) HT 120 gr (x3) HT 125 oo HT 128 gr KH 27 gr PE 1 (x2) TY 3 oo ZA 6 gr (x3) ZA 11 (x5) ZA 18 gr ZA 28 gr

13. QE qera2u/qera2wa OM = a type of grain, probably millet or spelt (inflected) -or-

qeria OM = probably millet or spelt

HT 16 gr HT 28 gr HT 36 gr HT 99 gr HT 101 gr HT 121 oo ZA 11 gr

14. RA ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- NM1 r9anatusu < – r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify

rani NM1 r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise -or- ratise (ritise?) NM1 = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.)

HT 44 oo KH 31 ve KH 91 ve ZA 6 wi (x2) ZA 15

15. RI rima NM1 lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts (dative/instrumental plural)

HT 23 oo HT 35 oo HT 60 oo KH 82 oo

16. RU ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff?

KH 12 ve (x2) KH 63 ve KH 83 ve KH 84 ve KH 85 ve KH 91 ve

17. SA sato PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement?

HT 27 gr (x2) wi HT 144 wi HT 131 wi ZA 15 wi

18. SI sika NM1 shka/ (arch. acc.) <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen?

HT 27 wi PH 31 pi PH 31 sh ZA 9 sh (x3)

19. SU supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) OM =small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo

-or- supi/supu/supu2 OM = largest size pithos -or- MOSE NM1 supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal

20. MA? 10 ve ZA 5 wi

TA taikama OM tai + NM1 ka/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre? -or- ta2re/ta2reki NM1 sta=rei<- stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei -or- tai2si (taisi) NM1 stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.)

HT 28 oo (x2) HT 35 oo KH 19 oo KH 39 KH 55 oo KH 61 oo KH 85 oo

21. TE = teresa OM = liquid unit of measurement

HT 6 fi HT 13 wi HT 17 wi HT 19 wi HT 21 gr HT 40 gr HT 44 gr HT 51 fi HT 62 wi HT 67 fi HT 70 fi HT 96 fi HT 133 gr TH 6 te TH Zb 11 wi

22. TI tisa OM = pottery worker/working on pottery/pottery wheel (tourney)?

KH 10 ve

23. TU ?

HT 23 oo HT 28 oo HT 50 oo HT 101 oo TY 3 oo

24. U uro NM1 ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total ?

HT 2 oo HT 21 oo HT 28 oo HT 40 00 (x3) HT 43 oo HT 58 oo HT 91 oo HT 96 oo HT 100 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 125 oo HT 140 oo (x8) TY 3 oo

25. WA HT 27 wi (x2)

26. WI winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado -or- winu NM1 #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj -or- winumatari NM1 #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative)

27. KH 5 wi


My article, Lexicon of Chariot Construction in Mycenaean Linear B, has been accepted in advance by the international historical journal, Epohi/Epochs:

Epohi Epochs historical journal

I shall be submitting it to the editor-in-chief, Stefan Iordanov of the Faculty of History of St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo (hence forward referred to as UVT), Bulgaria. The editorial board consists of highly prestigious researchers:

Executive Editor:

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Editor-in-Chief:

Ivan Tyutyundjiev, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Deputy Editors in Chief:

Plamen Pavlov, Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Editors:

Acad. Vasil Gyuzelev, Prof., Dr. Hab., Member of the Bulgarian Academy of science and President of the Association of Byzantinists and Medievalists in Bulgaria

Demetrios Gonis, Dr. Hab., Professor Emeritus of University of Athens (Greece)

Mirosław Jerzy Leszka, Prof., Dr. Hab., University of Lodz (Poland)

Tatyana Leontyeva, Prof., Dr. Hab., State University of Tver (Russia)

Milko Palangurski, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Petko Petkov, Проф. д-р Петко Петков, St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Rumen Yankov, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Mariya Ivanova, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Dan Dana, Chargé de recherche de 1ère classe, Ph.D., Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique – Paris (France)

Issue editors:

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D.

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D.


 

Another Linear A tablet bites the dust… Troullos TL Za 1… horsemanship and hunting:

Troullos tablet TL Za 1

This tablet or nodule completely eluded me for over 2 years. Then tonight, all of sudden, its meaning literally burst wide open. The first hint came when I began to decipher the obvious Linear words, all of which happen to be Mycenaean-derived New Minoan NM1. The most obvious word, which stands out like a sore thumb, is WAJA = #ai/a in Mycenaean-derived Greek, in other words land. The rest of the Mycenaean-derived words were more difficult to extract from the agglutinated text, since in an agglutinative language such as Minoan, words which would otherwise be separate in a fusional or inflected language, such as ancient or modern Greek or German, are simply strung together in long strings. So it is difficult to know where one word ends and another begins … but far from impossible. Because so many words on this tablet are agglutinated, it presents a particularly challenging target for decipherment. But decipher it I did, as you can see below.

If we break apart the agglutinated words, meanings start to surface. For instance, ATAI*301 appears to mean 0astai= from oastei=a, meaning of the town, community.

Moving on, we have QARE0 = ba/lei ba/loj = at the threshold (locative singular). For the time being, I do not know what OSU, which is almost certainly Old Minoan, means but I am confident I shall soon figure it out. If we then decipher the first 2 agglutinated words ATA*301WAJA. OSUQARE, we get something along these lines (OSU being omitted for the time being), on the … threshold of community of town, i.e. on the … outskirts of the community or town

The the next two agglutinated words are UNAKANASI. UNA is Old Minoan. KANASI is instrumental plural Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) for ka/nnasi (instr. plural) = made of reeds, i.e. wicker. This almost certainly refers to the chariot itself, which like almost all Mycenaean chariots, is probably made of wicker, as illustrated below. If my hunch is correct, given that KANASI means made of wicker, then UNA must necessarily mean chariot, hence a chariot made of wicker. Remember: UNAKANASI is a composite agglutination of 2 words, first Old Minoan (UNA) and the second Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) = KANASI.

Troullos tablet original with Mycenaean horse and chariot and modern horse halter

IPINAMASIRUTE is another agglutination, this time consisting of 3 words, all of them Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1). The tablet or nodule above provides us with the full translation, which in its actual order reads, with horsemanship + running + (towards) prey. In other words, we have a charioteer, whose name is JASASARAME, clearly a highly skilled charioteer and hunter, whose ridership or horsemanship allows him to run towards his prey, and at a fast pace at that, given that NAMA always refers to something flowing fast, usually a stream, but in this context, clearly horses, 2 of them, of course, since Mycenaean chariots always have two horses.

So the free translation runs along these lines, and very well indeed,

Jasasarame, the hunter-charioteer, in his chariot made of wicker, is exercising his (considerable) ridership skills, by running at break-neck speed (or: running by a stream) towards the wild prey he is hunting on the outskirts of his town (community).

This decipherment, which is almost entirely in Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) hangs together admirably well. It is a major breakthrough in the ongoing saga of the decipherment of Linear A. It is also buttressed by the fact that the tablet or nodule actually looks like a horses halter. While the word halter appears, at least at first sight, not to figure in the text, this is of little consequence. The tablet itself makes it quite clear enough that here we have two horses (always two with Mycenaean chariots) and that a well-heeled, and most likely aristocratic or warrior-class charioteer, Jasasarame, is at the reins.

I rest my case.


Translation of Linear B tablet Knossos KN 346 J a 04 by Rita Roberts:

Linear B tablet KN 346 J a 04 Rita Roberts

 


Astonishing commentary on my Exhaustive Linear A lexicon, comparing my achievements to those of Albert Einstein!

In the past week since I first uploaded my Exhaustive Linear A Lexicon, it has received 410 hits, i.e. downloads, as of 5:00 pm., Monday 7 August 2017. This amounts to almost 60 downloads a day. To download it, click below. You will then be taken to the next page, where you simply click the green DOWNLOAD button.

Exhausitve Linear Lexicon Richard Vallance Janke academia.edu

The lexicon has catapulted me from the top 5% to the top 0.1% of academia.edu users.
 
Comments and commendations have been pouring in. Unquestionably, the most astonishing is this one:

Linear A research by Richard Vallance Janke related to Albert Einstein and Coliln Renfrew

Other comments include:

wonderful topic... 

Inspired by your new perspective on one of the most studied cultures in the world.

Yes when you see their artifacts and the technology needed to create such items is amazing... Thanks for the reply and keep up the great work 

e=mc2




T. Farkas’ brilliant decipherment of Linear B tablet KN 894 Nv 01:

Knossos tablet KN 984 Nv 01

Linear B transliteration

Line 1. ateretea peterewa temidwe -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

Line 2. kakiya -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair 1. kakodeta -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for pair or set tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

Line 3. kidapa temidweta -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair 41 tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

line 4. odatuweta erika -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair 40 to 89 tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

Translation (my knowlege of Greek grammar is not sufficient at present to write out proper sentences [NOTE 1] but I have looked up and know the Greek equivalents for the Linear B words which I will write here.)

Line 1. Pair/set of inlaid/unfinished? elmwood chariot wheel rims

Οn your blog you have translated ateretea as “inlaid” from the Greek ἀιτh=ρeς. I found these words ατελείωτος , ατελεις … that means “unfinished” Do you think that could work? Either way I get that ateretea is an adjective that describes the wheel rims [2].

α)τερεδέα/ατελείωτος πτελεFάς τερμιδFέντα ζευγάρι a1ρμοτα, (sorry for the mishmash Greek [3]).

Line 2. 1 Copper [4] set or pair of wheel fasteners , bronze set or pair of wheel fasteners

I looked around the net and some say copper was used as a band or even as a tire and as leather tire fasteners on bronze age chariot wheels.

Since the deta on kakodeta refers to bindings perhaps this line is refering to sets of types of fasteners of both copper and bronze for wheels? (hubs, linch pins, nails, etc…) [Richard, YES!]

χαλκίος ζευγάρι α1ρμοτα, χαλκοδέτα ζευγάρι α1ρμοτα

Line 3. 41 Sets or pairs of “kidapa” chariot wheel rims

Looked around the net didn’t find and words to match kidapa…I did take note that you think ― like L.R. Palmer ― that it means ash-wood.

κιδάπα τερμιδFέντα ζευγἀρι α1ρμοτα

Line 4. 40 to 89 ? sets of toothed/grooved willow-wood chariot wheels.

Ive looked at many diagrams and pictures of chariot wheels… but none that I could find were clear enough to really understand what might be meant by toothed [5]… Ι even watched a documentary where an Egyptian chariot is built. It is called building Pharaoh’s Chariot. Perhaps one day I’ll happen upon some chariot wheels somewhere and finally understand what is meant.

ο0δατFέντα ε0λικα ζευγἀρι α1ρμοτα 40 -89 ?

Comments by our moderator, Richard Vallance Janke:

This is absolutely brilliant work! I am astounded! 100 % hands down. This is one of the most difficult Linear A tablets to decipher. I too take kidapa to mean ash wood, as it is a tough wood. It is also probably Minoan, since it begins with ki, a common Minoan prefix:

kida/kidi 
kidapa OM = ash wood? (a type of wood) Appears only on Linear B tablet KN 894 N v 01
kidaro MOSC NM1 kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro
kidata OM = to be accepted or delivered? (of crops) Cf. Linear B dekesato de/catoj
kidini
kidiora

See my Comprehensive Linear A lexicon for further details I imagine you have already downloaded the Lexicon, given that at least 16 % of Linear A is Mycenaean-derived Greek. This decipherment alone of an extremely difficult Linear B tablet entitles you to a secondary school graduation diploma, which I shall draw up and send to you by mid-August.

Specific notes:

[1] Thalassa Farkas declares that … my knowlege of Greek grammar is not sufficient at present to write out proper sentences… , but the actual point is that it is not really possible to write out Greek sentences in Mycenaean Greek, in view of the fact that sentences are almost never used on Linear B tablets, given that these are inventories. Grammar is not characteristic of inventories, ancient or modern. So it is up to us as decipherers to reconstruct the putative “sentences which might be derived from each of the tabular lines in an inventory. So long as the sentences and the ultimate paragraph(s) make sense, all is well.

[2] wheel rims is an acceptable reading.

[3] This is hardly mishmash Greek. It is in fact archaic Greek, and archaic Greek in the Mycenaean dialect, absolutely appropriate in the context.

[4] In Line 2, kakiya (genitive singular of kako) might mean copper, but is much more likely to mean “(made of) bronze” (gen. sing.), given that copper is a brittle metal, more likely to shatter under stress than is bronze. Copper tires would simply not hold up. Neither would pure bronze ones. Either would have to be re-inforced, and in this case by kidapa = ash-wood. That is the clincher, and that is why the word kidapa appears on this tablet.

[5] In Line 5, temidweta does not mean with teeth, but the exact opposite, with grooves” or “with notches. After all, if we invert teeth in 3 dimensions, so that they are inside out, we end up with grooves. This can be seen in the following illustration of a Mycenaean chariot in the Tiryns fresco of women (warrior) charioteers:

Tiryns fresco women charioteers

On the other hand, scythes, which are after all similar to teeth, were commonplace on ancient chariots, including Egyptian, a nice little clever addition to help cut or chop up your enemies. Still, it is unlikely that Mycenaean chariots would be reinforced by scythes, in view of the fact that there are far too many of them even on fresco above. That is why I take temidweta to mean indentations” or “notches”. But temidweta could refer to “studs”, which like notches, are small, even though they stick out.

Richard

 

 


New interpretation of Linear A tablet HT 7 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A tablet HT 7 Haghia Triada

 

A few months ago, I tentatively deciphered Linear A tablet New interpretation of Linear A tablet HT 7 (Haghia Triada), but when I look back on that decipherment now, I find it implausible. So I have re-interpreted here in light of new data I have acquired since then. As the tablet is inscribed mostly in Old Minoan, it is rather difficult to make complete sense of it. However, the two Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) terms offer us a clue. These are iruja = a priestess and tanati, which appears to be dative singular for “death”. However, although iruja is nominative singular, it is followed by the number 3, which would seem to indicate that there are 3 priestesses. And the Minoan plural of a is e, hence iruje. The only explanation I can find for this discrepancy is that the 3 priestesses are operating independently, one by one, each one making at least 1 offering, while 1 priestess makes 2, for a total of 4. But this translation, which is rather convoluted, remains in doubt because I cannot verify with any real certainty the meanings of the Old Minoan words. However, it does manage to hold together. Perhaps someday in the future, we shall unearth more Linear A tablets, which will provide us with insight into the significance of the Old Minoan vocabulary.


New interpretation of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros):

Linear A tablet ZA 20 HM 1636 Zakros

This new interpretation of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) varies only slightly from my original one. I interpret the syllabogram on line 0 (the indecipherable line) as being NI, since the bottom of NI is a vertical line. And figs often figure prominently in Linear A tablets. The actual reading of the text is not quite clear, since there are at least 2 damaged syllabograms following MI on line 1. It is impossible to determine with any accuracy what the actual units of measurement are for anything on this tablet, although of course the units of chaff from wheat would have to be considerably less than the total units of wheat. So 1 unit + 6 units of wheat probably refers to something like bushels (a mere approximation), from which we would not get all that much chaff… which may explain the presence of the container, supposedly containing 3 smallish units of chaff. But why would anyone want to place chaff in a container? So we see problems with the decipherment.


Linear A tablet HT 38 (Haghia Triada) with 2 supersyllabograms, dealing with wine:

Linear A tablet TA HT 38 Linear A

This intriguing tablet apparently deals with containers for wine, ranging from a type of vase (daropa) to a wine-skin (aka) to cloth, which appears to have been treated to be water-proof. Since the ideogram for pig appears immediately to the left of aka, we can surmise that the wine-skin is made of pigs hide. The notion that cloth containers could have been water-proofed is somewhat in doubt, but the overall decipherment of HT 38 appears sound enough.

 


Linear A haiku, violets parallel to violets for Kaniami, from her father, in Linear A, archaic Greek, English and French:

As can clearly be seen from the original inscription on this exquisitely crafted golden pin from the A.Y. Nikolaos Museum, Crete, the text of the haiku closely follows the original:

Linear A golden pin Zf 1 Ayios Nikolaos Museum

 


Just uploaded to academia.edu = Exhaustive Linear A lexicon of 1030 New Minoan and Old Minoan words, with extensive sectional commentaries.pdf 


exhaustive linear a lexicon of 1030 Minoan words with extensive sectional commentaries


What with its 1030 entries of New Minoan (NM1), Pre-Greek substratum and Old Minoan terms, this is the most exhaustive Linear A Lexicon ever published in history, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s (at 774 intact words) by 226, with the emphasis squarely on intact exograms (words). Every possible origin of Linear A words is investigated, with extensive sectional commentaries. This lexicon, 65 pp. long, includes 4 appendices and a bibliography of 108 items. 

You will not want to miss out on reading this paper, representing one of the most significant historical breakthroughs in the decipherment of the Linear syllabary. If you are a member of academia.edu, please download it, and read it at your leisure. If you are not already a member of academia.edu, you can sign up for free, and then download it.

My recent research into (Minoan) Linear A has meant that I have been catapulted from the top 5 % to the top 0.1 % of users on academia.edu in the past three weeks, here:

Richard Vallance profile academia.edu




Silver pin from Mavro Spelio: A.Y. Nikolaos Museum PL Zf 1:

Minoan Linear APL Zf1 silver pin Nikolaus Museum

 

This silver pin, PL Zf 1, from Mavro Spelio, now housed in the A.Y. Nikolaos Museum, Crete, bears an inscription which may read dextrograde (left-to-right) or sinistrograde (right-to-left), but either way the text reads the same way. The inscription is a mixture of Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) and Old Minoan. The words Tanunikina (nom. fem. sing.) and Ninuni (dat. sing.) are almost certainly eponyms, with the former acting in some way as an agent of healing to the latter. Apart from the eponyms, the Old Minoan text is indecipherable. But that does not mean we cannot catch the drift of the inscription, because we can. It certainly makes sense that Tanunikina, despite her best efforts to spin or weave a magic spell, cannot heal Ninuna. We can infer that Tanunikina is a healer priestess. Such personages were extremely common in the ancient world, and certainly in Minoan Crete and on the Mycenaean mainland, with this practice surviving into archaic and classical Greece. She may even be an oracle, such as we find at Delphi much later on in ancient Greek history. If she is an oracle, she probably worked from a Minoan peak sanctuary.   




Linear A haiku: the saffron goddess, her crimson dress adorned with ivy:

Minoan Linear A haiku sea sarai the saffron goddess

In this haiku, all of the words except sarai = “flax or saffron” (the latter in this context) are Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1). The onomatopoeia of the 3 phrases rolls off the tongue. Not only is her dress adorned with ivy, apparently she is as well.


							

Linear A haiku: a fawn living in the fields

linear a haiku deer in the fields

This haiku is entirely in Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1), except for the word kasaru, which is Old Minoan, and apparently means surviving (drought), at least from context on the tablet on which it appears (Haghia Triada HT 10). I have transcribed it into ancient Greek so that it fits with the rest of the haiku.

 

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