Tag Archive: modern English

Now on academia.edu. Verb paradigms in Hittite infinitives present past imperative participles substantives

here (click on the image):

I have been learning Hittie for the past 5 months and I have fully mastered the language. Hittie is the first ever Indo-European language, from which Minoan Linear A, Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek, Latin and all modern Occidental languages are derived.

Here is list of Verb paradigms in Hittite infinitives present past imperative participles substantives:

Common verbs classified:	+ Linear A (LA=) + Linear B (LB=) + Greek (gr=) & Latin (la=) (where applicable) + English + français


es = to be = la = essere = to be = English = is = français = être/es/est LB = eesi = they are  gr = ei0mi
essa/issa = to realize, do 
tahr? to be able to 
tarna = to let, allow; to abandon; to leave; to forgive; to let, put (a spoon in a liquid) 
huinu = to cause
asas/ases = to sit  = English = sit = français = s'asseoir LA = ase/asi =  to sit, to settle, to put into
ki/kikki = to lie down gr = kei=mai
aniya = to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) 
samn?i = to create, bring up, raise = English = to assemble = français = assembler

ad/ed = to eat + azzikk = to eat again + hassik/ispai = to eat until full = English = edible
eku = to drink	
akkusk = to drink a lot

life & death:

ak/ek/akkisk = to die 
armaniya/irmaliya = to fall ill = English = harm
dassanu = to make strong 
has = to open; to give birth (for a woman); to testify (for a man) 
huis/huisw?i = to live, to stay alive 
haddules = to recover
maliskunu = to weaken = English = malaise = français = mal, malade, malaise
ses/suppariya = to sleep, to fall asleep = English = supine 
teshaniya = to sleep, dream 


uh/usk//sakuwai = to see
usk = to see often
istamas = to hear = English = to listen gr = i3sthmi = to stand


dariyanu = to call 
halz?i = to call, name + halzessa = to call , to name; to read  = English = hail 
lamniya = to name; to call; to order; to assign, appoint
mem?i = to talk, say; to announce = la = memoria = memory English = memory = français = mémoire
talliya = to call, invite; to implore 
te/tar (2 infinitives) = to speak
tarsik = to talk again, proclaim 
tarsikk = to say/speak/talk several times
tekkus(sa)nu = to indicate; to show; to accuse = English = accuse = français = accuser gr = dei/knumi
tekuss?i = to appear, show  
s?kiya = to declare gr = fa/skw
tarkumm?i = to announce, report 
watarnah = to order; to entrust; to inculcate; to command, lead; to ask; to inform 
punus = to ask, to examine 
uesk = to implore = English = ask 
wek = to wish, ask, demand, claim = English = wish/ask LB = eukoto = he wishes
wewakk(iya) = to ask again LB = eukoto = he wishes


hatrai = to write = English = write LA = jatikutu = to write?
handai = to add = English = hand/handle 
kupawi/kappuwar = to count = English = cut = français = couper
sak/sek = to know = English = to seek
annanu= to teach, educate
ishiullah = to teach 
lazziya = to rectify, set straight LA = kireza?
siy?i = to open (by pushing), push; to stamp, flatten; ? to draw; ? to seal; to cover with a seal = English = to seal gr = shmai/nw = to signify, mark, seal


uwa = to come
?nna = to drive; to receive; to come, hurry
pai = to go gr = bai/nw = to go
arr?sa p?war = to go 
d?la/d?liya = to leave = English = dally
tiya = to move forward
watkunu = to drive away, to dismiss 
huwai(huya) = to run, to flee = English = flee = français = fuir 
pars = to run, to flee = français = partir = je pars 
piddai  = to run, hasten, flee + to pay = English = pittance LA = daipita =  to lay, put, sit, pay
as  = to stay, to come to stay
sakuwantariya = to stop, rest 
zenna/zinna = to end, finish; to settle, put an end to; to demolish 
husk = to wait
istand?i = to remain, stay; to hesitate, wait, tarry = English = stand gr = i3sthmi = to stand
ispart = to escape = la = evanescere = to disappear English = escape = français = disparaître
kark = to disappear 
sanna = to conceal, hide 
maus = to fall 
waktu = to jump
wahnu/weh = to turn
up = to rise (the sun) = English = up 


dai/te/ti/tai = to put
tittanu = to put, set. awan arha t. : to remove, withdraw
tittiya = to put, set out 
ep = to grab
iya = to do
hark(iya) = to hold, to have + to collapse LA = apieke LB = oka +  LB = ekee= to have + ekei = he has + ekonsi = they have
d? = to take; to take as possession; ? to take for oneself + to decide in favor of s.o. 
huitiya = to pull
hamenk= to attach, to link; to marry
tarm?i = to attach, fix 
karp = to lift
w?k = to bite, bite off = English = to whack
duwarn?i = to break 
parsiya = to break LA = parosu
la = to detach
mark = to cut, distribute = English = mark LA = makarite, almost definite!
tuhs/tuhhus  = to cut; to separate (a girl from her lover) 
mat/maz/mazas = to support = français = mettre
sarkuwai = to tighten
wesuriya = to squeeze
maninkuwah/maninkues = to shorten
wete= to build + wetenu = to have sth. built, reinforced, fortified  Linear B = wete = he works gr = e1rgon = work
sarlai = to raise = la = sublevare = to raise = français = soulever
taks/takkes/taggas = to gather; to implement, undertake; ? to found, buildLB = akere = to collect + LB = apeeke  = to let go gr = ta/cij = arranging, putting in place, order, arrangement etc.
zikk = to put several times
has/hes = to open
siy?i = to open (by pushing), push; to stamp, flatten; ? to draw; ? to seal; to cover with a seal =  la = consignare = to seal = English = to seal gr = shmai/nw = to signify, mark, seal
hatk = to close 
istap = to close; to block = la = subsistere = to stand = English = stop gr = i3sthmi = to stand
less?i = to pick up = français = laisser
karsanu = to omit 
kanes = to point out; to obtain, get; to find out, realize; to acknowledge, accept LB = dekasato = to be accepted
harp?i = to pile, to heap = English = heap  
sarnink = to replace
was/wes = to buy/to dress + wessiya = to dress

arnu = to bring, to send; to address 
uwate = to bring
uda = to bring; to cause (distress) LB = pere = to bring
piya = to send
uppa = to send 
piyanna = to give = English = pay = français = payer
ussaniya = to give, sell 
piyan?i = to reward, give a present = la = dependere = to pay = English = pay = français = payer
maniyahh = to give back
pesk = to give several times
dask = to take several times LB = dosei = he gives
wemiya = to find
sah/sahn = to search
n?i/ne = to guide, lead; to turn sth.
nann? = to drive, shove, push  
pehute = to supply
assanu/asnu =  to prepare/obtain = la = assignare = to assign = English = assign (absolutely the same word!) 
newah = to renew = la = novus = newb= English = new/renew  gr = ne/oj = new
pahs = to protect
pahsanu = to ensure; to guarantee, protect; to strenghten, reinforce 
hap (Mid.) = to succeed 
wek = to require = la = egere = call for = English = require LB = weke = to work gr= e1rgon
handalliya = to dare, risk 
mal?i = to approve 
markiya = to disagree 

agriculture & vessels/pottery:

ahu(w?i) =  to pour; to empty (a container) = English = wash LA = ra2sa (raisa?)/rua?/rujami?
+ lahu(w?i) = to pour; to empty (a container) LA = ra2sa (raisa?)/rua?/rujami?
ishuw?i = to pour + ishuwann?i = la = effusus = pouring rain = to pour out = English = wash
less?i = to pick up LB = resi?
suhha = to pour
suppiyahh = to clean
parkunu = to cleanse; to excuse = la = purus = clean
arra = to wash français = arrosser =to water
hat = to dry = English = hot
salliya = to melt (away), dissolve = la = (dis)solvi = to dissolve = English = dissolve
m?i = to grow, blossom; to prosper + mid. miyari =  he/she is born
makkes = to become many, grow =  la = maximus = the greatest = English = maximum/maximize = français =  maximum
salles = to grow, increase = la = salio = to spring, to jump, to leap LA =  sareju?
parkiya = to raise, grow; to remove; to flatter 
maknu = to multiply, increase, pile up = = la = maximus = the greatest =  English = maximum/maximize = français =  maximum
mes (Mid.) =  to grow, prosper = la = maxime = the most (adv.) = English = most
uliliya = to grow, blossom  
ul?i = to unite, blend
zanu/zeya = to cook 
sallanu = to make larger; to stretch; to raise, bring up = la = salio = to spring, to jump, to leap
dankues = to get dark = la = obscurus = dark = English = dark LA = dakusene
luk =  to light; to set ablaze + middle = to brighten, get light = English = light
maiszasti = to glow, shine = la = micare = to glitter
teth?i = to thunder = = la = (in)tonare = to thunder = English = to thunder
war/+warnu (set on fire) = to burn = English = warm
wars = to wipe off, slip off; to pluck, harvest = English = wash
wesiya/wisiya = to graze (trans.) 


tamas = to squeeze; to press; to attack, pester, force = English = pester
dammesh?i = to damage, strike, punish = English = to damage = français = endommager
dannattah = to devastate, ravage = = la = damno = to condemn, sentence, punish = English = to damage 
tarh(za) = to defeat, submit, conquer (with -za) 
harni(n)k = to destroy
hull?i/hulliya = to fight = to topple (a decree) 
hullanz?in = to give battle 
harr/kuskus  = to crush = la = fungere = to crush = English = crush
kakkur = to cut, maim = la = caedere = to cut = English = cut gr = ko/ptw
t?ya = to rob, steal; to abduct 
s?ruw?i = to plunder 
ispar = to spread; to cover; to crush, tread on = la = dissipare = to disperse =  English = disperse = français = disperser, éparpiller gr = spei/rw = to sow, scatter, spread
ninik= to mobilize
hatkesnu = to bother, disturb; to attack, plague, press; to add 
h?ni(n)k = to injure, to damage, to hurt = = English = hurt
wen = to harm 
hurna = to hunt  
hatukes = to worsen 
kuen = to strike, kill = la = caedere = to kill = English = kill gr = a0poktei/nw
walh = to strike; to attack
zah = to strike
zahhiya = to fight
walhann?i = to hit, beat 
hazziknu = to beat, hit, strike; to fight s.o. 
hazziya = to push, stab, strike
pessiya = to throw, push, project; to dismiss, reject, abolish = English = push/press = français = presser
hatt?i = to put to death; to cut off  = English = hit
hariya = to bury 
taksul?i = to be friendly, peaceful, tolerate each other; to sign a treaty 
hassuw?i/hassuizn?i = to govern as king 


dusk = to rejoice, be happy 
m?g?i = to complain = la = mugire = to rumble, groan
ilaliya = to desire, envy 
nah = to fear
uwai = to worry = English = worry
wiya = to lament/wesk = iterative of wiya
sa= to be angry
waggariya = to be indignant, rebel = English = to wag indignant


ha = to believe
walla/wallu = to glorify, praise; to pride oneself on sth. 
ariya = to study an oracle, ask an oracle =la =oraculum = oracle = Eng= oracle = fr = oracle
azzikk = to adore (all the time)
assiya = to love 
hahhars = to laugh = English = haha
parkus/parkues = to become pure = = la = parcere = to spare, economize = English = pure = français = pur gr = kaqaro/j = pure + kaqai/rw = to purify
warressa = to hasten to help = English = hasten
hanna = to judge, decide
has = to open; to give birth (for a woman); to testify (for a man) 
tuwadd = to have mercy, pity  
hanti tiya = to accuse 
wasta = to sin = English = waste
idalawes = to become evil = la = idolon = a spectre = English = idol/idolize = français =  idole/idolizer
idalawahh = to behave badly = la = idolon = a spectre = English = idol/idolize = français =  idole/idolizer
huwap = to do evil 
huek = to swear  (under oath) + to throw down = English = heck/heckle
sull?i/sulliya = to argue, quarrel; to scold, rebuke = English = sully
zammur?i = to offend, insult 
h?wart?- : to swear, curse 
link = to swear
mald= to vow, swear
wars/warsiya = to calm down (intrans.)

Conjugations follow

35 pp. 

Proto-Greek or Mycenaean kiritai = barley on Minoan Linear A tablet HT 114 (Haghia Triada):

Like many other Linear A tablets, HT 114 (Haghia Triada) does not appear to be inscribed only in the Minoan language. The proto-Greek or, more accurately, the Mycenaean word, kirita2 (kiritai), which means barley and which is almost exactly equivalent to Linear B, kirita, meaning the very same thing, appears on the very first line of this tablet. The only difference is that the Linear A word, kiritai, is plural, whereas the Linear B, kirita, is singular, as we can see here:

Minoan Linear A tablet HT 114 Haghia Triade

While the rest of HT 114 is inscribed in Minoan, the appearance of this one Mycenaean word gives pause. Was Linear A the syllabary of proto-Greek or of Mycenaean Greek just before the advent of the new official syllabary, Linear B? The fact is that it was not. However, this does not mean that there was not proto-Greek or Mycenaean vocabulary on Linear A tablets. How can this be, when the language itself is not proto-Greek?

The phenomenon of the superimposition of a superstratum of vocabulary from a source language (Mycenaean in the case of Linear A) onto a target language (Minoan), is historically not unique to the Minoan language. A strikingly similar event occurred in English with the conquest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066 AD. Before that date, the only English was Anglo-Saxon. This is what is called Old English. But after conquest of England in 1066 AD, over 10,000 Norman French words streamed into the language between 1100 and 1450 AD, altering the landscape of English vocabulary almost beyond recognition. In fact, believe it or not, only 26 % of English vocabulary is Germanic versus 29 % is French, 29 % Latin and 6 % Greek. So the latter 3 languages, amounting to 64 % of the entire English lexicon, have completely overshadowed the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Germanic vocabulary, as illustrated in this Figure:

origins of English vocabulary

This phenomenon is unique to English alone among all of the Germanic languages. While the grammar and syntax of English is Germanic, the great majority of its vocabulary is not. A strikingly similar event appears to have occurred when the Mycenaeans conquered Knossos, is dependencies and Crete ca. 1500 – 1450 BCE. Just as the Norman French superstratum has imposed itself on Old English, giving rise to Middle and Modern English, Mycenaean Greek operated in much the same fashion when it superimposed itself on Old Minoan, leading to New Minoan vocabulary, which is proto-Greek or Mycenaean. I have already isolated no fewer than 150 proto-Greek or Mycenaean words out of 510 intact words (by my own arbitrary count) in the Linear A lexicon. Again, while the Minoan language itself is not proto-Greek in its grammar and syntax, but is of another, to date still unknown, origin, a large portion of its vocabulary is not Old Minoan, but instead proto-Greek or Mycenaean, as I shall demonstrate in no uncertain terms in my decipherments of numerous Linear A tablets to follow this one. One striking feature of New Minoan is this: the percentage of proto-Greek or Mycenaean vocabulary in Linear B comes to 29 %, precisely the same level as Norman French in English. Although this is sheer co-incidence, it is quite intriguing.

Why anachronistic translations of Homer's Iliad scare people off, Versus my modern translation of the Iliad, Book II, “The Catalogue of Ships”, lines 581-604

Here is my translation: Click to ENLARGE:

Iliad 2 The Catalogue of Ships  Lines 581-604
& here is the 1924 translation, which is even worse than the one of the previous post (lines 546-580). I have underlined the grossest anachronisms. Click to ENLARGE:

Iliad 2 581-604 Translation 1924


Some Really Fine Twenty-First Century Translations of Homer's Iliad

Be as it may, it is up to us in the early twenty-first century to rectify this pitiable state of affairs.

Here is at least one downloadable modern translation of the Iliad which really flies:

Homer Book I intro
You can download this translation in .PDF, Mobi, Epub, WORD or HTML here:

Homer - The Iliad - A new downloadable translation
Fortunately, there have been many truly fine translators of the Here are a few telling reviews of some of the best contemporary translations: click to READ

New Yorker

Library Thing
Take your choice.


My translation of  Homer. Iliad, Book II, “The Catalogue of Ships”, Lines 546-580 in Modern English: Click to ENLARGE

Iliad 2 546-580
Compare my translation in twenty-first century English with that of A.T. Murray 90 years ago (1924): Click to ENLARGE:

Iliad Catalogue of Ships 546 + 1924 
and you can instantly see the glaring discrepancies in the English of these two completely alien translations. Murray's translation from 1924 sounds uncannily like something Alexander Pope might have dryly penned in the eighteenth century! There really was no excuse for this, even in 1924, when people spoke an English very little removed from that we speak today. We can be pretty sure that the poor school children who were obliged to read the Iliad and Odyssey in that translation would probably not want to have anything more to do with either masterpiece for the rest of their lives. And who could have blamed them? But the Georgian mores of that era, still grudgingly hanging on in spite of the roaring twenties, prevailed, and to this day, far too many readers, young and old alike, end up in the ghastly grips of translations such as that one. God forbid! The most galling thing about it all is that The Perseus Digital Library


should know better. They have such a wealth of choice from modern translations, which they could easily have availed themselves of.

In the next post, we will be recommending some quality twenty-first century translations of the Iliad.



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