Tag Archive: Linear A


maps of the Hittite Empire 1450 BCE & 1200 BCE


maps of the Hittite Empire 1450 BCE & 1200 BCE










BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY


BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY:

In order to decipher Linear A, you need to know Hittite. With the kind assistance of Alexandre Solcà, who knows Hittite very well, I am finally learning the language. How exciting! Here you see my preliminary vocabulary of Hittite. 

ACT = action/AGR = agricultural/ANI = animal, bird etc./AST = astronomy/CLI = climate/COL = colour etc./COM = commerce/FOO = food etc./FUR = furniture etc./GEO = geographic/MIL = military/MUN = municipal/PER = personal/REL = religion/ROY = royalty/SCR = scribal/TEX = textiles/VES = pottery,vessels

ais = mouth PER
akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
antu- (n) : property  AGR
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
arunas = sea GEO
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI ACT
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
TÚGadupli- (n) : garment, dress TEX
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL

E:

ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
ekuna = cold (Akk ka?û)  CLI
ekunima- (c) : the cold CLI
eshar = blood PER
eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
es = to be MI ACT

H:

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
halkis = cereal AGR
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
halukannis = chariot MIL
handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
happar- (n) : trade  COM
happiriya- : town (id URU) MUN 
hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
hark = to hold, to have MI ACT
harki- : white, clear  COL
harnaus = chair FUR
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
GIŠhassalli- (n) : stool (id GIŠGÌRGUB) FUR
haster- : star (id MUL) AST
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
hatrai = to write MI SCR
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR.MIL
heus = rain CLI
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL

I,Y:

UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ishas = lord ROY
ispant- (c) : night AST
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
istamas = to hear MI PER
iya = to do MI ACT

G,K:

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
karuilis = old PER
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
kessaras = hand PER
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) MIL
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN

L:

LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lami = to detach HI? ACT
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
GIŠluttant- : window MUN
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL

M:

malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
mehur = time Cf. English “hour”, français “heure” etc. AST
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR

N:

nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
nekut- (c) : evening AST 
nepis = sky AST
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL

B,P:

pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
pai = to go MI ACT
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
parn = house, nominative = pir + pir : house (§89a; id É-ir) MUN
pattar (n) : wing ANI
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
punus = to ask MI ACT

S:

sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
sarnink = to replace MI ACT
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL

D,T:

dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
dankui- : black; dark (id GE6) AST/MIL
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
te = to speak MI ACT
tekan earth AGR
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL

U:

udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English) ACT
uwate = to bring MI ACT

W:

wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wemiya = to find MI ACT
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR
wetant- : year (id MU) AST
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

Z:

zahhais = battle MIL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

April 22 2020

PRIMARY BY CATEGORY: * = major category

AGR = agricultural *

akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
antu- (n) : property  AGR
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halkis = cereal AGR
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
tekan earth AGR
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR

ANI = animal, bird etc.

hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
pattar (n) : wing ANI
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI

FOO = food etc.

aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

MIL = military *

alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halukannis = chariot MIL
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer vassal(French) MIL
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
zahhais = battle MIL
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

PER = personal *

ais = mouth PER
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
eshar = blood PER
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
istamas = to hear MI PER
kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
karuilis = old PER
kessaras = hand PER
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL

REL = religion *

alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL

ROY = royalty *

eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY

SCR = scribal

handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
hatrai = to write MI SCR
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR

VES = pottery,vessels DUG logogram for vessels *

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES



summer haiku – the saffron goddess = la déesse du safran

séa saraí
sápa punikása
adakísika *

* The Linear A text of this haiku is absolutely beautiful! Read it for yourself.  Just let the words flow off your tongue, with the stress on the syllables marked with an acute accent. The ancient Minoan language was spoken from around 1,700 – 1,500 BCE. My colleague, Alexandre Solcà and I are in the process of deciphering it. The script it is written in, which appears first in the haiku/haiga above, is called a syllabary, in which each “syllable” consists of a consonant + a vowel, as opposed to an alphabet, in which we find both single consonants and vowels. We believe it is proto-Greek, the immediate predecessor of ancient Greek.



the saffron goddess
her crimson dress
adorned with ivy

la déesse du safran
sa robe cramoisie embellie
de lierre

Richard Vallance


The top of Minoan Linear A Tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) restored on academia.edu

Click on the link below to read this key contribution to research into Minoan Linear A tablets:





Minoan Linear A tablets appear to be classed in two primary areas of interest (a) agriculture, and more specifically, crops and grains and (b) religious and sacerdotal. It is to the former that we turn our attention in this study. Focusing on certain Linear A tablets which deal primarily or almost exclusively with grains, we find that these three tablets yield the most promising results, Haghia Triada tablets HT 86 & 95 and Zakros tablet ZA 20. While HT 86 and HT 95 are intact, ZA 20 is not. Other Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada also contribute to our findings.





Is it possible to envision an intact version of the original ZA 20 tablet from Zakros? We believe so, and with that firmly in mind we have attempted the first ever restoration of the top of ZA 20, resulting in what amounts to a plausible intact version, however hypothetical, of the original.  So without further ado, we present the full restoration of our version of Linear A tablet ZA 20.






Restoration the full text of the badly damaged Linear A tablet from Gournia:




Here we see my restoration of the full text of the badly damaged Linear A tablet from Gournia, which includes line 0. at the top and line 4. at the bottom. This is just a personal interpretation, which may stray from the actual text of the original tablet... but we cannot really know this. Note that the RECTO (front side) and the VERSO (reverse side) are reversed. If you horizontally flip the VERSO it fits correctly into the RECTO. So this means that we have to read the text on the RECTO from left to right (dextrograde) and on the VERSO from right to left (sinistrograde). The reconstruction certainly makes sense. It was hard work, but worth it and fun! 


severely damaged Linear A fragment from Gournia:





To the best of my ability, I have attempted to read the syllabograms and ideograms on the severely damaged Linear A fragment from Gournia, but it is so badly damaged that it is hard to tell if I have interpreted all the signs well enough. At any rate, the interpretations I have attempted hang together.





							

Restoration of the top of Minoan Linear Tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) REVISED:

Since the last post on my original restoration of the top of Minoan Linear Tablet ZA 20 (Zakros), I have reconsidered the hypothetical text, and I have come up with this more plausible restoration:

Linear A tablet ZA 20 Zakros top restored

The running decipherment reads as follows:

1. a field
2. of 20 bales of einkorn wheat
3. and 20 bales of emmer wheat
4. and 65 bales of barley
5. all measured by bales
6. 4 bales of MI ?? ZA (unknown) + 1 bale with wheat
7. and 12 bales of wheat with 2 spin-offs of chaff from the wheat 
8. totals for all the above = 130

This restoration is the basis of an article on it soon to be published on academia.edu. I shall keep you posted. 


Richard Janke’s conjectural restoration of the missing top of Linear A tablet ZA 20:

Since the top of Linear A tablet ZA 20 is missing, I boldly took it upon myself to restore the top of this tablet. My restoration is of course conjectural, but I am quite sure it is something like what the original must have looked like, because line 6 mentions sitetu and line 7 situ. These are variants on the same Linear A word, situ, which just so happens to look a great deal like the Linear B word sito, which means “wheat”. SO it is natural to suppose that in fact situ and sitetu also mean “wheat” in Linear A.  

linear-a-tablet-za-20-zakros-restored

Here is the decipherment of the entire Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakrs), including the restored lines 1.-7.

1. kireta2 11 = 11 units (probably bales) of barley
2. dideru 42 = 42 bales of einkorn wheat
3. dideru 30 qerie 22 = 30 bales of einkorn wheat (2) and 22 bales of another type of grain (3)
4. qerie 6 = 6 bales of grain type (3)
5. ro? + direza- = (dide)ro [left truncated] = einkorn wheat = didero + direza = a unit of measurement
6. se + mi? +ru? 4 sitetu 1 = “se” is the last syllabogram, i.e. syllable of the word direza+se, which implies the word is inflected.
7. situ 6 te*123 12 rumitase 2 = 6 bales of wheat + 12 bales or units of te*123 (unknown) 2 units of chaff  
8. kura 120 = kura = TOTAL of all items listed in lines 1.-7.

No one has ever attempted to decipher even the extant bottom portion of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) before, let alone to restore the missing lines in the missing top portion of this tablet.


summer haiku in Minoan Linear A, ancient Greek, English and French: 

haiku in Linear A wine mother earth

Originally written in 2017, and reposted here... 


NEW on academia.edu. High Correlation Linear A-Linear B vocabulary, grammar and orthography in Linear A, by Richard Vallance Janke and Alexandre Solcà:

CLICK HERE:

High Correlation Linear A Linear B on academia.edu

ABSTRACT:
Over the past 118 years since the discovery of the first Linear A tablets at Knossos, innumerable attempts have been made to decipher Linear A, all of them falling short of expectations in academia, or being outright abject failures. We propose a multi-pronged approach to the decipherment of the Mycenaean-derived superstrate in Linear A, otherwise known as New Minoan (NM), with the implicit understanding that we, like all other researchers past and present, are not in a position to decipher the Minoan substrate language, a.k.a. Old Minoan (OM), onto which Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) vocabulary is grafted. The primary thrust of this monograph is to demonstrate the high correlation which obtains only between Mycenaean-derived Linear A and Linear B vocabulary, a.k.a. New Minoan (NM) in Linear A, between the grammar and orthography in Linear A and Linear B and between their syllabaries. To this end we have adopted a multi-pronged approach, which consists of the following methodologies: (a) the establishment of high correlation between Mycenaean-derived Linear A and Linear B vocabulary, wherever applicable (b) the confirmation of high correlation between the Linear A and Linear B syllabaries (c) demonstration of high correlation between the orthography of Mycenaean-derived Linear A terms and their Linear B counterparts and (d) corroborating evidence of the possible derivation of much of Mycenaean, archaic and Homeric Greek grammar from foundational archaic Minoan declensions. 

Keywords: syllabary, Linear A, substrate, Linear B, superstrate, correlation, high correlation, derivation, derivative analysis, vocabulary, orthography, syllabaries, grammar, archaic Greek, Homeric Greek

This monograph, High Correlation Linear A-Linear B vocabulary, grammar and orthography in Linear A, by Richard Vallance Janke and Alexandre Solcà, is the largest study into the genesis of a Mycenaean-derived superstrate in Linear A ever undertaken by these authors. This is merely the draft paper, and as such it has yet to be approved for final publication by the editorial board of Les Éditions KONOSO Press. Since this is a draft paper only, we urgently request that any and all visitors to View Comments apprise us of any and all errors, whether orthographic, grammatical or syntactical. We have already proof-read this monograph at least 150 times, but before it can be approved or is approved for final publication by Les Éditions KONOSO Press, it must be absolutely free of errors of any kind. So if you spot any errors whatsoever, please let us know at once. We of course welcome any and all comments, observations and criticisms on this major new and entirely revolutionary study into the possible/probable existence of a Mycenaean-derived superstrate in Linear A. We realize that a great many critics will object to our hypothesis, some of them vociferously. But all we ask is that you keep an open mind, whoever you may be, with our thanks in advance.

Also, please be sure to go straight to this astonishing new study on academia.edu, by clicking on the graphical link at the outset of this post. Please do bookmark it, and if you are a member of academia.edu, please recommend it to other researchers. And if you already know Linear B, read all of it, because you will be astounded to discover how great is the overlap between Mycenaean-derived Greek in Linear A and Mycenaean Greek in Linear B. Trust me.

Thank you

Richard Vallance Janke and Alexandre Solcà



on academia.edu. Old Minoan lexicon and geographical researches Lexicon for sites other than Haghia Triada, by Alexandre Solcà, primary author, and Richard Vallance Janke:

Click on the link below to visit:

Old Minoan Lexicon



Linear A, examples of writing, reposted from Mnamon, Ancient Writing Systems in the Mediterranean:

Click on the image below to visit this post:

Mnamon examples of writing Linear A

This post on Linear A tablets and roundels from Mnamon is amazing! You really have to see it for yourself. The graphics quality is astounding, and the explanations of the tablets are clear and precise.


new Linear A nodule, on the brim of a cup or tripod + a spice cup:

cretan_linear_a_tablet_greece_minoan_aegean_bronze_age_1600bc

As the graphics above make it clear enough, this decipherment is pretty straightforward, much to my relief, considering how so many Linear A inscriptions are such tough nuts to crack.


Linear A nodule on weighing emmer wheat with 3 supersyllabograms:

cretan_linear_a_tablet_nodule_minoan_aegean

This rare Linear A nodule is of particular interest because it contains 3 supersyllabograms, JE SE & U. I am unable to decipher JE and SE, but U appears to be the first syllabogram, actually a vowel, i.e. the first syllable of the word it represents, which in this case would appear to be the Mycenaean-derived word, udoro = u3droj = a water flask. But this interpretation may not make sense in the context of weighing KUNI(SU) or emmer wheat, unless a certain standardized amount of water in a water flask were poised at the other end of the scale measuring the emmer wheat. This is surely open to speculation.


WIKIMEDIA COMMONS: 5 major articles by Richard Vallance Janke,  Spyros Bakas and Rita Roberts

In a major new development in the international dissemination of 5 papers by Spyros Bakas, Rita Roberts and Richard Vallance Janke, the following 5 articles are now universally available on WIKIMEDIA COMMONS, with 47,480,622 files:

Wikimedia Commons

 
These articles are:
CLICK on each logo to download each article:

1. Vallance Janke, Richard. “An Archaeologist’s Translation of Pylos Tablet TA  641-1952 (Ventris) with an Introduction to Supersyllabograms in the Vessels & Pottery Sector in Mycenaean Linear B”, Archaeology and Science (Belgrade). Vol. 11 (2015) ISSN 1452-7448. pp. 73-108


Wikimedia commons Pylos tablet PY641-1952620
2. Vallance Janke, Richard. “The Decipherment of Supersyllabograms in Linear B”, Archaeology and Science (Belgrade). Vol. 11 (2015) ISSN 1452-7448. pp. 73-108 

Wikimedia commons decipherment of supersyllabograms620
3. Vallance Janke, Richard. “The Mycenaean Linear B  “Rosetta Stone” for Linear A Tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) Vessels and Pottery”, Archaeology and Science (Belgrade). Vol. 12 (2016) ISSN 1452-7448. pp. 75-98  

Wikimedia commons Mycenaean Rosetta Stone for Linear A620
4. Vallance Janke, Richard and Bakas, Spyros. “Linear B Lexicon for the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots”, Epohi/Epochs. Vol. XXIV (2017), Issue 2. pp. 299-315 

Wikimedia commons Linear B Lexicon for the construction of Mycenaean chariots
5. Roberts, Rita & Janke, Richard Vallance, consulting editor.
The Minoan and Mycenaean Agricultural Trade and Trade Routes in the Mycenaean Empire

Wikimedia commons Minoan and Mycenaean620


The appearance of these articles on WIKIMEDIA COMMONS greatly enhances their international profile. 

Richard Vallance Janke
June 19 2018

Now on academia.edu Guidelines for submissions to KONOSO Press:

Click on the logo below to go to Guidelines for submissions to KONOSO Press. If you wish to DOWNLOAD the document, simply click on the green DOWNLOAD button on the right side of the page.

submissionsguidelinesacademia.edu


Linear A fragment HT 55 (Haghia Triada) RECTO: wool and silk dress of a priestess:

linear-a-fragment-ht-55-recto1

The RECTO of this fragment probably deals with wool and silk textiles. The word KIRO, which appears to mean “box” or “chest”, may imply that there is a silken garment trimmed with wool in a chest. But there is no way to substantiate this as this is a fragment, and so the words do not necessarily string together in any way which makes any real sense. The fragment may imply that a Minoan priestess is wearing a dress of silk trimmed with wool (hence the instrumental singular for wool), which has been recently stored in or is still stored in a chest to retain its freshness. Notice in the modern recreation photo on the left that the trim on the woman’s dress appears to be of wool. Perhaps she is a priestess of one of the peak sanctuaries. This makes sense, as there were many peak sanctuaries in Minoan Crete. Post revised courtesy of Jean-Philippe Gingras.

Minoan Linear A seal, ZOTE, possibly a belt or girdle (of gold?)

Minoan seal crete ZOTE girdle belt

This Linear A Minoan seal is incised with the syllabograms ZO + TE, which form the word ZOTE, apparently equivalent to ancient Greek zwsth/r = belt or girdle. If this is the meaning we can take from the seal, it is likely the belt was gold, as per the fresco of the cup bearers in the South Portico, Knossos.


Cretan hieroglyphics on a four-sided seal/nodule may reveal signs of early Linear A:

Cretan hieroglyphics DINA NIMA AWADI AWAMA

 


The word WANAKA = King, which apparently adorns this Royal Seal from Malia (Click to view this seal on the Minoan Language Blog:


Hieroglyphic inscription WANAKA Malia seal

The seal has been deciphered as it stands here by Andras Zeke of the Minoan Language Blog.

It quite looks like the term WANAKA = King appears on this Royal Seal form Malia. I have flagged what appear to be the syllabograms WA NA and KA on this seal. Of course, the reading is definitely open to interpretations other than this one. And yet, the meaning seems to suit the context well enough. If this reading is correct, then this sealing is one of the earliest attestations of the Linear B syllabary in existence. If correct, it is also the very first reading ever in the history of Linear A and of Linear B of the Linear A-B term for king, i.e. WANAKA, #a/nac.

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