Tag Archive: languages



summer haiku d'été – multilingual haiku = haïku multilingues





English

haiku
pond
reflection

français

haïku 
l'étang
reflet

Haitian Creole

haiku
letan
refleksyon

italiano

haiku
laghetto
riflessione

Corsican

haiku
stagnu
riflessione

español

haiku
estanque
reflexión

Catalan

haiku
estany
reflexió

românesc 

haiku
lac
reflecţie

Indonesian

haiku
kolam
refleksi

Filipino

haiku
pond
pagmuni-muni

Malay

haiku
kolam
renungan

Welsh

haiku
pwll
myfyrio

Gaelic

haiku
lòn
meòrachadh

Deutsch

Haiku
Teich
Betrachtung

in de Nederlandse 

haiku
vijver
reflectie

Afrikaans

haiku
dam
besinning

Czech

haiku
rybník
odraz

Croation

haiku
jezero
odraz

Swedish

haiku
damm
reflexion

Norwegian

haiku
dam
refleksjon

Albanian

haiku
pellg
reflektim

Finnish

haiku
lampi
heijastus

Basque

hiku
putzua
hausnarketa

Turkish

haiku
gölet
yansţma

Somali

haiku
balli
milicsiga

Swahili

haiku
bwawa
tafakari

ancient languages

Latin

haiku
piscina
imago

Etruscan

haiku
huin 
zeri 

Hittite

haiku
luli
lalukima

Richard Vallance

© by/ par Richard Vaallace 2020

photo public domain/ domaine public Pixabay


I especially love the English, French, Italian, Romanian, Somali, Latin, Etruscan & Hittite versions. Anyone else want to let me know what your favourites are?  

BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY


BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY:

In order to decipher Linear A, you need to know Hittite. With the kind assistance of Alexandre Solcà, who knows Hittite very well, I am finally learning the language. How exciting! Here you see my preliminary vocabulary of Hittite. 

ACT = action/AGR = agricultural/ANI = animal, bird etc./AST = astronomy/CLI = climate/COL = colour etc./COM = commerce/FOO = food etc./FUR = furniture etc./GEO = geographic/MIL = military/MUN = municipal/PER = personal/REL = religion/ROY = royalty/SCR = scribal/TEX = textiles/VES = pottery,vessels

ais = mouth PER
akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
antu- (n) : property  AGR
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
arunas = sea GEO
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI ACT
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
TÚGadupli- (n) : garment, dress TEX
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL

E:

ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
ekuna = cold (Akk ka?û)  CLI
ekunima- (c) : the cold CLI
eshar = blood PER
eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
es = to be MI ACT

H:

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
halkis = cereal AGR
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
halukannis = chariot MIL
handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
happar- (n) : trade  COM
happiriya- : town (id URU) MUN 
hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
hark = to hold, to have MI ACT
harki- : white, clear  COL
harnaus = chair FUR
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
GIŠhassalli- (n) : stool (id GIŠGÌRGUB) FUR
haster- : star (id MUL) AST
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
hatrai = to write MI SCR
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR.MIL
heus = rain CLI
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL

I,Y:

UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ishas = lord ROY
ispant- (c) : night AST
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
istamas = to hear MI PER
iya = to do MI ACT

G,K:

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
karuilis = old PER
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
kessaras = hand PER
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) MIL
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN

L:

LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lami = to detach HI? ACT
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
GIŠluttant- : window MUN
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL

M:

malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
mehur = time Cf. English “hour”, français “heure” etc. AST
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR

N:

nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
nekut- (c) : evening AST 
nepis = sky AST
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL

B,P:

pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
pai = to go MI ACT
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
parn = house, nominative = pir + pir : house (§89a; id É-ir) MUN
pattar (n) : wing ANI
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
punus = to ask MI ACT

S:

sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
sarnink = to replace MI ACT
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL

D,T:

dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
dankui- : black; dark (id GE6) AST/MIL
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
te = to speak MI ACT
tekan earth AGR
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL

U:

udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English) ACT
uwate = to bring MI ACT

W:

wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wemiya = to find MI ACT
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR
wetant- : year (id MU) AST
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

Z:

zahhais = battle MIL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

April 22 2020

PRIMARY BY CATEGORY: * = major category

AGR = agricultural *

akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
antu- (n) : property  AGR
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halkis = cereal AGR
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
tekan earth AGR
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR

ANI = animal, bird etc.

hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
pattar (n) : wing ANI
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI

FOO = food etc.

aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

MIL = military *

alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halukannis = chariot MIL
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer vassal(French) MIL
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
zahhais = battle MIL
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

PER = personal *

ais = mouth PER
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
eshar = blood PER
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
istamas = to hear MI PER
kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
karuilis = old PER
kessaras = hand PER
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL

REL = religion *

alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL

ROY = royalty *

eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY

SCR = scribal

handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
hatrai = to write MI SCR
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR

VES = pottery,vessels DUG logogram for vessels *

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES



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THE MYCENAEAN LINEAR B “ROSETTA STONE” TO MINOAN LINEAR Tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) Vessels and Pottery

Richard Vallance

has just been uploaded to my academia.edu account, here:

Mycenaean Rossetta Stone for Linear A tablet HT 31

To DOWNLOAD it, click on the DOWNLOAD button on the top right hand side of the page.

ABSTRACT

In partnership with The Association of Historical Studies, Koryvantes (Athens), we address past and current prospects for the decipherment of the Minoan language, which has never met with any credible success in the 117 years since the ?rst discovery of Minoan Linear A tablets by Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos in 1900. A considerable number of philologists and historical linguists, some of them amateurs, claim to have deciphered the Minoan language, yet no one has ever formulated a convincing decipherment. We advance a unique and entirely untested approach to unravelling the text of Minoan Linear A tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada), based on the principle of cross-correlative retrogressive extrapolation (CCRE) from Mycenaean Linear B to Linear A. HT 31 so closely parallels Mycenaean Linear B tablet, Pylos Py TA 641-1952 (Ventris) that the latter effectively serves as a kind of “Rosetta Stone” for the former. There is also credible evidence that a Mycenaean derived superstratum imposed itself on Linear A as the result of the Mycenaean conquest of Knossos and Crete ca. 1500 – 1450 BCE or, failing that, their all but absolute suzerainty over Knossos and its dependencies. Approximately 300 or 26 % of 1166 intact words in Linear A are very likely of Mycenaean origin.

Can quantum computers assist us in the potentially swift decipherment of ancient languages, including Minoan Linear A?

d-wave-natural-languages-hypotheses

quantum-computing-applictions-cryptographya

No-one knows as yet, but the potential practical application of the decryption or decipherment of ancient languages, including Minoan Linear A, may at last be in reach. Quantum computers can assist us with such decipherments much much swifter than standard digital supercomputers.

austronesian-phylogenetic-tree-b-l

austronsian-sphylogenetic-tree-zoom-in

Here are just a few examples of the potential application of quantum computers to the decipherment of apparently related words in Minoan Linear A:

dide
didi
dija
dije
dusi
dusima
ida
idamete
japa
japadi
japaku
jari
jaria
jarinu
kireta2 (kiretai) *
kiretana *
kuro *
kuru
kuruku
maru (cf. Mycenaean mari/mare = “wool” ...  may actually be proto-Greek
maruku = made of wool? 
namikua
namikudua
paja
pajai (probably a diminutive, as I have already tentatively deciphered a few Minoan Linear A words terminating in “ai”, all of which are diminutives.  
qapaja
qapajanai
raki
rakii
rakisi
sati
sato
sii
siisi
taki
taku
takui
etc.

All of these examples, with the exception of  * kireta2 (kiretai), kiretana & kuro *, each of which I have (tentatively) deciphered, are drawn from Prof. John G. Youngers Linear A Reverse Lexicon:

linear-a-reverse-lexicon

It is to be noted that I myself have been unable to decipher manually on my own any of the related terms above, with the exception of the 3 words I have just mentioned.  The decipherment of kuro = “total” is 100 % accurate. I would like to add in passing that I have managed to (at least tentatively) decipher 107 Minoan Linear A words, about 21 % of the entire known lexicon. But everyone anywhere in the world will have to wait until 2018 to see the results of my thorough-going and strictly scientific research until the publication of my article on the partial decipherment of Minoan Linear A in Vol. 12 (2016) of Archaeology and Science (Belgrade), actually to be released in early 2018. But if you would like to get at least a very limited idea of what my eventual decipherment is all about, you can in the meantime consult this preview on my academia.edu account here:

preview-of-mycenaean-linear-b-tablet-rosetta-stone-for-minoan-linear-a-haghia-triada-ht-31

CRITICAL Links to KEY PERSEUS/Tufts ancient Greek pages for persons knowledgeable in ancient Greek:

1. Homer, Iliad, Book II, The Catalogue of Ships:

homer-book-ii-catalogue-of-ships-introduction

If you are wondering why I have deliberately zeroed in on Book II, the Catalogue of Ships of Homers Iliad, as I am sure you are, wonder no more. Only Book  II alone, the Catalogue of Ships of Homers Iliad, can provide us with sufficient examples of Homeric grammar with distinctly Mycenaean characteristics, from which we can thereby retrogressively extrapolate numerous examples of grammatical forms in many of the major categories of Homeric Greek to their putative, and in fact, actual, Mycenaean ancestral roots.
 

2. Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox, Overview of Greek Syntax:

rydberg-page

is a superb source for the study of ancient Greek grammar. The link is parsed into the major sub-categories of ancient Greek grammar, i.e. nouns, verbs, participles etc. etc., and is thus an extremely valuable and highly practical source for ancient Greek grammar, all but eliminating the necessity of having to buy a hard-copy or e-book publication on ancient Greek grammar. In short, it is a perfectly sound source for ancient Greek grammar aficionados.


Mycenaean Linear B Progressive Grammar: Derived (D) Verbs/Infinitives in D = 12:

In this post we find 12 derived (D) infinitives in natural Mycenaean Greek.

Here is the table of attested thematic and athematic infinitives starting with the Greek letter D in Mycenaean Greek:

d-derived-infinitives-620

The 4 sentences after the 12 verbs in D make it absolutely clear that we are dealing with natural Mycenaean Greek as it was actually spoken. It is also highly likely that official documents, poetry (if any) and religious texts were written in natural Mycenaean Greek on papyrus. However, the moist climate of Crete and the Greek mainland meant that papyrus, unlike in the arid climate of Egypt, was doomed to rot away. So we shall never really know whether or not there were documents in natural Mycenaean Greek. But my educated hunch is that there were.

Thematic Verbs:

Active Voice:

These are the so-called standard verbs, which are by far the most common in all ancient Greek dialects. Thematic verbs are sub-classed into three voices, active, middle and passive.

Middle Voice:

The middle voice is unique to ancient Greek, and is self-referential, by which we mean the subject acts upon him- or herself or of his or her own volition. The middle voice also includes reflexive verbs. I am posting the first person singular of verbs in the middle voice, as it is far more common than the infinitive.

Athematic Verbs:

Athematic verbs are far less common than thematic, but they are the most ancient of ancient Greek verbs. They have already appeared completely intact by the time Mycenaean Greek has entrenched itself. The Mycenaean conjugations of athematic verbs are very similar, and in some cases identical to, their conjugations in much later Ionic and Attic Greek, and must therefore be considered the root and stem of the same class of verbs in later classical Greek. The fact that athematic verbs were already fully developed by the era of Mycenaean Greek is a strong indicator that the Mycenaean dialect is not proto-Greek, but the first fully operative ancient East Greek dialect. We shall demonstrate over and over that Mycenaean Greek was the primordial fully functional East Greek dialect which was to be adopted and adapted by the later East Greek dialects (Ionic and Attic among others). I am posting the first person singular of athematic verbs, as it is far more common than the infinitive.

The reconstruction of natural language Mycenaean grammar by means of the methodology of progressive grammar is to be the subject of my fourth article in the prestigious international journal, Archaeology and Science, Vol. 13 (2017). The concept of progressive grammar is actually quite easy to grasp. It merely designates the reconstruction of natural, as opposed to inventorial, Mycenaean Greek grammar from the ground up. By the time I have finished with this project, I shall have reconstructed a huge cross-section of natural Mycenaean grammar, approaching the grammar of later East Greek dialects in its comprehensiveness.

NOTES:
[1]There are two (2) verbs in the middle voice under D. These are dekomai and dunamai.
[2] There are no athematic MI verbs under D.
[3]In the natural Mycenaean Greek language, the nominative masculine plural always ends in oi, e.g. tosoi. This is in contrast to the formalized, fossilized Greek of Linear B inventories, which very rarely give any words in the nominative masculine plural. Instead, the extant Linear B tablets simply give the words in the singular, e.g. toso.
[4]In the natural Mycenaean Greek language, the nominative feminine plural always ends in ai, e.g. heketai (which is actually a masculine noun with feminine endings). This is in contrast to the formalized, fossilized Greek of Linear B inventories, which very rarely give any words in the nominative masculine plural. Instead, the extant Linear B tablets simply give the words in the singular, e.g. heketa.

There are exceptions to attested plurals on the tablets. The nominative masculine plural of teo (god) is teoi, exactly as it appears in natural Mycenaean Greek. This is because the word teo is not a word found in inventories, but rather in religious texts, mimicking the natural language. It is the template upon which the nominative masculine plural of all words in natural Mycenaean Greek is formed.  

The total number of natural Mycenaean Greek derived (D) infinitives we have posted so far = 24 A + 12 D for a TOTAL of 36. I shall indicate the running total as we proceed through the alphabet.


The so-called (invalid) relationship between the markings on the Neolithic Dispilio tablet and some of the syllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B:

dispilio linear B

The Dispilio tablet is a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings, unearthed during George Hourmouziadis's excavations of Dispilio in Greece and carbon 14-dated to 7300 ± 40 BP or 5260 ± 40 BC. [1] It was discovered in 1993 in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island [2] near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in Kastoria, Greece. 

Source: Wikipedia: Dispilio Tablet

wikipedia dispilio

Almost all the markings (Are they even writing?) on the Neolithic Dispilio Tablet (at least 5,200 years old) cannot conceivably be correlated with either the Minoan Linear A syllabary (some 3,200 years later) and the Mycenaean Linear B syllabary (some 3,500 years later). Even the markings on the Dispilio tablet which look remarkably like syllabograms in either Minoan Linear A and Mycenaean Linear B are almost certainly an accidental quirk. I simply cannot take seriously the so-called “correlations” the author of this bizarre tablets leaps upon. His imagination is clearly overactive, while his faculty of reasoning is sadly under-developed. Unfortunately, such so-called “correlations” between tablets in remotely ancient so-called “languages” and much later syllabaries which are the writing scripts of actual languages such as Minoan and Mycenaean Greek  recurs much too often with all to many “researchers” who indulge in such clearly illogical leaps of the imagination. I have marked with an X in BOLD all such clearly invalid correlations. I might just as well have marked every last one of the markings on the Dispilio tablet with an X in BOLD, for that matter. All such correlations are merely accidental. No professional researcher would ever be caught making such outrageous assumptions.

I shall demonstrate this sort of “cracked” reasoning made by certain “researchers” with other remotely ancient “languages” over and over. Of course, there are exceptions to such poor correlations. Some markings on some tablets in much more ancient “languages” (imagined or real) than Minoan Linear A or Mycenaean Linear B may conceivably be cross-correlated, at least to some extent, though never fully.  


NEWS RELEASE! Just a few of the KEY Twitter Accounts following us: Click our banner to view our Twitter account:

Twitter KONOSO Knossos

Note that the number of Twitter accounts following us has grown from about 500 at the beginning of 2014 to just short of 800 now, growing at a rate of 10-20 new followers per month.  

As of December 2014, we have the honour and privilege of being followed by some of the more significant, indeed some of the most important Twitter accounts. Of these, perhaps the most impressive is none other than The British Museum, with 428,000 followers: Click on its banner to visit their Twitter (also Click on all of the other Twitter accounts below to do the same): Click here:

Twitter The British Museum
You will perhaps have noticed that The British Museum follows fewer than 10 % of the Twitter accounts who follow them; so it is particularly telling that they decided to follow us.

Here are some more Twitter accounts of direct relevance to ours, starting with linguistics:

Twitter Babel
Once again, Babel follows just over 10 % of those who follow them. They stood up and noticed us.

And here we have just of few of the scores of Twitter accounts relevant to ours following us:

Twitter language crawler

Twitter logos ancient Greek

Twitter Erik Welo University of Oslo
Twitter Orestes Agamemnon

who by the way lives in Mycenae.

Twitter Greek+Latin Grammar


Twitter Archaeology & Arts

Twitter Philosophical Gree
And here are just two of the most popular MEDIA and Promotional accounts on Twitter now following us (some of them with 100s of thousands of followers):

Twitter Terri Bauman

Twitter Kigray memoe! 2014 R2l

Richard


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