Tag Archive: historical linguistics



Bachelor of Arts, Linguistics, conferred on Rita Roberts May 7 2020






CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN HITTITE: Present and Preterite (past tense) 

Conjugation:

Present active:
MI:					HI: uncommon

sing.					Sing.
1 mi					1 hi (/hhi/ahhi)
2 si					       2 ti						
3 zi					      3 i
pl.					pl. MI = HI
1 weni//wani/ueni		1 weni
2 teni					2 teni
3 anzi					3 anzi

PRESENT:

es = to be MI
1 esmi
2 essi
3 eszi
1 esuwani
...
3 asanzi

ses = to sleep MI
1 sesmi
2 ...
3 seszi
1 sesueni
2 ...
3 sesanzi

ed = to eat MI
1 edmi
2 ezzassi 
3 ezzazzi/ezzai
1 eduwani
2 ezzatteni
3 adanzi

kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) 
1 kuemi
2 kuesi
3 kuenzi
1 kuennummeni
2 kuenatteni
3 kunanzi

hark = to hold, to have MI 
1 harmi (k dropped before consonant)
2 harsi/harti (k dropped before consonant)
3 harzi (k dropped before consonant)
1 harweni/harwani (k dropped before consonant)
2 harteni (k dropped before consonant)
3 harkzani

istamas = to hear MI
1 istamasmi
2 istamassi (istamasti/istamaszi) 
3 istamaszi
1 istamasteni
2 ...
3 istamassanzi

punus = to ask MI
1 punusmi
2 ...
3 punuszi
1 punussueni
2 ...
3 punussanzi

uwate = to bring MI
1 uwatemi
2 uwatesi
3 uwatezzi
1 uwateweni (uwatewani
2 uwatetteni (uwatettani)
3 uwadanzi

lami = to detach HI?
1 lami
2 lasi
3 lai
1 ...
2 ...
3 lanzi

te = to speak MI
1 temi
2 tesi
3 tezzi
1 tarweni (te -> ta in the plural)
2 tarteni
3 taranzi

pai = to go MI
1 paimi
2 paisi (pasi/paitti)
3 paizzi
1 paiweni (paiwani)
2 paitteni (paittani)
3 panzi

hatrai = to write MI
1 hatrami
2 hatrasi
3 hatraizzi
1 hatraweni
2 ...
3 ...

kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper”
1 ...
2 kupuesi
3 kuppuwaizi (kupuezzi)
1 ...
2 kuppuwateni
3 kuppwanzi

handai = to add MI
1 handami
2 handasi
3 handaizzi (hantesa/handai)
1 ...
2 ...
3 handanzi

iya = to do MI
1 iyami (iyammi)
2 iyasi
3 iyazi (iyazzi/iezi)
1 iyaweni (iyawani)
2 iyatteni
3 iyanzi

wemiya = to find MI
1 wemiyami
2 wemiyasi
3 wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi)
1 wemiyaweni
2 ...
3 wemiyanzi

harnink = to destroy HI
1 harrikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 harrikti  (drops n before consonant)
3 harrnikti  (drops n before consonant)
1 ...
2 harnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 harninkanzi

sarnink = to replace MI
1 sarnikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 ...
3 sarnikzi (drops n before consonant)
1 sarninkueni
2 sarnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 sarninkanzi

ninik = to mobilize MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 ninikzi
1 ...
2 ninikteni
3 nininkanzi

akkusk = to drink a lot MI 
1 ...
2 uskusi (uskatti) ask -> usk
3 uskizzi
1 ...
2 uskatteni
3 uskanzi

azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 azzikizzi
1 ...
2 azzikkittani
3 azzikktanzi

arnu = to bring MI
1 arnum(m)i
2 arnusi
3 arnuz(z)i 
1 arnummeni
2 arnutenni
3 arnuwa(n)zi

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI
1 assanumi
2 assanusi/asnusi 
3 assanuz(z)i/asnuzi
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuanzi


PRETERITE:

Preterite active:

MI:					HI:
1 (n)un					1 h(hun)
2 sta					2 (s)ta
3 sta/t					3 s
pl.
1 wen/uen				1 wen MI = HI
2 ten					2 ten
3 er/ir					3 er/ir

es = to be MI

1 esun
2 esta
3 esta
1 esuen
2 esten
3 esir

ses= to sleep MI

1 sesun
2 sesta
3 ...
1 sesuen
2 ...
3 seser

ed = to eat MI

1 edun
2 ... 
3 ezta
1 ...
2 ...
3 eter

kuen = to strike, kill MI

1 kuenun (kuenunun)
2 kuinnesta kue -> kui
3 kuenta
1 kueun (kuinnummen)
2 kuenten
3 kuennir

hark = to hold, to have  MI (Alexandre, please double check this!)

1 harkun
2 ...
3 harta
1 harwen
2 harten  
3 harkir

istamas = to hear MI

1 istamassun
2 ...
3 istamasta
1 ...
2 istamasten
3 istamassir


punus = to ask MI

1 punussun
2 punusta
3 punusta
1 punussuen
2 ...
3 punussir

uwate = to bring MI? 

1 uwatenun
2 uwatet
3 uwatet
1 uwatewen
2 ...
3 uwater

lami = to detach MI?

1 laun
2 lais
3 lait
1 lawen
2 ...
3 ...

te = to speak MI

1 tenun
2 
3 tet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

pai = to go MI

1 paun
2 ...
3 pait/paitta
1 paiwen
2 ....
3 pair

hatrai = to write MI/HI?

1 hatranun 
2 hatraes
3 hatrait/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair

kupawi = to count MI Cf. to count (English), compter (French), contare (Italian)

1 kappuwanun – kup -> kapp
2 kappuit
3 kappuwait/kappuet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

handai = to add MI

1 hatrunun  d -> t (drops n before consonant t)
2 hatraes (drops n before consonant t)
3 hatrai/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair (drops n before consonant t)

iya = to do MI

1 iyanun
2 iyas/iyat
3 iyas/iet
1 iyawen
2 iyatten
3 ier

wemiya = to find MI

1 wemiyanun
2 ...
3 wemiyat/wemit
1 wemiyawen
2 ...
3 wemiyer

harnink = to destroy HI?

1 harinkun
2 harikta (drops n before consonant k)
3 harnikta (drops n before consonant k)
1 ...
2 
3 harninkir

sarnink = to replace

1 sarninkun
2 ...
3 sarnikta
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

akkusk = to drink a lot MI

1 uskinun
2 ...
3 uskit
1 usgawen
2 ...
3 ...

arnu = to bring MI

1 arnunun
2 ...
3 arnut 
1 ...
2 ...
3 arnuir/arnuer

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain

1 assanunun
2 ...
3 assanut
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuir

April 25 2020

DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE


DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE

NOUNS in Hittite: Noun declensions are fragmentary

Declensions: ABL = from, of etc. ALL (directive) = to (direction)

Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM as/is/us
GEN as/iyas
ACC an
DAT/LOC i
INST it/ta
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
NOM es/is
ACC us
GEN an/as
DAT/LOC as
INST it/ta
ABL za/aza

man = antuhsas 
sing.
NOM antuhsas
GEN antuhsas
ACC antuhsan
DAT/LOC antuhsi
ABL antuhsaz
pl.
NOM antuhses
ACC antuhsus
GEN antuhsas
DAT/LOC antuhsas

anna = mother
sing.
NOM annas
GEN annas
ACC annan
DAT/LOC anni
ABL annaz
pl.
NOM annis
ACC annus

aruna = sea
sing.
NOM arunas
GEN arunas
ACC arunan
DAT/LOC aruni
ABL arunaz(za)
pl.
ACC arunus

kessara = hand kess -> kiss
sing.
NOM kessaras
GEN kissaras
ACC kisseran
DAT/LOC kissiri
INST kisserit
ABL kissaraz(a)
pl.
ACC kisserus

isha = lord
sing.
NOM ishas
DAT/LOC ishi/eshe
ALL isha
pl.
NOM ishes
DAT/LOC ishas

halki = cereal
sing.
NOM halkis
GEN halkiyas
ACC halkin
INST halkit
ABL halkiyaza
pl.
NOM halkis
ACC halkius/halkes

tuzzi = army
sing.
NOM tuzzis/tuzziyas
GEN tuzzias
ACC tuzzin
DAT/LOC tuzziya
ABL ... tuzziyaz
pl.
ACC tuzzius

halukanni = chariot
sing.
NOM halukannis
GEN halugannas
ACC halukanin
DAT/LOC haluganni(ya)
INST halukannit
ABL ...haluganniyaz(a)

halhaltumari = cornerstone
sing.
DAT/LOC halhaltumari(ya) 
pl.
NOM halhaltumares
GEN halhaltumariyas 
DAT/LOC halhaltumariyas
ABL halhaltumaraza

huwasi = grindstone
sing.
NOM huwasi
GEN huwasiyas
DAT/LOC huwasi(ya)
ABL huwasiyaz
pl.
NOM huwasi

ispantuzzi = wine barrel
sing.
NOM ispantuzzi
GEN ispantuzziyas
DAT/LOC ispantuzzi
INST ispantuzzit
ABL ispantuzziaz

zahhai = battle
sing.
NOM zahhais
GEN zahhias
ACC zahhain/zahhin
DAT/LOC zahhiya
ABL ... zahhiyaz(a)

lengai = oath
sing.
GEN likiyas/lingayas
ACC lingain
DAT/LOC linkiya/lingai
ABL linkiaza
pl.
NOM lingais
ACC lingaus

zashai = dream
sing.
ACC zashain
DAT/LOC zashiya
INST zashit
ABL ...zashiyaz
pl.
ACC zahsimus

harnau = chair
sing.
NOM harnaus
GEN harnawas
ACC harnaun
DAT/LOC harnawi

wellu = meadow
sing.
NOM wellus
ACC wellun
DAT/LOC welli
ABL welluwaz
pl.
DAT/LOC welluwas

heu = rain
sing.
NOM heus
GEN hewas
ACC heun
INST heawit
pl.
NOM hewes/heyawes
ACC heus

siu = god
NOM siunis/DINGURus
as/iyas
ACC siunin
DAT/LOC siuni
INST siunit 
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
pl.
NOM siwannies
ACC simus
GEN siunan/siunas

uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English)
NOM uttar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC udani
INST uddanit
ABL .. udanaza/undananza
pl.
NOM uddar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC uddanas

memiya = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc.
sing.
NOM memiyas 
GEN memiyanas
ACC memiyan
DAT/LOC memiyani
INST meminit
pl.
ACC memiyanus

eshar = blood
NOM eshar
GEN eshanas
DAT/LOC eshani
INST eshanta
ABL eshanaza/esnaza

watar = water Cf. all sorts of Indo-European languages, especially “water” (English)
NOM watar
GEN witenas
DAT/LOC witeni
INST wetenit
ABL ...wetenaza

pahhuar = fire
NOM pahhuwar
GEN pahhuwenas
DAT/LOC pahhueni
INST pahhuenit
ABL pahhuenaz

mehur = time
NOM mehur
DAT/LOC mehueni

hilammar = gate
Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM hillamar
GEN hillamnas
ACC hillamar
DAT/LOC hillamni
INST it/ta
ABL hillamnaz
ALL hillamna

nepis = sky
sing.
NOM nepis 
GEN nepisas
DAT/LOC nepisi
ABL nepisaz(a)
ALL nepisa

ais = mouth
sing.
NOM ais
GEN issas
DAT/LOC issi
INST issit
ABL issaz

isgaruh = container, vessel
sing.
NOM isqaruh/iskarih 
DAT/LOC hi
INST isqaruit

arkamma = tribute
sing.
NOM arkammas
GEN arkammanaas
ACC arkamman
pl.
ACC arkammus

muri(yan) = grapefruit
sing.
NOM mures
INST murinit
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
ACC muriyanus

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc.
sing.
NOM SA(ideogram)+ir
GEN kardiyas
DAT/LOC kardi
INST kardit
ABL kartaz
ALL karta

parn = house
sing.
NOM pir
GEN parnas
DAT/LOC parni
ABL parnaza
ALL parna (almost never attested)




Adjectives: salli = big 
sing.
NOM sallis
GEN sallas/sallaiyas
ACC sallin
DAT/LOC sallai
ABL ...sallayaz
ALL a
pl.
NOM sallaes
ACC sallaus/sallius
DAT/LOC sallayas

suppi = pure
NOM suppis
GEN suppayas
DAT/LOC suppai/suppi/suppa/suppaya
INST suppit
ABL suppayaza
pl.
NOM suppaes/suppis 
ACC suppaus
DAT/LOC suppayas/suppiyas
ABL suppayaza

karuili = old
sing.
NOM karuilis
GEN karuilias
ACC karuilun
ABL karuililes/karuiliyas
pl.
NOM  karuiles/ karuiliyas
GEN  karuila
DAT/LOC  karuiliyas

assu = good
sing.
NOM assus
GEN assawas
ACC assun
DAT/LOC assawi
INST assawet
ABL ... assawaza
pl.
NOM assawes
ACC assamus
DAT/LOC
INST assawet

parku = high
sing.
NOM parkus
GEN parkuwas 
ACC parkun
DAT/LOC pargawe 
ABL pargawaz
pl.
NOM pargawes/pargaus
ACC pargamus/pargaus
DAT/LOC pargawas


April 26 2020


Richard Vallance Janke now has 500 followers on academia.edu:

academiaedu500

 

Would you like to follow him too? Just click FOLLOW.

Thanks

Richard


THE MYCENAEAN LINEAR B “ROSETTA STONE” TO MINOAN LINEAR Tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) Vessels and Pottery

Richard Vallance

has just been uploaded to my academia.edu account, here:

Mycenaean Rossetta Stone for Linear A tablet HT 31

To DOWNLOAD it, click on the DOWNLOAD button on the top right hand side of the page.

ABSTRACT

In partnership with The Association of Historical Studies, Koryvantes (Athens), we address past and current prospects for the decipherment of the Minoan language, which has never met with any credible success in the 117 years since the ?rst discovery of Minoan Linear A tablets by Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos in 1900. A considerable number of philologists and historical linguists, some of them amateurs, claim to have deciphered the Minoan language, yet no one has ever formulated a convincing decipherment. We advance a unique and entirely untested approach to unravelling the text of Minoan Linear A tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada), based on the principle of cross-correlative retrogressive extrapolation (CCRE) from Mycenaean Linear B to Linear A. HT 31 so closely parallels Mycenaean Linear B tablet, Pylos Py TA 641-1952 (Ventris) that the latter effectively serves as a kind of “Rosetta Stone” for the former. There is also credible evidence that a Mycenaean derived superstratum imposed itself on Linear A as the result of the Mycenaean conquest of Knossos and Crete ca. 1500 – 1450 BCE or, failing that, their all but absolute suzerainty over Knossos and its dependencies. Approximately 300 or 26 % of 1166 intact words in Linear A are very likely of Mycenaean origin.

Article, Linear B Lexicon for the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots just published on academia.edu:

Click on the TITLE to view and download the article:

aEpochs title

just uploaded to my academia.edu account at the link above. To download it, click the green DOWNLOAD button on the right side of the document.

Illustrations from the article:

bNew Kingdom chariot

c4 spoke chariots

dcomposite parts Mycenaean chariots

eMycenaean Chariots Lexicon

gKnossos tablet KN 894

This Lexicon is the only one of its kind in the entire world. To date, no one has ever published a Linear B Lexicon on a subject as focused as the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots.

This article has just been published in the prestigious European journal, Epohi (Epochs), Vol. 25, Issue 2 (2017), published bi-annually by the Department of History of St. Cyril and St. Methodius, University of Veliko, Tarnovo, Bulgaria. I have been invited by the Editor-in-Chief, Stefan Iordanov, to publish new papers in the near future (sometime in 2018) and again in 2019. Considering that the Editor-in-Chief, Stefan Iordanov, solicited me to submit this article sight unseen, you can be sure I shall submit more papers to the journal.


How can so-called Cretan hieroglyphs be hieroglyphs when there are only 45 of them?

Until now most researchers have simply assumed that the 45 Cretan symbols (by my count), exclusive of numerics, must be hieroglyphs. But the evidence appears to gainsay this hypothesis. As the table below makes quite clear, there are only 45 Cretan symbols, to which

only 27 may possibly/probably/definitely be assigned meanings.

possible or probable or definite known Cretan hieroglyphs

The significance of the remaining 18 are currently beyond the bounds of decipherment:

ALL unknown Cretan seal symbols

So this lands us with a total of only 45 Cretan symbols. If and when we compare this number with the approximately 1,000 Egyptian hieroglyphs, the whole notion that the Cretan symbols are hieroglyphs comes apart at the seams and is shattered.

sample of 1000 Egyptian hieroglyphs

And that is not the end of it. There are anywhere between 600 and 1,000 symbols in Cuneiform.

akkadianpersiansumeriancuneiform1kto600

So once again, the massive proliferation of symbols, i.e. hieroglyphs, in Egyptian, and of symbols in Cuneiform make a mockery of the notion that the Cretan symbols are hieroglyphs. But if they are not hieroglyphs, what are they? It would appear that they are ideograms or logograms on seals and nodules which serve to tag the contents of the (papyrus) documents they seal. This hypothesis makes a lot of sense, since almost all Cretans and Minoans, administrators, merchants and consumer, were illiterate. These people were probably able to master the minimal number of 45 ideograms and logograms which we find on 100s of surviving seals. But while the illiterate hoy polloi could not read the script on the sealed papyrus (or leaf tablets sometimes), the scribes most definitely could. This leaves us open to yet another hypothetical question? What is the script of the texts? How many symbols or syllabograms (if the latter yet existed) would have been required to write the papyrus or inscribe the leaf tablets? Was this script, if script it was, an early form of Linear A, such as Festive Linear A? Or was it actually Linear A? This question or hypothesis demands further investigation.


How circular language in the movie, Arrival, determines the aspacial/atemporal nature of logograms throughout the ages:

In the movie, Arrival (2016), which chronicles the arrival on earth of 12 mysterious ships, apparently from outer space, the following statements leap out at us:

parsing the language of the heptapods in the movie, Arrival

1. Unlike all written languages, the writing is semiseriographic. It conveys meaning. It doesn't represent sound. Perhaps they view our form of writing as a wasted opportunity.  
2. How heptapods write: ... because unlike speech,  a logogram is free of time. Like their ship, their written language has forward or backward direction. Linguists call this non-linear orthography, which raises the question, is this how they think? Imagine you wanted to write a sentence using 2 hands, starting from either side. You would have to know each word you wanted to use as well as much space it would occupy. A heptapod can write a complex sentence in 2 seconds effortlessly.

The key to all of this is the phrase a logogram is free of time. Allow me to illustrate. Logograms are also often called ideograms, and that is what I prefer to call them. Another word to describe them is icon. When we examine ancient Linear A and B ideograms and compare them with modern ones, the results are astonishing, to wit:

ArrivalParadeandswords

horsesLinearBandmodern

manwomanscaleswheel

All of the aforementioned examples make it quite clear that ideograms, whether they be as ancient as those in Linear A and Linear B (i.e. about 3,400 years old) or modern ... or for that matter, neolithic or even earlier, all bear a striking resemblance to one another. Take for instance the Linear A ideogram for “scales” and compare it with just one modern one (among so many others), and we see immediately that they are extremely similar. Now take the Linear B ideograms for man” and “woman” and compare these with the washroom symbols for the same and once again the similarity is almost too good to be true. Then there is the Linear B ideogram for a four-spoke wheel compared with a modern one for an eight-spoke wheel. The number of spokes is not relevant to this discussion, only the fact that the ancient Linear B ideogram for “wheel” is practically identical to the modern one.

The implications for the decipherment of ideograms in any language, ancient or modern (let alone Linear A and Linear B) versus those in any modern language are staggering. We can be sure that the ancient ideograms varied little from one language to another, let alone between Minoan and Mycenaean. In fact, the syllabogram TE, which sometimes represents wheat, in Linear A and Linear B is almost identical to the same ideograms in cuneiform!

It is patently obvious that since the distinction between the ancient ideograms and their modern equivalents enumerated above is so thin, all of these ideograms (or logograms or icons) are not only time independent (atemporal) and spatially independent (aspatial), they are also language independent. This is a stunning phenomenon.

The implications for the further decipherment of Linear A are simply overwhelming.

And this is why in the movie, Arrival, the heptapods assert, “There is no time.”



My article, Lexicon of Chariot Construction in Mycenaean Linear B, has been accepted in advance by the international historical journal, Epohi/Epochs:

Epohi Epochs historical journal

I shall be submitting it to the editor-in-chief, Stefan Iordanov of the Faculty of History of St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo (hence forward referred to as UVT), Bulgaria. The editorial board consists of highly prestigious researchers:

Executive Editor:

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Editor-in-Chief:

Ivan Tyutyundjiev, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Deputy Editors in Chief:

Plamen Pavlov, Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Editors:

Acad. Vasil Gyuzelev, Prof., Dr. Hab., Member of the Bulgarian Academy of science and President of the Association of Byzantinists and Medievalists in Bulgaria

Demetrios Gonis, Dr. Hab., Professor Emeritus of University of Athens (Greece)

Mirosław Jerzy Leszka, Prof., Dr. Hab., University of Lodz (Poland)

Tatyana Leontyeva, Prof., Dr. Hab., State University of Tver (Russia)

Milko Palangurski, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Petko Petkov, Проф. д-р Петко Петков, St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Rumen Yankov, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Mariya Ivanova, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Dan Dana, Chargé de recherche de 1ère classe, Ph.D., Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique – Paris (France)

Issue editors:

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D.

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D.


Linear B seal BE Zg 1 as erroneously interpreted by Gretchen Leonhardt, corrected here:

Linear B seal BE Zg 1

Gretchen Leonhardt, a self-styled Linear B expert, has erroneously deciphered Linear B seal BE Zg 1.  As she so often does, she misinterprets syllabograms, all to often blatantly violating their phonetic values. It is clear from this seal that the last syllabogram must be either ru or ne, and  certainly not me, by any stretch of the imagination. Leonhardt is also in the habit of recasting the orthography of Linear B words she interprets to suit her own purposes. In this instance, she translates what she mistakenly takes to be the word on the VERSO to be dokame as dokema in Latinized Greek, flipping the vowels. But the second syllabogram is clearly ka, and cannot be interpreted as anything else.  The problem with Ms. Leonhardt’s so-called methodology in her decipherment of any and all Linear B tablets is that she runs off on wild tangents whenever she is confronted with any word that does not meet her preconceptions. In this instance, she is desperate to cook up a meaning which appeals to her, no matter how much she has to twist the Linear B orthography. She indulges in this very practice on practically every last Linear B tablet she “deciphers”, interpreting Linear B words to suit her fancy, except in those instances where she is faced with no alternative but to accept what is staring her in the face.

For instance, allow me to cite some of her translations of certain words on Linear B tablet Pylos TA 641-1952.  She has no choice but to accept tiripode as signifying “tripod”, eme as  “together/with” and qetorowe as “four year”, even though it properly means “four”, in line with the Latin orthography, quattuor. Linear B regularly substitutes q for t. As for her so-called decipherment of apu, she should know better than to translate it as  “to become bleached/white”. After all, how could a burnt tripod be bleached white, when scorching turns pottery black? It is astonishing that she would overlook the obvious here. What is even more damning is the indisputable fact that apu is the default aprivative preposition for “from/with” in Mycenaean, Arcadian, Arcado-Cypriot, Lesbian and Thessalian, as attested by George Papanastassiou in The preverb apo in Ancient Greek:

preposition apo in ancient Greek dialects

Then we have mewijo, which she interprets as “a kind of cumin”. Why on earth the Mycenaeans would have bothered with naming a specific kind of cumin when the standard word suffices, is completely beyond me. In fact, the alternative word she has latched onto is extremely uncommon in any ancient Greek dialect. Finally, she bizarrely interprets dipa, which is clearly the Mycenaean equivalent to the Homeric depa, as “to inspect”, another wild stretch of the imagination. Sadly, Ms. Leonhardt is much too prone to these shenanigans, which mar all too many of her decipherments. She ought to know better.

This of course applies to her decipherment of Linear B seal BE Zg 1. Finally, we can also interpret the figure on this seal as representing the Horns of Consecration ubiquitous at Knossos. 


Partial decipherment of Linear A tablet ZA 15 (Zakros) and the phenomenon of orthographic adjustment of superstratum words in the substratum language:

Linear A tablet Zakros ZA 15

This decipherment of Linear A tablet ZA 15 seems to add up overall. I have divined that the word qesizue, of which there are 57, means “goblets”. The plural in e is common in Linear A, and appears to be the plural of feminine diminutives, which in the case would imply that the singular is qesizuai = “goblet”. The decipherment certainly fits the context. The translation of itinisa as “in wicker/baskets” is less certain. Samidae can be construed as Old Minoan genitive singular for “from Samos”. Recall that when words derive from the superstratum, which means Mycenaean derived words in the case of Linear A, the orthography of the derived words must be altered from their Mycenaean spelling to Old Minoan Linear A spelling conventions. So in this case, Mycenaean Samoio (genitive sing.) could conceivably become Samidae in Minoan. 

We should not be at all surprised at this metamorphosis of orthography from the superstratum (Mycenaean derived vocabulary) to the substratum (Minoan vocabulary derived from the Mycenaean superstratum). After all, when superstratum French words are imported into English, their orthography undergoes the same metamorphosis. For instance, we have:

French to English:

albâtre = alabaster
bénin = benign
cloître = cloister
dédain = disdain
épître = epistle
forêt = forest
fanatique = fanatic
gigantesque = gigantic
gobelet = goblet
loutre = otter
maître = master
plâtre = plaster
similitude = similarity
traître = treacherous

and on and on. This phenomenon applies to every last substratum language upon which a superstratum from another language is imposed. So in the case of Old Minoan, it is inevitable that the orthography of any single superstratum Mycenaean derived word has to be adjusted to meet the exigencies of Minoan orthography.

The most striking example of this metamorphosis is the masculine singular. Mycenaean derived words in Minoan must have their singular ultimate adjusted to u from the Mycenaean o. There are plenty of examples:

Akano to Akanu (Archanes)
akaro to akaru (field)
kako to kaku (copper)
kuruko to kuruku (crocus/saffron)
mare (mari) to maru (wool)
Rado to Radu (Latos)
simito to simitu (mouse)
suniko to suniku (community)
Winado to Winadu (toponym)
woino to winu (wine)
iyero to wireu  (priest)


Invitation by Cultural Anthropology and Ethnosemiotics ISSN 2411-6459 to submit my first article:

Click on the banner to visit their site:

Cultural Anthropology and Ethnosemiotics
https://culturalanthropologyandethnosemiotics.wordpress.com/

I have just been invited by the international quarterly, Cultural Anthropology and Ethnosemiotics ISSN 2411-6459, to submit my first article. Since this is the second new journal to have invited me to submit, I will not be able to write my first article for them until the autumn of 2017. Thus my article will not appear in Cultural Anthropology and Ethnosemiotics until the summer of 2018.  I am deeply honoured by this unsolicited invitation. This article will doubtless focus on my ongoing efforts to decipher Linear A, at least partially. 


Decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 7, probably inscribed in New Minoan, i.e. the Mycenaean superstratum:

Linear A tablet HT 7 Hagha Triada 620

Linear A tablet HT 7 (Haghia Triada) may have been inscribed entirely in New Minoan, i.e. in the Mycenaean superstratum, and not in the Minoan substrate language at all. The decipherment does makes sense in proto-Greek, but I cannot account for the presence of the numbers 3 & 4, which casts doubt on it.
There is also the problem of human sacrifice. Some historians allege that the Minoans practised human sacrifice, but there is no proof of this at all. Besides, I find a bit strange that a civilization as advanced as the Minoan would have indulged in such a barbaric practice.  But you never know.


Supplement to the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: Onomastics and Topomastics: +12 = 904 - 916

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It is understood that I have personally interpreted the words below as either eponyms (personal names) or toponyms (place names), but some of them may be neither, being perhaps merely words. It is also possible that one or more of the 3 terms I have listed as onomastics may be topomastics, and that any number of those I have classed as topomastics may be onomastics (or neither).

Onomastics: 

Kanajami
Tateikezare
Tidiate

Toponomastics:

Akanu = Archanes (Crete)
Dawa (Haghia Triada) 5
Dikate = Mount Dikte
Idaa = Mount Ida
Kura
Meza (= Linear B Masa)
Paito = Phaistos (= Linear B) 10
Sukirita/Sukiriteija = Sybrita
Winadu = Linear B Inato 12

TOTAL for the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon = 916


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 801-903 = TI - ZU

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tikuja
tikuneda
timaruri/timaruwite
timasa 
timi 
timunuta
tina
tinakarunau
tinata (common)/tinita
tinesekuda 810
tininaka
tinu 
tinuka
tinusekiqa
tio
tiqatediti
tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu
tiraduja
tirakapa3
tira2 820
tire
tisa 
tisiritua
tisudapa
tita
titema
titiku
titima
tiu
tiumaja 830
tizanukaa
toipa
tome
toreqa 
tuda
tujuma
tukidija
tukuse
tuma/tumi/tumitizase
tunada/tunapa 840
tunapa3ku
tunija
tupadida
tuqe
turaa
turunuseme
turusa
tusi/tusu/tusupu2
tute
tutesi 850
udamia
udimi
udiriki
uju
uki 
uminase 
unaa
unadi (common)
unakanasi
unarukanasi/unarukanati 860
uqeti 
urewi
usu
uta/uta2
utaise
utaro
uti
waduko
wadunimi
waja 870
wanai
wapusua
wara2qa
watepidu 
watumare
wazudu
widina
widui 
wija 
wijasumatiti 880
winadu
winipa
winu
winumatari
wiraremite
wireu 
wirudu
wisasane
witero
zadeu/zadeujuraa 890
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa
zarse/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata
zirinima
zudu
zukupi
zuma 900
zupaku
zusiza
zute 903


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 701-800 = SI - TI

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sina
sinada
sinae
sinakanau (common)
sinakase
sinamiu
sinatakira
sinedui
sipiki
sipu3ka 710
siriki
siwamaa
sokanipu
sudaja
suja
suniku (common) 
sure
Suria
suropa
siru/sirute 720
sirumarita2
sitetu
situ 
sokemase
sutu/sutunara
suu
suzu
taa
tadaki/tadati
tadeuka 730
taikama 
tainumapa
ta2tare
ta2tite
tajusu
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui 
tamaduda
tamaru
temeku 740
tami/tamia/tamisi
tanamaje
tanate/tanati 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti
tanunikina
tapa 
tapiida
tapiqe
tara/tarina 750
tarejanai
tarikisu
taritama
tasa/tasaja
tasise
tata/tati
tateikezare
ta2merakodisi
ta2re/ta2reki
ta2riki 760
ta2rimarusi
ta2u
tedasi/tedatiqa
tedekima
teepikia
teizatima
tejai 
tejuda
teke/teki
tekidia 770
temada/temadai
temirerawi
tenamipi
tenata/tenataa
tenatunapa3ku
tenekuka
teneruda
teniku
tenitaki
tenu/tenumi (common)  780
tera/tere/teri 
teraseda
tereau
terikama 
teridu
tero 
teroa
terusi (extremely common)
tesi/tesiqe 
tesudesekei 790
tetu
tetita2
tewirumati
tidama
tidata
tiditeqati
tiduitii/tiisako
tija
tika 
tikiqa 800


							

Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 601-700 = RE - SI

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rezakeiteta
ria (common)
ridu
rikata
rima
rimisi 
ripaku
ripatu
riqesa
rira/riruma/rirumate 610
risa
risaipa3dai
risumasuri
ritaje
rite/ritepi
ritoe
rodaa/rodaki
roika 
roke/roki/roku
romaku 620
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka
rosa 
rosirasiro 
rotau
rotwei
rua
rudedi
ruiko
rujamime
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike
ruko
rukue
ruma 
rumu/rumata/rumatase
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi 
rutari
rutia
ruzuna
sadi
saja/sajama
sajea
saka
sama/samaro
samidae
sanitii 650
sapo
sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2/sarara
sareju
saro/saru/sarutu
sasaja
sasame
sea
sedire
sei
seikama
seimasusaa
seitau
sejarapaja
sejasinataki
sesasinunaa
sekadidi
sekatapi 670
sekidi
semake
semetu
senu
sepa
sekutu
sesapa3
setamaru 
setira
Setoija 680
sewaude
sezami
sezanitao
sezaredu
sezatimitu
sia
sidare/sidate
sidi
sidija 
sii/siisi 690
siitau
sija
sijanakarunau
sika 
siketapi
sikine
sikira/sikirita
sima 
simara
simita 700


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 501-600 = PI - RE

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pitara
piwaa/piwaja/piwi
posa 
potokuro 
puqe 
pura2 
pusa/pusi
pusuqe
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 510
pu3pi
pu3tama
qaka
qanuma
qapaja/qapajanai
qaqada
qaqaru 
qera2u/qara2wa 
qareto 
qaro 520
qasaraku
qatidate
qatiki
qatiju
qedeminu
qeja 
qeka
qenamiku
qenupa
qepaka 530
qepita
qepu 
qequre
qera2u
qerosa
qeta2e
qesusui
qesite
qesizue
qesupu 540
qeti/qetieradu
qetune
raa
rada/radaa/radakuku/radami
radarua
radasija
radizu
radu 
ra2rore
raja/raju 550
rakaa
raki/rakii
rakisi/raku
ranatusu
rani 
raodiki
rapa/rapu
rapu3ra
raqeda
rarasa
rarua
rasa 560
rasamii
rasasaa/rasasaja
rasi
rata/ratapi 
ratada
ratise
razua
ra2i
ra2ka
ra2madami 570
ra2miki
ra2natipiwa
ra2pu/ra2pu2 
ra2ru
ra2saa
rea
reda (common)/redamija/redana/redasi
redise
reduja
reja/rejapa (common) 580
rekau
rekotuku
reku/rekuqa/rekuqe 
rema/remi 
rematuwa
renara/renaraa
renute
repa 
repu2dudatapa
repu3du 590
reqasuo
reradu
reratarumi
rera2tusi
rerora2
resi/resu
retaa/retada
retaka
retata2
retema 600


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 401-500 = NA - PI

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nasi
nasisea
nataa/nataje
natanidua
natareki (common) 
nati 
nazuku/nazuru
nea/neakoa
nedia
nedira
neka/nekisi 410
nemaduka
nemaruja
nemiduda
nemusaa
nenaarasaja
neqa
neramaa
nerapa/nerapaa
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
nesasawi 420
nesekuda
neta 
netapa
netuqe
nidapa
nidiki/nidiwa
niduti
nijanu
niku/nikutitii
nimi 430
nipa3
niro/niru
nisi 
nisudu
niti 
nizuka 
nizuuka
nua
nude
nuki/nukisikija 440
numida/numideqe
nupa3ku (extremely common)
nupi
nuqetu
nuti/nutini
nutiuteranata
nutu
nuwi
odami/odamia 450
opi
osuqare
otanize
oteja
pa (common)/paa
padaru
padasuti
pade
padupaa
pa3katari 460
pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi
paja/pajai 
pajare
paka (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka
pamanuita 
panuqe 
para
paria 
paroda
pasu 470
pata/patu 
pa3a/pa3ana 
pa3da 
pa3dipo
pa3kija
pa3ku
pa3pa3ku
pa3roka
pa3sase
pa3waja 480
pa3qa
panuqe
parane
parosu 
pasarija
pase
pasu
pata 
patada
patane 490
pia/pii
pija/pijawa
piku/pikui
pikuzu
pimata
pina/pini 
pirueju 
Pisa
pita/pitaja 
pitakase/pitakesi 500


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: 301-400 = KU - NA

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kureju
kuro
kuruku
kuruma
kutiti 
kutukore
kuzuni
maadf
madadu
madi  310
mai/maimi
masaja 
majutu
makaise/makaita
makarite
makidete
mana/manapi (common) 320
maniki
manirizu
manuqa 320
maru/maruku/maruri 
masa 
masi 
masuri
matapu
mateti
matiti
matizaite
matu 
masuja 330
maza/mazu
meda
medakidi
mepajai
mera 
merasasaa/merasasaja (very common)
mesasa
mesenurutu
meto
meturaa 340
meza 
mia
midai
midani
midamara
midara
mide
midiu
mie
miima 350
mijanika
mijuke
mikidua
mikisena
minaminapii
minedu
mini/miniduwa
minumi
minute 
mio/miowa 360
mipa
mireja
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita 
miturea
mujatewi
muko 370
mupi
muru
musaja
naa
nadare
nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi
nadiwi
nadu
nadunapu2a
naisizamikao 380
naka 
nakiki
nakininuta
nakuda
namarasasaja
nmatiti
nami
namikua/namikuda
namine
nanau 390
nanipa3
napa3du
narepirea
naridi
narinarikui
narita
naroka
naru 
nasarea
nasekimi 400

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