Tag Archive: decipherment of Minoan Linear A



Total number of words derived from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A: 

banner antecedents to Linear A in Linear A
Below we find the potential total of the number of words derived from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A. This figure = 87 or 8 % of Linear A may need to be revised downwards upon re-checking each word against each and every Linear A tablet on which it may appear.
This is also true of the total of 305 = 28 % of the Greek-like words in the previous post. It is likely that the grand total of 36 % will thus also eventually need to be revised downwards. I will only be able to verify the final results after the exercise of cross-correlation with Linear A tablets, prior to the publication of the Revised Linear A Lexicon early in 2018.

Akanu/Akanuzati  PGS TOP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) – or- a large bowl, from Semitic akanu
akara/akaru = akaras/akarus NM a1kra - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field, from Hittite, akkala = furrow  
ama OM = armas = moon? (Hittite/Luwian origin?)
ana not NM a0na/ ana = upwards, above, through; according to etc. OM = tin, from Hittite, anna, Akkadian, anaku 
api NM a0spi/j = shield – or- OM plough, from Hittite apin  = 5
Arenesidi  ONO = for Nesidis (Hittite)
ari/arinita OM = flower? + arinata = flowery, from Hittite alil 
arisu OM = cow or bull or ox, permuted. See also qaqaru, riruma
asadaka asadakas MOSE NM a1staxa <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn
asamune OM = goblet, from Semitic assummun 
Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax – or- OM = white, from Hittite asara = 10
asasarame NM? Used in conjuction with the Mycenaean attempt to translate the name of the Minoan goddess, Atana, Greek Athena A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja – or- Asherah (Semitic) 
asijaka – used in conjunction with – uminasi – OM asijaka = entrance to a port? - or- Sfardak = from Sardis (Luwian)
asona = possibly Asona peoples of Africa, whose totem is a crow or snake, thus possibly snake. atu NM a1stu/ = town See also Luwian atiwati = in the town
daka/daki/daku/dakuna/dakusene(ti) (last agglutinative) OM = black? (Luwian, dakkuis) + Dakusene OM ONO Cf. Takusenni (Khurritic)
damate PGS NM Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate Cf. damate = Earth Mother = 15 (Pelasgian) - or- da/matei = in the village 
darunete – See also dirunete. See also Hittite, daru = tree, wood
depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa (Luwian = bowl, cup)
dideru OM PGS = einkorn wheat – or- oats (Semitic) Cf. Linear B didero
etori NM? e1tori <- e1toj = for a year – or – OM = food, from Hittite etri
Idamate/Idamete PGS ONO  0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida  Cf. Idaian Mother (Pelasgian) = 20
ija OM = ram from Hittite iya
jako/jaku/jakute OM = grain? from Hittite, halki
Kanijami ONO Kaniamis fem. (Ugaritic)
kanuti OM ONO = Kanuties (Phrygian)
karopa2 (karopai) OM = kylix with 2 handles-or- MOSE NM ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase – or – karpu = vessel name (Semitic) = 25
kataro NM ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup
kiro/kirisi/kiru OM = deficit, owed Cf. Linear B oporo = they owed Cf. kilu, kalum = deficit (Semitic)
kunisu OM = emmer wheat (derivation: Semitic kunnisu) 
kupa/kupi NM ku=fa/ ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = bent, curved, with something bent, possibly a scythe. See also – kupaja (genitive singular) – below – or – OM cypergrass, henna (Semitic)
Kupa3nu OM ONO (Ugaritic) = 30
kupari OM = legume. Cf. gopali = annual legume (Sanskrit)
kuro/kurotu NM ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa Cf. kol = total (Semitic)
mana/manapi (common) PGS Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert, or simply bread” -or- Mana = Minos (Luwian)   
maro/maru/maruku/maruri NM  mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool  = 410
masa/masaja NM ma/=ssa  ma/=ssaia <= ma/=sswn = larger, bigger  - 0r – OM = goat, from Hittite, mas = 35
matiti OM = with a mat? (instrumental sing.) Cf. matta (Phoenician)
Mekidi ONO Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great – or – OM = income, revenue, from Hittite melkitu 
mesiki -or- sikime -or- kimesi etc. LIG  Cf. Hittite, mekki = much, many  
midai OM = red, from Hittite mida = red, ochre
minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) OM = pulse crop, any one of broad beans (faba/fava), chick peas, lentils or vetch (permuted) See minutum = standard type of grain (Semitic) = 40
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi + OM nesidi = Hittite (Pelasgian) 
Paito NM1 Phaistos Faisto/j = Phaistos Cf. Linear Paito Faisto/j See also Payata (Luwian) = paka OM =  (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka Cf. pancha  = drink from alcohol, sugar, lemon, water, tea or spices (Sanskrit) – or – OM = whole, entire, from Hittite, panku
paku NM paxu/j = great, large; rich, wealthy – or- OM, paku, = holy, sacred from Hittite, parkui
para NM para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. - or- viceroy, prince -or- double axes (Luwian)
pata/patada/pataqe/patu OM = small handle-less cups Cf. Linear B dipa anowe, dipa anowoto Cf. pataqu = wine cup (Semitic) = 45
pisa OM TOP?  Cf. Luwian, Pisaru = Pisaros
potokuro NM poto/n +  ku/rwn = reaching a full drink, a full draught (agglutinative) – used with no. 65 – or – OM = grand total Cf. putu kol = grand total (Semitic)
punikaso PGS NM funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson Cf. Phoenician
qaqaru OM = a livestock animal, probably a cow or bull or ox – or – talent (gold) (Pelasgian)
qati/qatiki OM = portion Cf. bhakti = portion Sanskrit)
qera2u/qera2wa/qera2ja... (truncated)  OM = a type of grain, probably millet or spelt (inflected) – or – toasted grain, from Semitic qalu = 50
qeria/qeriu OM = probably millet or spelt – or - – or – toasted grain, from Semitic qalu
qero NM be/loj = arrow, dart -or- beryl	vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)
qeti (instr. sing.)/qetiradu OM/PGS = a very large pot, pithos Cf. Linear B PGS qeto pi/qoj
qetune/qitune OM = linen, from kutum (Semitic)   
raki/rakii/rakisi/raku OM = lacquer Cf. lākṣā (Sanskrit)
ruqa/ruqaqa (common) OM = to kindle? from Hittite ruki ?
saka sakas NM sa/kka <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made of wicker See also saqqu (Akkadian) See also – saqa – below = 55
saqa saqas OM = sack Cf. saqqu (Akkadian)
saro/saru/sarutu NM sa/ron = broom, threshing floor -or- flax (inflected) – or- barley, from saru (Semitic)
sasaja OM = of a seal, from Luwian, sasa = seal
sasara(me) OM ONO = Sasarah (a god) from Asherah (Lycian)  
sato/sata PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement = 60
ive) 
semetu PGS ONO= Semitic?
sija NM si/a <- si/a = goddess – or- seed, from Hittite siya
suniku (common) NM su/noiku <- su/noikoj  living together, joint inhabitant,  dweller
supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) OM =small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo – or -   sapu = vessel name  (Semitic)
supi/supu/supu2 OM = largest size pithos but not MOSE NM supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal tub, because no tablet justifies this interpretation – or- sappu = bowl (Semitic)
takaa/takari = large container for liquid Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) = 65
taki/taku/takui NM ta=xei/ <- ta=xu/j = quick, swift, speedy -or- with a large container
for liquid (instr. singular) Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) – or – OM = tax, from Hittite taksessar = tax
tara = possibly a cat/also zatara,  found in modern English

taro MOSE NM tau=roj = bull – or- OM = tree, from Hittite, taru = tree

tenita(ki) OM Tanit, Tinnit (Semitic) = 70
teri/teridu OM = three, from Hittite teriyas
terota -or- rotate -or- tatero etc. LIG – variation of the above?
terusi OM = delivery (Akkadian/Luwian) (extremely common) 
tiditeqati (agglutinative) rel. Cf. qati above 
tinata (common)/tinita OM =  tithe (Luwian)  = 75
titiku OM = ONO = Titiku = Titis (Pelasgian)
toreqa OM = ball of wool? (from Luwian, tolype?) 
Utinu OM ONO = personal name Cf. itti (Proto-Canaanite) 
Wadunimi TOP = the place or town of Waduna? (locative sing.?) Cf. Badunimis (Pelasgian)

wasato NM #a/stu a1stu = town Cf. Lnear B wato #a/stu. See also, Luwian, ati wati = in the town) = 80

winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj Cf. Luwian wainu & Hittite, wiyana
witero = with, found in modern English
zute NM  zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer  See also Hittite, sessar= beer

TOTAL number of words from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A = 83/1076
Percentage of of words from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A = 8 %
TOTAL  percentage of all words (Greek-like) and from languages antecedent to Linear A in Linear A = 28 % + 8 % = 36 %


Potential Pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) & Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) words in Linear A = 305/1076 in the entire Linear A Lexicon:

banner Greek-like words in Linear A

adai OM + See [18] below. adakisika NM a0dakissi/ka = adorned with ivory Cf. qaqisenuti NM 
xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative), hence, probably a chaplet in fine bronze adorned with ivy  
adidakitipaku OM adida (unknown) NM kiti ki/sth = chest, box + pagu/j = giant, large
adoro MOSB NM a1doroj = receiving no gifts; unpaid; giving no gifts
Akanu/Akanuzati  PGS TOP A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) – or- a large bowl, from Semitic akanu
Akanuzati NEW PGS NM A0rxa/nej = Archanes (Crete) + za/qi <- za/qoej = for the most holy or sacred Archanes = 5
aka -or- kaa = askas LIG NM  a0ska/ <- a0sko/j = leather bag, wine skin
ake -or- kae = aske (instr. sing.) LIG NM  a0skei/ (arch. acc.) <- a0sko/j = with a leather bag, wine skin
akara/akaru = akaras/akarus NM a1kra - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field, from Hittite, akkala = furrow  
akarakitanasijase NM   a1kra (arch. acc.) - or - = end, border + akaru a0gro/j = field + kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj = a field with terebinth trees. See also kitanisija NEW

akiro NM a1kairoj = not in season, unseasonable -or- a1grioj = living in the fields; uncultivated, unreclaimed

akoane NM = This is the Mycenaean attempt to translate the name of the Minoan goddess, Atana, Greek Athena A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja -or- from: akunasatisa = Knossos (Luwian) = 10

akumina akuminas PGS a0ku/mina = without cumin?
amaja NM a3maca= wagon
amarane... (truncated) NM a0malli/ <- a0mallo/j = without fleece (a privative instrumental) amawasi NM a3mai#asi = with violets
amita NM a0mi/nqa <- mi/nqoj = without mint = 15
anatu NM? a=na/tu <- a=nastado/n = upright, standing? (could make sense in context)
apaki NM a0parxh/ = first part of a sacrifice, firstlings for sacrifice, first-fruits 
apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine  Cf. Linear B apero 
api NM a0spi/j = shield – or- OM plough, from Hittite apin 
ara NM a0ra/ = a prayer = 20
araju NM a0ra=u <- a0ra=oj = prayed for? – used with no. 123 
arako NM a0ra/c = weaver Cf. Linear B arakateya a0laka/teiai = weavers

arakokuzu OMNM1 = weavers establishment? (agglutinative)

arati NM a0ra=ti/ <- a0ra/toj = with something unblessed Cf. makarite  below
aratiatu NM a0ra=ti a/stu = a prayer for the town, community <- Linear B  #a/stu = city, town 
aratu/aratumi... (truncated) = 25
aresana NM a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup 
arija... NM a=0ri=a <- a=0rai=a (truncated) = prayed to, accursed (fem.) NEW
aripa NM a1leifar = cream, ointment Cf. Linear B arepa NEW 
arokaku NM a1ro xalku/ = o0rei/xalkoj, oreikhalkos (from o1roj, oros, mountain and xalko/j  chalkos, copper), meaning mountain copper.  Cf. Linear B kako xalko/j. See Appendix 3  = 30
aro/arote /aru NM au=loc te\ = (and) furrow, ploughed land, corn-land
arura NM a0rou/ra = unit of land -or- plough Cf. Linear B arura 
arudara MOSE NM a1lutra <- a1lutron = threshing instrument (arch. acc.) 
aruma NM a3rwma (neuter) = arable land -or- spice
asadaka asadakas MOSE NM a1staxa <- a1staxu (Minoan nom. sing.)= ear of corn = 40
Asara2 TOP = Linear B Asaro A0sa/roj -or- may refer to Assur, hence Assyria -or- asara2 (asarai) = without flax – or- OM = white, from Hittite asara
asidatoi NM a0si/datoi = without pomegranate (dat. sing.)
asikira asikas NM1 <- khro/j = without wax 
Asuja  TOP Cf Linear B Asiwiya A0si/#ia
atade NM a1ttade = from father = 45
atanate NM a0qa/na=te = without an immortal (instr. sing.) 

A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja NM Ata/noj = Earth goddess Atano

atare NM a0ta=lei/ <- a0ta=lo/j = tender; delicate (of crops?) -or- a0qa/lei <- a0qa/loj = without a branch, twig; without an olive branch -or- MOS NM a9dro/j = full-grown – or – a0qa/rh = groats, meal, green fodder, forage, provender Cf. kupari = galingale
atika NM? au0t/ika= = immediately 
atiru NM? a0ti/lu <- a0te/loj = without boundaries = 50
atu NM a1stu/ = town See also Luwian atiwati = in the town
auta NM au0ta/ = self, oneself; alone + deponiza NM... the mistress herself  KO Zf 2

damate PGS NM Da/mate = Damater Cf. Linear B Damate Cf. damate = Earth Mother (Pelasgian) - or- da/matei = in the village 
dare NM da=lei/ <- da=lo/j = (with) a firebrand or torch/daro LIG NM da=lo/j = firebrand 
datara/datare NM da=ta/ra da=ta/rei <- da=th/rioj = distributing, for distribution -or- OM sacred grove of olive trees -or- a kind of flowering plant = 55
Dawa OM = place name Cf. LB dawo Da/#oj / Da/#on 
deka -or- kade LIG NM ka/de (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = pitcher, jar, pail
depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu= cup Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa (Luwian = bowl, cup)
deponiza NM de/spoina = mistress, lady KO Zf 2 Cf. Linear B deponiya
dewa -or- wide LIG NM de/#a = goddess? = 60
dija/dije NM Di/ #a Cf. Linear B Diwija Di#i/a = priestess of Zeus
Dikate PGS TOP = Mount Dikte Cf. Linear B Dikatade Diktai/ade = towards Mt. Dikte
dima/dimaru NM dh=ma <- dh=moj = land, country
dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup 
dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)
ditamana  PGS = dittany = 65
Dupu3re TOP Cf. Linear B Dupu2razo Dupurai/zoj 
dura2 NM  dou/lai = slaves (fem.) Cf. Linear B doera doe/la 

eka ekas NM e3gxa spear, lance <- e3gxoj = spear Cf. Linear B eko
ero NM e0llo/j = young deer, fawn 
esija MOSA NM e3sti/a = hearth of a house = 70
etori NM? e1tori <- e1toj = for a year – or – OM = food, from Hittite etri

ia i0a/  NM (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets/ija NM? See i0a/ (n. pl.) = an arrow (sing.) & i1a (n. pl.) = violets (variation) 
Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3  = Mount Ida PGS TOP
Idamate/Idamete PGS ONO  0Idama/te = Mother goddess of Mount Ida  Cf. Idaian Mother (Pelasgian)
Idarea ONO PGS  0Idar9ea = Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida = 75
ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate  i0a/ter
ima imas NM i9ma/c = leather strap, thong; (lash of) a whip
ipinama/ipinamina MOS NM i0pneume/na (fem. sing.) = baked (bread)
ira2 NM i1la=i = troops, companies, squadrons
iruja NM i0e/ruia = priestess Cf. Linear B iyereya i0e/reia  = 80
Itinisa PGS ONO? female resident of Itanos?  

jai NM ? gai/i = for (mother) earth 
jaiterikisu (agglutinative) NM gai/i + teli/ + kisso/j = topmost (i.e. ripe) ivy for/with (mother) earth
jaja gai/a = mother earth
jamauti NM i1amauti = as a means of healing <- i1ama i1amatoj = healing, remedy = 85
januti NM ga/nuti = a form of the verb or noun for shining  
jari/jarina/jarinu NM gali/ galh/ <- gale/h = cat
jarisapa (agglutinative) OM PGS = some kind of dress? Cf. Linear B sapa
jasaja NM  0Ia=sai/a <-  0Ia=sw/ of/from the goddess of healing and health  
jasapai NM1OM related to related to - jasaja – above? - something to do with healing = 90
jasidara NM i0a=sida=la/ = healing torch/firebrand (arch. acc.)
jasea/jasepa NM i0a=sea = healing, goddess of healing 
jasie  NM i0a=sie = for healing, for the goddess of healing
jate/jateo NM i0a=th/r = physician 
jatimane NM i0a=th/j mannei= = with the bread of healing (agglutinative) = 95
jawi NM gau=li = with a milk-pail, bucket -or- with a merchant vessel NEW
[13] jemanata NM ge/manata = full of
[14] jua NM gu/a <- gu/hj = measure of land, plough land, corn land 
juraa NM gu=ra/a <- gu=ro/j = round, curved See [14] above 

kadi MOSE NM kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine = 100
kadusi NM ka/dusi <= ka/doj = with buckets or pails (instr. pl.)
kairo NM kairo/j = due measure 
kaki/kaku NM xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
kakunete/kakusunetu  OM+ NM xalku/ = bronze alloy - or – crafted in bronze (agglutinative) 
kami  NM ka/mi (dat./instr. sing.) <- ka/ma = (on a) unit of land Cf. Linear B ka/ma = 105
kana/kanatiti/kanau PGS TOP Kanna
kanaka kanakas PGS kna/ka = saffron Cf Linear B kanako kna/koj
kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi NM karpa/ (arch. acc.) + karpa/te\ = fruit, and fruit, with fruit -or- ripe crops Cf. Linear B kapo karpo/j
kaporu NM karpo/ru <- karpoj = fruit, corn, harvest, produce 
kara/karu  NM kara/ = head Cf. Linear B kara(pi) kara/afi = 110
karopa2 (karopai) OM = kylix with 2 handles-or- MOSE NM ka/rdoph = wooden vessel/vase – or – karpu = vessel name (Semitic)
karu  NM ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine, ornamental 
karunau NM kallu/nau <- kallu/nw = to beautify, embellish
kasi NM kasi/ <- kasi/a= = with Arabian spice 
kasitero OMNM kasite/loj = boundary of...? (agglutinative) = 115
kataro NM ka/nqa=roj = scarab (Egyptian) + drinking cup
kati NM ka/rtij = a kind of pot, hydria (water flask) Cf. Linear B kati hydria (water flask) 
keda PGS = cedar 
keire NM kh=lei <- kh/lon = with an arrow
Kekiru PGS TOP Ke/kru = Kekros = 120
kera/kero NM ke/raj = horn (ivory) -or- khr/oj = bees-wax Cf. Linear B kera
keta/kete/ketu NM ga/da  ga/de <- gado/j <- i0xqu/j = fish,  here = fish-goddess
kida/kidi kidas NM kh=da kh=dei <- kh=doj = (with) mourning, burial 
kidaro MOSC NM kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro
kikadi PGS = cicada (cricket) = 125
kimu NM xeimu/ <- xeimw=n = frost, cold; storm, tempest? (uncertain)
kina PGS TOP Kinna 
kira NM xei=la <- xei=loj = edge, brim, rim
kireta2 (kiretai) NM kri/qai = barley
kiretana NM kriqani/aj = like barley, barley (attributive) = 130
kiretaiwinu NM kri/qai = barley + winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj, hence kiretaiwinu =  kri/qai#i/nu 
kiso NM kisso/j = ivy
kitai/kitei  NM = kestai/ kestei/ = embroidered (lit.), but in context = basketry, basket(s)
kitanasija/kitanasijase NM kitanisija (gen. sing.) ki/rtanasia <- ki/rtanoj = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj
kitina NM ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj = border of a plot of  land/territory Cf. Linear B  kotona = 140 kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land 
kiti NM ki/sth = chest, box 
kito NM xitw/n = chiton Cf. Linear B kito
koiru NM koi/ru <- koi/roj = hollow (ships) 
koru NM ko/ruj = helmet Cf. Linear B koru = 145
Kosaiti TOP Cf. Linear B Kutaito Ku/taistoj (not necessarily the same place)
kuda NM ku=da <- ku=doj glory, fame, renown? (uncertain) 
Kukudara TOP Cf. Linear B Kukudaro 
kuminaqe NM = and cumin See also Linear B kumino ku/minon
kupa/kupi NM ku=fa/ ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = bent, curved, with something bent, possibly a scythe. See also – kupaja (genitive singular) – below – or – OM cypergrass, henna (Semitic) = 150
kupaja NM ku=fai/a <- ku=fo/j = of something curved; of a scythe?
kupari NM ku/pairi (instr. sing.) <- ku/pairoj = marsh-plant used to feed horses, galingale or ginger? (uncertain)
kupazu NM kou/fazu <- kou/fazoj = light (of wine)
kupi NM? ku=fi/ <- ku=fo/j = with something curved; with a scythe? On Linear A tablet ZA 14 kuro/kurotu NM ku=roj = supreme power, authority & ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total  Cf. Linear B tosa to/sa Cf. kol = total (Semitic) = 155
kuto/kutu NM ku/toj = shield, cuirass
kuruku PGS kro/koj = crocus, saffron 
Kutiti TOP (locative sing.) Kutaistos Cf. LB Kutaito
kutu NM ku/tu <- ku/toj = vase, jar, pot, urn
kuwa -or- waku LIG NM ku/#a = girl Cf. Linear B kowa ko/#a – or – #a0sku/ <- #a0sko/j = leather bag or wineskin = 160

makarite MOSC NM makari/thj = one who is blessed -or- magarei=te\  = and with a cooking pot (instr. Sing.) <- mageirei=on = cooking pot
mana/manapi (common) PGS Hebrew manna= = (of spiritual food) bread from heaven, the supernatural food eaten by the Israelites in the desert, or simply bread” -or- Mana = Minos (Luwian)   
maniki NM maniki/ <- maniko/j = with revelry? (uncertain)
maro/maru/maruku/maruri NM  mallo/j = flock of wool Cf. Linear B mali mali/ = wool
masa/masaja NM ma/=ssa  ma/=ssaia <= ma/=sswn = larger, bigger  - 0r – OM = goat, from Hittite, mas = 165
masuri NM mallu/ri <- mallo/j = with fleece
maza/mazu  NM ma=za  = kneaded or unbaked bread, barley bread/cake
Mekidi ONO Megi/di <- Me/gaj = the Great – or – OM = income, revenue, from Hittite melkitu 
mera NM mela/j = black  - or – me/la (arch. accus.) = honey 
meto NM mesto/j = full, filled = 170
meza NM me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj 
mini/miniduwa NM mh/ni <- mh/n = for a month + mh/nidu#a = for two months 
mireja NM mhle/a = apple tree -or- mh/leia (gen. sing.) = belonging to a sheep 
miru NM mh=lon = a sheep or goat -or- mh1lon = apple, tree fruit 
mita NM mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita = 175
miturea NM mi/toj 9Re/a= thread of a warp for Rhea (agglutinative)
muko NM mu=xo/j = innermost place, inmost nook, corner, recess 
murito NM mu/lito <- mu/lac = with a millstone
muru NM mu/ron = sweet oil extracted from plants; sweet oil; unguent; perfume

naka nakas NM na/ka <- na/koj = sheep’s fleece = 180
nami NM na=mi <- na=ma = in/with a stream – or - swiftly   
narepirea OMNM1 narepir9e/a = Rhea, goddess of the snake/ snake goddess? (agglutinative)
naridi NM na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with (spike)nard
nasarea OMNM = Rhea, goddess of ... ? (agglutinative)
nasi NM na=si <- na=soj = on an island, peninsula? (uncertain) = 185
nasisea OMNM1 nasise/a = goddess of the island 
nea NM ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
neka/nekisi NM neka/j neki/si = (with a) heap of the slain 
nemi -or- mine (ligature) NM Mi/noj = with Minos? (instr. sing.)
nerapa/nerapaa NM neura/=pa neaura/=fa <- neura/= (with a) sinew, tendon, bow-string, sling shot = 190
neta NM nhta/ <- nhto/j = heaped up 
nipa3 NM nhfai/a <- nafa/lioj  = unmixed with wine 
nise/nisi NM nh=si <- nh=soj = on an island
niti/nitinu NM nh=stij = fasting

odami/odamia NM ou0dami/a = no one (fem.) = 195
oteja NM PK1 o1steia <- o1streia = oyster pigment; oyster purple Cf. Linear B otawero o1streioj 

pa3e NM paie=/ <- pai=/an = with a physician
pa3karati NM pagkra/dh = all-powerful, almighty, all-ruling 
pa3waja OMNM1 pai#ai/a = something to do with land (agglutinative)
paiki... (truncated right) 
Paito NM1 Phaistos Faisto/j = Phaistos Cf. Linear Paito Faisto/j See also Payata (Luwian) = 200
paku NM paxu/j = great, large; rich, wealthy – or- OM, paku, = holy, sacred from Hittite, parkui
para NM para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of, beyond etc. - or- viceroy, prince -or- double axes (Luwian) 
parane NM paranhne/ < - parhne/w = heaped up beside
parosu NM fa/losu <-> fa/loj = horn of a helmet 
pasarija = NM pa=sa + OM rija = all-encompassing, international? (agglutinative) = 205
pase NM fa/rse <- fa/rsoj = with a part, portion 
pasu fa/rsuj <- fa/rsoj = a part, portion
piku/pikui/pikuzu NM fhgu/j <- fhgo/j = a species of oak
pimata PGS = pimento 
pita/pitaja MOSE NM pista/kion = pistachio-nut = 210
pitakase/pitakesi MOSE NM pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts (instr. pl.) 
piwaja OM NM pi#ai/a = land division/divided land/shared land/shared plots?
posa NM po/sa= (arch. acc.) <- poi/si=j = drink(ing), beverage -or- po/sa <- po/soj = how great, how much, of what value? 
posi -or- sipo LIG NM posi/ = on, upon Cf. Linear B posi -or- sipo = si/fwn = reed, straw, siphon 
potokuro NM poto/n +  ku/rwn = reaching a full drink, a full draught (agglutinative) – used with no. 65 – or – OM = grand total Cf. putu kol = grand total (Semitic) = 215
puko OM = tripod Cf. Linear B pukoso pu/coj = box-wood. Apparently unrelated 
punikaso PGS NM funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine) Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj = crimson 
Qara2wa ONO/TOP Cf. Linear B Qara2wo + Qa2ra2wa ONO/TOP? (variation)
qajo NM ba/i"on = a palm branch (Kafkania pebble)
qaqisenuti NM xalkei/a=senuti = with fine bronze craftsmanship (agglutinative) = 220
qaro NM ba=lo/j = threshold 
qedeminu MA 1 (x2)... OM qede + NM Mi/nu = Minos -or- mh/nu =  month of qede
qero NM be/loj = arrow, dart -or- beryl	vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)
qoroqa NM ko/lon kai\ = and broken (of a spear) (see Kafkania Pebble)

radu/rade NM r9a/bdu <- r9a/bdoj = rod, switch; spear-staff or shaft = 225
ra2ka NM r9aika (fem. sing.) <- r9aiw = shattered, from – to shatter
ra2ri (rairi) PGS OM = lily
ra2ti (raiti) NM r9aisth/r = a hammer, crusher
Raja/Raju PGS ONO TOP  9Rai/a = Raia Cf. Linear B Raja 
raka/rakaa raskas NM r9axa/ <- r9axo/j = thorn bush -or- ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- NM r9anatusu < - r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify. See also tusu = 230
rani NM r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise
ratise (ritise?) NM = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.)
rea PGS r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
rima rimas NM lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts  (dative/instrumental plural) 
roe NM r90o/e r90o/ei < - r9o/oj = in a stream = 235
roika NM  9roika/ (fem. sing.) = crooked Cf. Linear B roiko  9roiko/j 
roke/roki/roku NM = lo/foj = crest of a helmet
rosa  PGS = rose 
rosirasiro OM PGS = rosebush (agglutinative/contextual) 
Rukito PGS TOP Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj – or – Lycians = 240
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff 
rutari NM r9utari/ <- r9utw/n = with a drinking cup (running to a point with a small hole  through which wine ran) 

saka sakas NM sa/kka <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made of wicker See also saqqu (Akkadian) See also – saqa - below
sama/samaro PGS or NM sama/ro = burial ground Cf. Linear B Sama/ra sama/ra = place name -or- monument -or- grave mound OR sa/meron = today
saro/saru/sarutu NM sa/ron = broom, threshing floor -or- flax (inflected) – or- barley, from saru (Semitic) = 245
sasame PGS sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
sato/sata PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement
sea/sei NM se/a se/ei (dat. sing.) = goddess 
sedina PGS = celery Cf. Linear B serino se/linon
seikama NM = seika/ma = a unit of land dedicated to a/the goddess = 250
sere -or- rese LIG NM seirei/ <- seira/ = with a cord or rope (instrumental sing.)
setamaru OMNM (agglutinative) = something to do with wool/spun wool?
side/sidi/sidija/sidare/sidate/sidatoi NM si/dh si/dia = pomegranate tree
sija NM si/a <- si/a = goddess – or- seed, from Hittite siya
sika sikas NM shka/ <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen = 255
Sikine PGS TOP loc. sing. of Sikinos -or- OM = a type of grain
Sikira/Sikirita PGS ONO/TOP -or- NM si/kera = sweet fermented liquor LB sikiro
Sima PGS TOP Si/ma = Sima Cf. Linear B Sima -or- sh=ma = sign, mark, token; omen; mound; grave, tomb Cf. sama/samaro above
simita PGS = mouse (arch. acc.) simito/simitu PGS  = zmi/nqoj mouse 
sire/siro/siru/sirute NM? si=re/ si=rei/ si=ro/j = a pit for keeping corn in = 260
sita2 (sitai) -or- ta2si (taisi) LIG NM  si/tai = with a small amount of wheat 
sitetu  NM See -  situ – below (inflected)
situ NM si/tu si/tun = wheat Cf. Linear B sito si/ton 
Sukirita/Sukiriteija  TOP = Sybrita Cf. Linear B Sukirita Su/grita
suniku (common) NM su/noiku <- su/noikoj  living together, joint inhabitant,  dweller
sure number NM? su=le < su=lon = with seizure of cargo? = no. = 108 used with olive oil
Suria PGS TOP = 265
suzu NM su/zuc = yoked together; paired Cf. Linear B zeukesi zeu/gesi = yoked (instr. pl.)

taikama OM tai + NM ka/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre?  
ta2re/ta2reki NM sta=rei<-  stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei
tai2si (taisi) NM stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.)
taki/taku/takui NM ta=xei/ <- ta=xu/j = quick, swift, speedy -or- with a large container 
for liquid (instr. singular) Cf. tadaga-m (Sanskrit) – or – OM = tax, from Hittite taksessar = tax = 270
tapa NM ta/rfa = thick, close Cf. Linear B tapa
tarasa PGS = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa 
tarawita PGS = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
tarina MM qalli/na (arch. acc.) <- qallo/j = a young shoot, twig; festive olive-branch 

taro MOSE NM tau=roj = bull – or- OM = tree, from Hittite, taru = tree = 275

tejai qei/ai = goddesses
Tejare TOP Cf. Linear B Tejaro qei/aroj = place of the gods?
terikama NM te/leika/ma = extent of land, i.e. something like acreage, lit. land to its extent or boundary (agglutinative)
tero/teroa NM te/loj = end, boundary 
tetu NM th=tou <- th=tej = of this year (gen. sing.) Cf. Linear B weto #e/toj = this year? = 280
timi NM qemi/ <- qemw/n = in a heap 
tiri NM qhri/ <- qh/r or qhri/on = with a wild beast or beast of prey
toraka torakas PGS qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B toraka 
toro NM tau/roj = bull -or- qolo/j = dome or circular vault; vaulted building. See bibliography 77, Smithsonian
tuma/tumei/tumi MOSD NM qumi/a = incense = 285

tunu/tunuja NM qu/nnu <- qu/nnoj = tunney-fish?

turunuseme NM1OM = throne room (agglutinative)
tusi/tusu NM tu/rsij = (in a) tower, castle -or- to/soj = so great, so much, so long, so strong, so little 
tute/tutesi NM quste/ quste/si <- qusta/j = dat. sing. & pl. (for) sacrificial purposes 

udiriki NM u3driki <- u3droj = with water = 290
Uminase OM TOP  Cf. Linear B Aminiso = harbour – or- town, from umina (Luwian)
unaa NM oi0nai/a = wine vessel, wine jug, wine jar 
uro NM ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total 


waja NM #ai/a = earth, land
wanaka PGS #a/nac  = king Cf. Linear B wanaka = 295

wasato NM #a/stu a1stu = town Cf. Lnear B wato #a/stu. See also, Luwian, ati wati = in the town)

Wasatomaro NM + OM TOP = the town of Wasatomaro?

widunimi OM widu NM nh=mi <- nh=ma = with (some kind of) thread or yard (instr. sing.) 
winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado
winu NM #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono  #oi/noj Cf. Luwian wainu & Hittite, wiyana = 300
winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative) 
wireu NM #i0eru/ <- #i0ero/j = priest Cf. Linear B iyero i0ero/j

zokutu NM zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-bar
zuma NM zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic
zute NM  zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer  See also Hittite, sessar = 305

This is a preliminary count of the number of potential Greek-like words in Linear A, and the total may have to be revised slightly downwards after every last word has been cross-checked for contextual accuracy with every last Linear A tablet on which they appear.

TOTAL number of potential pre-Greek substratum (PGS), proto-Greek (PG) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan words (NM) = 305
TOTAL number of words in the Linear Z Lexicon = 1076
Percentage of Greek-like words in the Lexicon = 28 %
 
NOTE that these Greek words in Linear A do not include words derived from other ancient languages antecedent to Linear A. I shall post those in the next post, and then add all of the Greek-like words to words of other origins, to arrive at the grand total of potentially deciphered words in Linear A, which will clearly exceed 30 %.

Overlap between Linear A and Linear B syllabaries is so high that the latter should be considered a refinement of the former, and not a new syllabary:

Minoan Linear A keyboard assignments620

In the keyboard assignments for Linear A syllabograms above, I have indicated where Linear A and Linear B syllabograms (almost) coincide with the tag lb just below and slightly to the right of each LA syllabogram for which the Linear B equivalent is (almost) identical or very similar. As it turns out, in the Linear A syllabary of 54 syllabograms, 48 ! are either (almost) identical or very similar to their Linear B counterparts. This leads me to draw the inexorable conclusion that the Linear B syllabary is not a new syllabary at all, but that it should rather be considered a refinement of the Linear A syllabary. The Linear B syllabary standardized several syllabograms which had first appeared in the Linear A syllabary, and eliminated perhaps as much as 100 ideograms, logograms and ligatures originally found in Linear A, replacing some (but far from all) of the latter by new ideograms, logograms and ligatures (in Linear B). Nevertheless, the high statistical overlap between the Linear A and Linear B syllabaries argues in favour of a single syllabary in evolution. Of the 54 syllabograms in Linear A, 48 are either (almost) identical or very similar to their Linear B counterparts, and of the 61 in Linear B, again 48 fall into the same zone.

So is Linear A a new syllabary, or is it merely a refinement and standardized version of Linear A? You may draw your own conclusions. I have already drawn mine.

The implications of this hypothesis for the further decipherment of Linear A are staggering.


New interpretation of Linear A tablet HT 10 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A tablet HT 10 Haghia Triada

A few months ago I posted my first interpretation of Linear A tablet HT 10 (Haghia Triada). Since then, I have made a few small tweaks. These are (a) the Linear A word kunisu, which is derived from Semitic kunissu, definitely means “emmer wheat”. (b) The supersyllabogram PA stands for Linear A pa3ni (paini) (noun)/pa3nina (painina) (adjective), which means either “millet” or “spelt”, since these two grain crops are the second most common grains cultivated everywhere in the Bronze age after kunisu “emmer wheat” and didero “einkorn wheat”. (c) the translation “offscourings/chaff” for ruma/rumata/rumatase (noun, adjective, noun in the instrumental plural) makes sense in context. (d) dare probably means “with a firebrand or torch”, since the tablet appears to deal with drought, when dead crops, i.e. grains in this case, are burnt. (e) Although tanati resembles the dative singular of the ancient Greek work qa/natoj, but this interpretation is doubtful.


CRITICAL POST: Ancient words from 3,000 – 1,200 BCE in modern English:

First the ancient words in modern English, and in the next two posts, how words infiltrate from earlier to diachronically close later languages. These posts are real eye-openers, explaining how words from earlier languages trickle into later, e.g. Akkadian and Sanskrit into Linear A (Minon) and Linear B (Mycenaean) + how all of the ancient words here infiltrate English.

Akkadian/Assyrian (3,000 BCE):

Akkadian

babel babilu = Babylon; gate of God (Akkadian)

bdellium budulhu = pieces (Assyrian)

canon, canyon qanu = tube, reed (Assyrian)

cumin kumunu = carrot family plant (Akkadian)

natron sodium (Akkadian)

myrrh murru (Akkadian)

sack saqqu (Akkadian)

shalom = hello sholom/shlama = hello (also Hebrew)

souk saqu = narrow (Akkadian)

Semitic (2,000-1,000 BCE):

arbiter arbiter (Latin from Phoenician)

byssus bwtz = linen cloth, to be white (Semitic)

chemise gms = garment (Ugaritic)

deltoid dalt (Phoenician)

fig pag (paleo-Hebrew)

iotacism iota (Phoenician)

map (Phoenician)

mat matta (Phoenician)

shekel tql (Canaanite)

Egyptian (2690 BCE):

Egyptian-Papyrus 19k BCE

http://www.egyptologyforum.org/AEloans.html

adobe

alabaster

alchemy

ammonia

baboon 5

barge, bark, barque, to embark

basalt

behemoth

bocal

chemistry 10

copt, coptic

desert

Egypt

ebony

endive 15

gum

gypsy

ibis

ivory

lily 20

oasis

obelisk

manna

mummy

myth 25

papyrus

paper

pharaoh

pharmacy

phoenix 30

pitcher

pyramid

sack See also saqqu (Akkadian)

sash

Susan(na), Phineas, Moses, Potiphar, Potiphera 35

sphinx

stibium = eye paint

tart

uraeus (emblem on the headdress of the pharaoh)39

Sanskrit (2,000 BCE):

Sanskrit

aniline nili (Sanskrit)

Aryan aryas = noble, honourable

atoll antala

aubergine vātigagama = eggplant, aubergine

avatar avatara = descent

bandana bandhana = a bond

banyan vaṇij = merchant

basmati vasa

beryl vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)

bhakti bhakti = portion

candy khaṇḍakaḥ, from khaṇḍaḥ = piece, fragment

cashmere shawl made of cashmere wool

cheetah chitras = uniquely marked

chintz chitras = clear, bright

cot khatva

cobra kharparah = skull

crimson krmija = red dye produced by a worm

crocus kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow

datura dhattūrāh = a kind of flowering plant

dinghy dronam = tiny boat

ginger srngaveram, from srngam “horn” + vera = body

guar gopali = annual legume

gunny goni = sack

guru gurus = bachelor

jackal srgalah = the howler

Java/java = island/coffee Yavadvipa= Island of Barley, from yava

= barley + dvipa =island

juggernaut jagat-natha-s = lord of the world

jungle jangala = arid

jute jutas = twisted hair

karma karman = action

kermes kṛmija = worm-made

lacquer lākṣā

lilac nila = dark blue

loot lotam = he steals

mandala mandala = circle

mandarin mantri = an advisor

mantra mantras = holy message or text

maya maya = illusion

Mithras mitrah = friend

mugger makara = sea creature, crocodile

musk mus = mouse

nard naladam = nard

nirvanas nirvanas = extinction, blowing out (candle)

opal upalah = opal

orange narangas = orange tree

pal bhrata = brother

palanquin palyanka = bed, couch

panther pāṇḍara = pale

pepper pippali = long pepper

punch pancha = drink from alcohol, sugar, lemon, water,

tea or spices

pundit paṇdita =learned

rajah rajan = king

rice vrihi-s = rice, derived from proto-Dravidian

rupee rūpyakam =silver coin

saccharin sarkarā

sandal wood candanam = wood for burning incense

sapphire sanipriya = sacred to Shani (Sanskrit) = Greek,

Saturn

sari sati = garment

shawl sati = strip of cloth

sugar sharkara = ground sugar

swami svami = master

tank tadaga-m =pond, lake pool, large artificial

container for liquid

thug sthaga = scoundrel

tope stupah

yoga yogas = yoke, union

yogi yogin = one who practices yoga, ascetic

zen dhyana = meditation

Linear A (1,800-1,500 BCE):

linear a tablet kh5 khania

cedar keda = cedar

cumin kuminaqe = and cumin See also Linear B kumino

kumi/non Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant

(Akkadian)

lily rairi (also Egyptian) -or- nila = dark blue

(Sanskrit)

pimento			pimata = pimento
rose				rosa  = rose 
sack				saka sa/kka  <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from 
				goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made
				of wicker See also saqqu = sack (Akkadian)

Linear A & Linear B (1,800-1,200 BCE):

Linear B tablet with ideogram

agriculture akara/akaru a1kra (arch. acc.) – or – = end, border

+ akaru a0gro/j = field Cf. Linear B akoro a0gro/j

democracy		dima/dimaru dh=maj <- dh=moj = land, country;
				people Cf. Linear B	damo = village da=moj
				Mother goddess of Mount Ida	Idamate/Idamete
				  0Idama/te
Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida Idarea  0Idar9ea 
healer			ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate
				i0a/ter
calligraphy		karu = ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine,
				ornamental
copper			kaki/kaku xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
crimson			punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
crocus			kuruku kro/koj = crocus, saffron Cf. crocus
				kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow (Sanskrit)
Lykinthos			Rukito Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj
minth			mita mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita 
nard				naridi na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with nard. See also
				naladam (Sanskrit)
new				nea ne/a (feminine) = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new     
pistachio-nut		pitakase/pitakesi pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts
				(instr. pl.) 
Phoenician		punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
Phaistos			Paito Faisto/j Cf. Linear Paito 
Rhea			rea r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
sack				saka sa/kka (arch. acc.) <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of
				hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj
				a shield made of wicker Cf. See also
				saqqu (Akkadian)
sesame			sasame sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
terebinth tree		tarawita = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano 
				ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
thalassian		tarasa = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa
thorax			toraka  qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B
				toraka
throne			turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B torono
				qo/rnoj
wine 			winu  #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono = wine, vine
				#oi/noj
wine dedicated to Mother Earth winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine
				dedicated	to Mother Earth
yoked			zokutu zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-		
				bar 
zone				zuma zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic 

Mycenaean Linear B (1,600-1,200 BCE):

aeon eo e0wn = being

anemometer anemo a0ne/mwn = wind

angel akero a0ngge/loj = messenger

agora akora a0gora/ = market

axles akosone a1conej = axles

amphorae aporowe a0mfore#ej

armaments amota a3rmo/ta = chariot

anthropology atoroqo a0nqrw/poj = man, human being

aulos (musical instrument)auro a0ulo/j = flute, musical instrument

cardamon kadamiya kardami/a = cardamon

celery serino se/linon = celery

chiton kito xitw/n = chiton

circular kukereu kukleu/j = circle

coriander koriyadana koli/adna

cumin kumino kum/minon Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant

(Akkadian)

curator korete kore/ter = governor

cypress kuparo ku/pairoj

divine diwo Di/#oj = Zeus

duo dwo du#o/ = two

elephant erepa e0le/faj = ivory (in Mycenaean)

eremite eremo e1remoj = desert

foal poro pw/loj = foal

gynecology kunaya gunai/a = woman

heterosexual hatero a3teroj e3teroj = other

hippodrome iqo i3ppoj = horse

labyrinth dapuritoyo = labyrinth laburi/nqoj

linen rino li/non

lion rewo le/#wn = lion

mariner marineu marineu/j = sailor, mariner

maternal matere ma/ter = mother

Mesopotamia Mesopotomo Mesopota/moj = Mesopotamia

metropolis matoropuro matro/puloj = mother city

nautical nao nau/j = ship

non-operational noopere nwfe/lioj = useless

operation opero o1feloj = operation

paternal pate pa/ter = father

paramedic 		para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of,
				beyond etc.
pharmaceutical	pamako fa/rmakon = medicine
polypod			porupode polu/pode polu/pouj = octopus
progressive		poro pro\ = in front of 
purple			popureyo pofurei/a = purple
quartet			qetoro tetta/rej = four

schinus kono skoi/noj (flowering pepper)

strategic tatakeu startageu/j = general

stylobate			tatamo staqmo/j = standing post, door post
temenos			temeno (piece of land assigned as an official
				domain (to royalty)
theological		teo qe/oj = god
trapeze			topeza to/rpeza tra/peza = table
tripod			tiripode tri/pwj = tripod
vision			wide #ei/de = to see 
xenophobic		kesenuwiyo ce/n#ioj = stranger

© by Richard Vallance Janke 2017


Linear A tablet PY Ub 1318a (Pylos) – millet or spelt:

Linear A tablet HT 1 Haghia Triada

This is Linear A tablet PY Ub 1318a (Pylos), which deals with millet or spelt, and mentions switches or something bent, which I take to be scythes.


The supersyllabogram PA pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi OM = millet -or- spelt -or- pa3qe, paiqe (+ ideogram for wheat) LIG = a kind of grain similar to wheat:

millet or spelt

The supersyllabogram PA pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi OM = millet -or- spelt -or- pa3qe, paiqe (+ ideogram for wheat) LIG = a kind of grain similar to wheat appears on all of these tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), Petras (PE), Tylissos (TY) and Zakros (ZA)

HT 43 gr HT 93 gr (x2) HT 120 gr (x3) HT 125 oo HT 128 gr KH 27 gr PE 1 (x2) TY 3 oo ZA 6 gr (x3) ZA 11 (x5) ZA 18 gr ZA 28 gr

all of which which deal with grains, with the exception of HT 125, dealing with olive oil. The decipherment of millet or spelt (one or the other) is confirmed. It is impossible to decipher PA in the instance of olive oil.


The supersyllabogram ME meza NM1 me/za (fem. sing.) probably means greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj

Knossos, Iraklion, Crete

It appears on Tylissos tablet TY 3 oo, dealing with olive oil and on Zakros tablet ZA 15 wi, dealing with wine. It would seem to imply that the vessels in which these commodities are stored are larger than usual.


The supersyllabogram KI kitina in Linear A probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land?

Plot-of-land-in-Crete

The supersyllabogram KI kitina NM1 ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land. There is no way of substantiating this claim. However, it does make sense, given that it appears on all of rhe following Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), on one from Tylissos (TY) and one from Zakros (ZA):

HT 8 oo HT 9 wi HT 16 oo HT 28 oo HT 44 gr HT 50 oo (x2) HT 91 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 116 (x2) HT 125 oo HT 129 oo HT 140 oo (x2) TY 3 (x3) ZA 18 oo

All of these tablets except one apparently deal with olive trees, rather than olive oil. The one exception is HT 44, which deals with grain, another crop which is grown on plots of land.


The supersyllabogram WI in Linear A winu, winadu, winumatari

Minoan wine presses

The supersyllabogram WI in Linear A means any of the following,winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado -or- winu NM1 #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj -or- winumatari NM1 #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative). The most likely interpretation is winu = wine, but the other two are not out of the question. This supersyllabogram appears on only one tablet, Khania KH 5 wi.


The supersyllabogram NE in Linear A = nere larger amphora size (fem. pl.)

amphorae Knossos

NE nere OM = larger amphora size (fem. plural)

HT 23 oo HT 32 oo (x2) HT 100 oo

This supersyllabogram is found on 3 tablets from Haghia Triada, all of which deal with olive oil. This would seem to confirm our interpretation.


the supersyllabogram SU in Linear A, a small cup with handles & the largest pithos size:

Minoan Pithos and small cup with a handle

The supersyllabogram SU in Linear A has two meanings, context dependent. The first is:

1. SU = supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) OM = a small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo. The word depa/depu PGS de/paj de/pu (acc.?) = cup occurs in Linear A. Cf. Linear B dipa di/paj & Homeric de/pa

and the second is:

2. SU = supi/supu/supu2 OM = largest size pithos;

but not MOSE * NM1 supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal tub. MOSE * = decryption by Prof. Yuriy Mosenkis. This interpretation flies in the face of context on any Linear A tablet or fragment. It is all fine and well to conjecture a proto-Greek or Mycenaean-derived Greek word, but if you check your decipherment against extant tablets, then you may find it invalidated. This must always be done. Otherwise, you will end up with a meaning which is simply out of the question.


the supersyllabogram KA = with with a jar or vessel for water or wine:

Minoanand Mycenaeanflasks

kadi MOSE NM1 kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine

This supersyllabogram appears on Haghia Triada tablets HT HT 28 wi HT 88 ma & HT 100 ma, in conjunction with the ideogram for wine on the first one and for man on the second and third. It would appear that the second and third tablets refer to a man or person using a jar or vessel for water or wine.


POST 1,702: The supersyllabogram DI in Linear A, dipa3a (dipaia) + dipaja = from a cup

Minoan cups

The supersyllabogram DI in Linear A, dipa3a (dipaia) almost certainly refers to a cup. It is debatable whether or not this form is Linear A nominative singular; however, the form dipaja = from a cup, is likely to be genitive singular.

DI = dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup 
or
DI = dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)


 

Comment by Nikos Papadopoulos (Greece) on my Linear A decipherment of beer as “with beer”, hence zute NM1 zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer

ancient depictions of beer consumption and brewing b

The rudiments are being revealed due to your diligence and systematic research. I will drink some Ζύθος (we use the word in modern Greek to denote the canning company e.g. Ζυθοποιία Άταλάντης) and propose a toast raising a glass of Cretan wine: May it be soon that whatever Linear A exists will be manifested translated for the world to acknowledge and admire.

NOTE by Richard Vallance

Lest anyone should be mislead into thinking that Linear A zute does not mean wine, consider this, that it is in the instrumental singular, meaning “with beer”, hence zute NM1 zu=qe <- ζῦθος = with beer. Nikos Papadopoulos is also quite confident that I am, slowly but surely, cracking at least 35 % of Linear A, which I trust I am.


The supersyllabogram AKA in Linear A = either wine skin or an embossed cup:

ancient wine skin and the Vapheio cup

BOLD: n. e.g. 1. A = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is either certain or highly probable.

Italics: n. e.g. 7. KI = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is possible.

Standard font: n. e.g. 2 = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is unlikely or questionable.

It is almost certain that the supersyllabogram A in Linear A means either a wine skin or an embossed cup.

1. A aka = aska = a0ska = wine skin -or- apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine Cf. Linear B apero -or- aresana NM1 a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM1 a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup

Note that it appears on HT 2 (Haghia Triada) dealing with olive oil, which is sometimes served from a vessel and on the other 3 tablets, same provenance, all of which deal with vessels, hence the reading, embossed cup:

HT 2 oo HT 39 ve KH 83 ve MA 10 ve

oo = olive oil

ve = vessels


Wikipedia: History of beer + the Minoan words for beer = zute and kiretaiwinu finally deciphered: 

the supersyllaogram TE in Linear A

From Wikipedia: History of beer

wikipedia the history of beer

As almost any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like beverages were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal. Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran. This discovery reveals one of the earliest known uses of fermentation and is the earliest evidence of brewing to date. In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl.

ancient depictions of beer consumption and brewing a

A 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honouring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread. 

In Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq), early evidence of beer is a 3900-year-old Sumerian poem honoring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, which contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread. Approximately 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer.

Ninkasi, you are the one who pours out the filtered beer of the collector vat
It is [like] the onrush of Tigris and Euphrates.

Beer was part of the daily diet of Egyptian pharaohs over 5,000 years ago. Then, it was made from baked barley bread, and was also used in religious practices. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, Egypt, each worker got a daily ration of four to five liters of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment that was crucial to the pyramids' construction.

ancient depictions of beer consumption and brewing b

The Greek writer Sophocles (450 BCE) discussed the concept of moderation when it came to consuming beer in Greek culture, and believed that the best diet for Greeks consisted of bread, meats, various types of vegetables, and beer or zythos as they called it. The ancient Greeks also made barley wine (Greek:  – krithinos oinos, “barley wine” mentioned by Greek historian Polybius in his work The Histories, where he states that Phaeacians kept barley wine in silver and golden kraters.

NOTES: The Old Minoan (OM) equivalent of zythos is zute, while the New Minoan (NM) equivalent of krithinos oinos is kiretaiwinu.


TE = tereza OM = standard liquid unit of measurement confirms beyond a shadow of a doubt that tereza, was used to measure fig juice, Old Minoan (OM) supersyllabogram = NI, corresponding to the OM word nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nitai) OM = figs + ideogram = NI (in both Linear A & B), as well as for wine = New Minoan winu NM1 #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj, as well as for beer, for which the Minoan words are deciphered for the first time below. Minoan beer was fermented either from barley (kiretai) or from emmer wheat (kunisu).

TE = tereza on Minoan Linear A tablets

HT 6 fi HT 13 wi HT 17 wi HT 19 wi HT 21 gr HT 40 gr HT 44 gr HT 51 fi HT 62 wi HT 67 fi HT 70 fi HT 96 fi HT 133 gr TH 6 te TH Zb 11 wi

fi 5 (fig juice)

wi 5 (wine)

gr 5 (beer, from barley)

The ancient Greek word for beer was ζῦθος (zythos), which appears as zute in Old Minoan (OM) and also κρίθινος οἶνος – krithinos oinos = barley wine. This means that the Minoan word combination for beer was very likely kireta2 (kiretai) NM1 kri/qai = barley + winu NM1 #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj, hence kiretaiwinu = kri/qai#i/nu

Minoan beer was also produced from emmer wheat, kunisu OM = emmer wheat (derivation: Semitic kunnisu)


							

Introduction to supersyllabograms on Linear A tablets: PART A

Supersyllabograms in Mycenaean Linear B:

The phenomenon of the supersyllabogram in Mycenaean Linear B was first introduced to the world at at the Third Interdisciplinary Conference, Thinking Symbols, on July 1, 2015, at the Pultusk Academy of Humanities, here:

role of supersyllabograms in Linear B Thinking Symbols

Prior to 2015, no researcher had ever identified supersyllabograms in Linear B. But what is a supersyllabogram? A supersyllabogram is the first syllabogram, i.e. the first syllable of a particular major Mycenaean Linear B word paired with a particular ideogram in any of the major sectors of the Mycenaean economy, agricultural, military, textiles, vessels and pottery. Initially, in 2015, 34 supersyllabograms were identified in this talk, which is brief enough for you to glean a clear conception of what supersyllabograms entail.

By 2016, this number had risen to 36, 35 syllabograms and 1 homophone or logogram (AI), published in Archaeology and Science, Vol. 11 (2015), ISSN 1452-7448, pp. 73-108, published in 2016, here:

Archaeology and Science decipherment of supersyllabograms in Linear B

 

Here is the abstract of that article:

A supersyllabogram is the first syllabogram, i.e. the first syllable of a major (never minor) economic indicator combined with a closely related ideogram in the four economic sectors of the Mycenaean economy, agricultural, military, textiles and vessels or pottery. With very few exceptions, change the economic sector and you change the meaning of any particular supersyllabogram. Of some 3,500 tablets and fragments from Knossos, about 800 or 23% contain at least one supersyllabogram and sometimes as many as four or five. The whole point of supersyllabograms is that they are meant to eliminate text on tablets to the greatest possible extent. In a syllabary of 61 syllabograms + one homophone (AI), 36 syllabograms or 59% are supersyllabograms. Supersyllabograms serve to greatly economize on the precious space available on the tiny inventory tablets in Linear B. Any complete decipherment of Linear B must fully account for the supersyllabogram as a unique phenomenon without which any approach to the interpretation of the Linear B syllabary is squarely compromised.

Supersyllabograms in Linear A:

As it turns out, supersyllabograms were not invented by the Mycenaeans, but by the Minoans. They first emerged in Linear A, not Linear B. In a syllabary of 54 syllabograms, 27 or 50 % are supersyllabograms. This compares favourably with the incidence of supersyllabograms in Linear B, in which 36 or 59 % of 61 syllabograms are supersyllabograms.

Linear A base syllabary

620 Table 5 Table of 27 supersyllabograms in Minoan Linear A

KEY to supersyllabograms in Linear A:

fi = figs

gr = grains (wheat)

ma = man, person

oo = olives, olive oil

pi = pigs

ra = rams

sh = sheep

te = textiles

ve = vessels

wi = wine & vinegar

Locales where Linear A tablets have been found:

HT = Haghia Triada

KH = Khania

MA = Malia

PE = Petras
PH = Phaistos

TH = Thera

TY = Tylissos

ZA = Zakros

The numeric value of each supersyllabograms is rated as follows:

BOLD: n. e.g. 21. TE = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is either certain or highly probable.

Italics: n. e.g. 1. A = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is possible.

Standard font: n. e.g. 2 = a supersyllabogram for which the definition is unlikely or questionable.

1. A aka = aska = a0ska = wine skin -or- apero PGS a1mpeloj = a vine Cf. Linear B apero -or- aresana NM1 a1leisana <- a1leison = an embossed cup (arch. acc.) = de/paj (Homeric) Cf. Linear B dipa/arisu NM1 a1leisu <- a1leison = embossed cup

HT 2 oo HT 39 ve KH 83 ve MA 10 ve

2. DA dadumata OM = harvesting? -or- grain(s) measured? -or- dadumina/dadumine OM= related to harvesting?

HT 133 gr

3. DI dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup -or- dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)

HT 12 oo HT 14 oo (x2) HT 28 oo (x5) HT 50 oo HT 90 oo HT 116 oo HT 121 oo HT 129 oo

4. E etori NM1 e1tori <- e1toj = for a year?

HT 2 oo HT 21 oo HT 34 gr HT 50 oo HT 58 oo MA 10 (x3)

5. KA kadi MOSE NM1 kadi/ (instr. sing.) <- ka/doj = with a jar or vessel for water or wine

HT 28 wi HT 88 ma HT 100 ma

6. KE ?

HT 26 ve (x2)

7. KI kitina NM1 ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj = border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land?

HT 8 oo HT 9 wi HT 16 oo HT 28 oo HT 44 gr HT 50 oo (x2) HT 91 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 116 (x2) HT 125 oo HT 129 oo HT 140 oo? (x2) TY 3 (x3) ZA 18 oo

8. KU?

HT 38 te (x2) HT 61 gr HT 128 gr (x6) PH 31 sh (x7)

9. ME meza NM1 me/za (fem. sing.) = greater, bigger Cf. Linear B mezo me/zwn me/zoj?

TY 3 oo ZA 15 wi

10. MI ? HT 28 oo HT 50 oo HT 58 oo HT 90 oo HT 91 oo (x2) HT 100 oo HT 101 oo HT 116 oo (x2) HT 125 oo HT 137 oo TY 3 oo (x5)

11. NE nea NM1 ne/a = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new -or- nere OM = larger amphora size (fem. plural)

HT 23 oo HT 32 oo (x2) HT 100 oo

12. PA pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi OM = millet -or- spelt -or- pa3qe -or- qepa3 i.e. paiqe -or- qepai (+ ideogram for wheat”) LIG = a kind of grain similar to wheat

HT 43 gr HT 93 gr (x2) HT 120 gr (x3) HT 125 oo HT 128 gr KH 27 gr PE 1 (x2) TY 3 oo ZA 6 gr (x3) ZA 11 (x5) ZA 18 gr ZA 28 gr

13. QE qera2u/qera2wa OM = a type of grain, probably millet or spelt (inflected) -or-

qeria OM = probably millet or spelt

HT 16 gr HT 28 gr HT 36 gr HT 99 gr HT 101 gr HT 121 oo ZA 11 gr

14. RA ranatusu (agglutinative?) -or- NM1 r9anatusu < – r9anti/zw = to cleanse, purify

rani NM1 r9a=ni/j = anything sprinkled (as in a libation); rain drop See also ratise -or- ratise (ritise?) NM1 = la/tise <- la/taj = with drops of wine (instr. pl.)

HT 44 oo KH 31 ve KH 91 ve ZA 6 wi (x2) ZA 15

15. RI rima NM1 lei=mac = garden -or- lei=mma = remnant, remains -or- lh=mma = income, receipts (dative/instrumental plural)

HT 23 oo HT 35 oo HT 60 oo KH 82 oo

16. RU ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase lu=matase <- lu=ma = offscourings from grain, i.e chaff?

KH 12 ve (x2) KH 63 ve KH 83 ve KH 84 ve KH 85 ve KH 91 ve

17. SA sato PGS Hebrew sa/ton = Hebrew unit of measurement?

HT 27 gr (x2) wi HT 144 wi HT 131 wi ZA 15 wi

18. SI sika NM1 shka/ (arch. acc.) <- shko/j = fold, enclosure; (sheep) pen; sacred precinct, shrine = <- zhka/zw = to pen in Cf. Linear B periqoro peri/boloj = sheep pen?

HT 27 wi PH 31 pi PH 31 sh ZA 9 sh (x3)

19. SU supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) OM =small cup with handles Cf. Linear B dipa mewiyo

-or- supi/supu/supu2 OM = largest size pithos -or- MOSE NM1 supu/h sipu/h sipu/a i0pu/a = meal

20. MA? 10 ve ZA 5 wi

TA taikama OM tai + NM1 ka/ma = a unit of land, something like an acre? -or- ta2re/ta2reki NM1 sta=rei<- stai=j wheaten flour mixed into dough + tasise sta/sisei -or- tai2si (taisi) NM1 stai=sei <- stai=j = with wheaten flour mixed into a dough (instr. pl.)

HT 28 oo (x2) HT 35 oo KH 19 oo KH 39 KH 55 oo KH 61 oo KH 85 oo

21. TE = teresa OM = liquid unit of measurement

HT 6 fi HT 13 wi HT 17 wi HT 19 wi HT 21 gr HT 40 gr HT 44 gr HT 51 fi HT 62 wi HT 67 fi HT 70 fi HT 96 fi HT 133 gr TH 6 te TH Zb 11 wi

22. TI tisa OM = pottery worker/working on pottery/pottery wheel (tourney)?

KH 10 ve

23. TU ?

HT 23 oo HT 28 oo HT 50 oo HT 101 oo TY 3 oo

24. U uro NM1 ou0=loj = entire, total. Cf. kuro ku=rwn = reaching, attaining i.e. = total ?

HT 2 oo HT 21 oo HT 28 oo HT 40 00 (x3) HT 43 oo HT 58 oo HT 91 oo HT 96 oo HT 100 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 125 oo HT 140 oo (x8) TY 3 oo

25. WA HT 27 wi (x2)

26. WI winadu #i1nadu = vineyard Cf. Linear B winado -or- winu NM1 #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono #oi/noj -or- winumatari NM1 #i/numa/tari = wine dedicated to Mother Earth (agglutinative)

27. KH 5 wi


How can so-called Cretan hieroglyphs be hieroglyphs when there are only 45 of them?

Until now most researchers have simply assumed that the 45 Cretan symbols (by my count), exclusive of numerics, must be hieroglyphs. But the evidence appears to gainsay this hypothesis. As the table below makes quite clear, there are only 45 Cretan symbols, to which

only 27 may possibly/probably/definitely be assigned meanings.

possible or probable or definite known Cretan hieroglyphs

The significance of the remaining 18 are currently beyond the bounds of decipherment:

ALL unknown Cretan seal symbols

So this lands us with a total of only 45 Cretan symbols. If and when we compare this number with the approximately 1,000 Egyptian hieroglyphs, the whole notion that the Cretan symbols are hieroglyphs comes apart at the seams and is shattered.

sample of 1000 Egyptian hieroglyphs

And that is not the end of it. There are anywhere between 600 and 1,000 symbols in Cuneiform.

akkadianpersiansumeriancuneiform1kto600

So once again, the massive proliferation of symbols, i.e. hieroglyphs, in Egyptian, and of symbols in Cuneiform make a mockery of the notion that the Cretan symbols are hieroglyphs. But if they are not hieroglyphs, what are they? It would appear that they are ideograms or logograms on seals and nodules which serve to tag the contents of the (papyrus) documents they seal. This hypothesis makes a lot of sense, since almost all Cretans and Minoans, administrators, merchants and consumer, were illiterate. These people were probably able to master the minimal number of 45 ideograms and logograms which we find on 100s of surviving seals. But while the illiterate hoy polloi could not read the script on the sealed papyrus (or leaf tablets sometimes), the scribes most definitely could. This leaves us open to yet another hypothetical question? What is the script of the texts? How many symbols or syllabograms (if the latter yet existed) would have been required to write the papyrus or inscribe the leaf tablets? Was this script, if script it was, an early form of Linear A, such as Festive Linear A? Or was it actually Linear A? This question or hypothesis demands further investigation.


RE Cretan “hieroglyphs”: Brewminate: a Bold Blend of News & Ideas: We're Never Far from Where we Were:
Form Follows Function: Writing and its Supports in the Aegean Bronze Age 
by Dr. Sarah Finlayson, Archaeologist/Historian
Posted March 29 2017

Brewinmate


form follows function writing in the Aegean Bronze Age

Excerpta from the source with COMMENTS by Richard Vallance Janke inserted where necessary:

...a starting point from which to unpick the complex and changing relationships between writing and its material supports during the Aegean Bronze Age, [is] the basic hypothesis that the shape of objects which bear writing, the Bronze Age ‘office stationery’ so to speak, derives from the use to which they, object + writing, are put and the shape changes as this purpose changes. 

COMMENT:

The shapes of incised objects (exograms) derive from the uses to which they are put. In other words, if the exograms, which, contrary to popular belief, are not hieroglyphs, change not only their form (i.e. shape) but have specific shapes tailored to the functions they perform. For this reason, among others, I cannot accept the hypothesis that they are hieroglyphs. They appear rather to be ideograms and logograms specifically designed to represent the contents of “packages” or “official documents”, sometimes apparently written on papyrus, and therefore subsequently lost due to the climate of Crete which as not conducive to the preservation of papyrus. What the exograms were which were inscribed on the lost documents for which the clay forms served as content indicators we shall never know, but chances are that the papyrus contents were written in Linear A. The incised objects, and I quote, “noduli, flat-based sealings, cones, medallions, labels, three- and four-sided bars, and tablets” specifically served as incised “subject headings” for the contents on papyrus which they represented. Since most people in the palace administration in the Minoan era in which Linear A was the standard syllabary were illiterate, the so-called Cretan “hieroglyphs”, of which there only 45 by my count, exclusive of numerics, served as ideogrammatic guideline markers for the contents of the documents which were once attached to them. Illiterate people could “read” ideograms; they could not read Linear A.  (all italics mine throughout this post)

Finlayson continues:      

The clay documents comprise crescents (all terms are defined below), noduli, flat-based sealings, cones, medallions, labels, three- and four-sided bars, and tablets (Olivier and Godart 1996: 10–11; Younger 1996–1997: 396). There are also substantial numbers of direct object sealings, which show seal impressions but no incised writing (Krzyszkowska 2005: 99).

COMMENT:

The “substantial numbers of direct object sealings” are seal impressions without incised writing because the contents, probably written and not incised on papyrus, which they seal have been lost forever. Thus, the script in which the actual sealed documents has been lost. But what was that script? Was it more of the same? ... Cretan “hieroglyphs”? I very much doubt that, because not a single Cretan seal can be read as syllabic text in a syllabary. What script was the writing on papyrus of the sealed documents? That is the whole point, and the whole mystery. Could it have been an early version  of Linear A, a.ka. as Festive Linear A? Quite possibly.

Finlayson continues:      

Easier to understand are the gable-shaped hanging nodules (Figure 3d). These sealings are carefully shaped around a knotted string, and carry a seal impression on one face (Krzyszkowska 2005: 280). The majority are uninscribed (only 22 out of the 164 sealings from Pylos carry an inscription), but on those examples with incised text, an ideogram is usually written over the seal impression, and additional sign-groups can appear on the other faces (Palaima 2003: 174; Krzyszkowska 2005: 280). Analysis of the cache of 60 nodules from Thebes, 56 of which have inscriptions, has enabled a convincing reconstruction of their use. The gable shape of the nodules results from the way the clay is held between the fingers while impressing the seal and writing the inscription (Piteros et al. 1990: 113). This shape, together with its suspension cord, give (sic) a small, solid, virtually indestructible and very portable document (Piteros et al. 1990: 183). In this instance, form does not strictly follow function, but rather the two aspects are intertwined in a more complex way. A key part of these documents’ function is their portability, and this governs their very small size, which in turn means only the most important information is recorded, namely the seal impression, the ideogram which identifies the goods, and, rarely, a small amount of additional data, such as anthroponyms, toponyms, transactional terms (Piteros et al. 1990: 177). The formula ‘personal name (here represented by the seal impression) + object + toponym / second personal name’ is equivalent to that recorded on the ‘palm-leaf ’ tablets. Numerals are rare, because that information is supplied by the object itself. It is suggested that each nodule accompanies a single item, mostly livestock in the Theban examples, from the hinterland into the palatial centre, with the nodule acting as a primary document, recording the most crucial information about its object, the sex of the animal, for example, and also certifying or authenticating, by the seal impression, who is responsible for it (probably in the sense of ‘owing’ the item to the palace; Piteros et al. 1990: 183–184). 

It is important to note, however, that, except at Thebes, there are considerably fewer inscribed than uninscribed nodules. Sealings of this type would therefore seem to be primarily recording instruments within transactions that do not require the use of writing (Palaima 2003: 174), although this is not incompatible with their being primary documents as described above.

So few noduli survive that it is difficult to understand how they functioned (Krzyszkowska 2005: 284). I discuss this form below as they are significantly more common in LA administration. (Italics by Richard Vallance Janke)


Roundels (Figure 2c) are clay disks with one or more seal impressions around their rim, and usually with a LA inscription on one or both faces, but with no trace of having been hung from or pressed against another object (Hallager 1996: 82). The number of seal impressions on the rim probably specifies the quantity of the commodity recorded in the inscription (livestock, agricultural produce, cloth, vessels and so on), with each impression representing one unit (Hallager 1996: 100–101, 113). Analysis of impressions and inscriptions suggests that at least two people made a roundel, one wielding the seal and another, the stylus (Hallager 1996: 112). These two factors have led to the interpretation of these documents as receipts, created and held by the central administration to record goods disbursed; the seal user would be the recipient, certifying with his or her impression the quantity of goods received (Hallager 1996: 116). Significantly, the physical limitations of these documents necessarily restrict the size of transactions, with 15 units being the largest amount attested (Palaima 1990: 92).

COMMENT on the sentence “a roundel, one wielding the seal and another, the stylus (Hallager 1996: 112). These two factors have led to the interpretation of these documents as receipts, created and held by the central administration to record goods disbursed; the seal user would be the recipient, certifying with his or her impression the quantity of goods received...”

In other words, the actual contents of the documents (apparently written with a stylus on papyrus) to which these seals were affixed may have been administrative receipts or possibly even inventories, in which case the contents of the documents were probably not written in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs, limited as these are to 45. And by 45 I mean 45 ideograms and logograms + additional numerics and nothing more than that. Given that these 45 signs never form any legible sentence or phrase, it is highly unlikely they would have been used for the writing of the contents on papyrus for which they serve as seals.

Finlayson continues:  

Noduli (Figure 2e), disk- or dome-shaped lumps of clay with a seal impression but no perforation, imprints of objects, or other visible means of fastening (“sealings that do not seal” [Weingarten 1986: 4]) are a very long-lasting document form, found from the early First Palace through to the Late Bronze Age, but they are particularly common in Second Palace Period LA administration, with around 130 examples known (Krzyszkowska 2005: 161; Weingarten 1990a: 17). Only eight have LA inscriptions or countermarks over the seal impression (Hallager 1996: 127). As they are clearly not attached to anything, noduli are independent documents, and their primary purpose seems to be to carry a seal impression, that is to authenticate or certify something. By analogy with Old Babylonian practice, Weingarten (1986: 18) suggests they are originally dockets, receipts for work done, with the seal impression being made by the overseer to authorise ‘payment’; as the form becomes more widespread in the Second Palace Period, they become more like tokens, to be exchanged for goods or services, or as laissez-passer, with the seal impression identifying the carrier as legitimate (Weingarten 1990a: 19–20).

COMMENT: 

The previous sentence, beginning with “By analogy...” and ending with “as legitimate” gives us a clearer impression the function(s) of the seals as these relate to the contents they seal. Old Babylonian tablets were incised or written in Cuneiform, which is a readable script meant for the eyes of literate scribes only. Note that the inventorial contents of the Babylonian tablets were clearly written out in Cuneiform. Although this practice is at variance with that of the Cretan seals, it still all boils down to the same thing. The actual contents of the documents to which the Cretan seals were affixed were written out in a language, possibly unknown, possibly Linear A. So in either case, the Babylonian or the Cretan, contents appear to be intended for literate scribes. 

Finlayson continues:    

Moving on to the ‘passive’ sealed documents, single-hole hanging nodules (Figure 2g) are roughly triangular clay sealings, formed around a knot at the end of a piece of string or cord (Hallager 1996: 160–161). They have a seal impression on one face, and a single incised LA sign, or very rarely another seal impression, on one of the other faces (Hallager 1996: 161). There are five sub- categories of single-hole nodule, differentiated by shape and position of seal impression or inscription (pendant, pyramid, cone, dome / gable and pear, see Figure 2g) with pendant being by far the most common (Hallager 1996: 162–163). About 13 signs or ligatures are found on these nodules, but it is very difficult to discern their meaning; the restricted range might suggest they are acting as arbitrary symbols, along the lines of ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, rather than as syllabograms (Krzyszkowska 2005: 160). These nodules hang from something, although there is no evidence for what (Krzyszkowska 2005: 160). Hallager has proposed a use similar to that observed in contemporary Egypt, where nodules were hung from rolls of papyrus as identification labels, with their cord threaded through holes in the lower part of the scroll to enable it to be unrolled and read without breaking the cord or sealed nodule (Hallager 1996: 198–199). 

COMMENTS:

Once again, the practice of Cretan using seals seems to be very similar if not identical to that of contemporary Egyptian hieroglyphic writing on papyrus, with the critical difference being that Egyptian hieroglyphs are writing, while Cretan seal ideograms are not. But the contents of the Cretan documents on papyrus were probably also written in a script, probably a syllabary, and possibly even (Festive) Linear A. But since the Cretan papyri are lost to history, we shall never know. Was there a “Cretan” script for the written documents on papyrus. It is notable that the Egyptian papyrus, once unsealed, was meant to read, again by literate scribes. Was this the Cretan practice too? Quite likely.

Finlayson continues:

The bars (Figure 1a) are usually rectangular, inscribed on all four sides, and sometimes pierced with a hole at one end (Hallager 1996: 33). That the bars could be suspended suggests they might be used as labels attached to objects for transport or storage, but the information on them seems to be much like that on the tablets, and, in fact, the unpierced examples are perhaps best understood as variants of the standard tablet format (Hallager 1996: 33). Olivier (1994–1995: 268–269) offers an intriguing alternative explanation, that the bars are not attached by cords to any object, but instead hang together on some sort of horizontal rod to enable them to be sorted and stored, or taken down when additional data are inscribed on them; he envisions the bars operating like the LB ‘palm-leaf ’ tablets, for compiling basic data. 

Returning now to LA administration, it seems that a link exists between the architectural context of deposits and their composition and function (Schoep 2002b: 25). Although few documents have been found in primary contexts, it is nevertheless possible to identify three commonly occurring groupings (Schoep 1995: 57). “Full combination deposits” always contain single-hole hanging nodules, alongside tablets and other sealings; as the single-hole nodules are postulated to hang from the highest-level records, on perishable materials, these deposits may be ‘archives’ (Schoep 1995: 61).

COMMENT:

These (sealed) documents may have been ‘archives’, and if they are, they were probably written out (on papyrus) but not in so-called Cretan hieroglyphs.

Finlayson continues:  

This seems to be supported by their location, in central buildings (including Malia Palace, Zakros House A, and the ‘villa’ at Ayia Triada), usually on an upper floor in residential quarters, clearly separated from storage or work areas, and by their association with valuable objects (Schoep 1995: 61, table 3, 62). ‘Single type deposits’ consist of direct object sealings, tablets or noduli, and most seem to be in the location in which they functioned; the direct object sealings are found in magazines suitable for bulk storage, as at Monastiraki, while tablet or noduli deposits can also occur in smaller-scale storage rooms, for example, Houses I, Chania or FG, Gournia (Schoep 1995: 62–63). “Limited combination deposits” fall somewhere in between; deposits from the ‘villa’ at Ayia Triada and Zakros Palace contain tablets and sealed documents, in workshop or storage areas, while other deposits contain only sealings, ...

In reviewing the evidence for LA use in the Second Palace Period, one gets an impression of a widespread use of writing on several media, and for several purposes, with either the writing support being manipulated to add meaning to the text (as with the clay administrative documents) or the other way around (as might be the case with some of the non-administrative objects).

COMMENT:

Finlayson notes that the the writing may have been manipulated to add meaning to the texts, in this case written on clay documents. She is making a clear distinction between the ideograms and logograms used on the seals themselves and the writing of the texts which they seal.

Finlayson continues:

Although examples of writing are relatively widespread in the landscape, this need not necessarily equate to widespread literacy, not least because it seems likely that writing is principally an elite activity, and furthermore, that restricted contexts of use possibly mean that ordinary, non-writing, people might well interact with only a single kind, or a small range, of documents, creating a sort of sub-category of literacy, where understanding part of a text’s meaning derives largely from the form of its support and context of use.  (all italics by the Commentator, Richard Vallance Janke).

COMMENT:

The passage above rams home that fact that literacy was not widespread. Quite the contrary. Only the scribes were literate. On the other hand, the form of the so-called Cretan hieroglyphs were accessible to non-literates, which was everyone except the scribes. That way, non-literate administrators, merchants, distributors of commodities and end users of these could identify what the purpose of what each and every seal represented, without having to be able to read the contents of documents per se.

Finlayson continues:   

Clearly, for some of the sealed document forms, the loss of whatever they were associated with means our understanding of their use cannot, without speculation, extend much beyond inferring that they hung from or were affixed to something. Generally, the taphonomy of writing in the Aegean is problematic, as we depend on it being applied to materials that are preserved archaeologically; in the case of clay documents that were not deliberately fired, this means accidental preservation in a wider burnt context (Bennet 2008: 6). There is then an inevitable risk that, in an effort to make up for the gaps in the evidence, particularly with CH and LA where we cannot read the texts, we rely too heavily on aspects like differences in form, which might be a reflection of our own ‘etic’ analyses rather than of different ancient practices (Bennet 2005: 269). “Classer, c’est interpréter” (Godart and Olivier 1979: xxiv) is a crucial principle for understanding a large and complex database at the macro scale, but runs the risk of misrepresenting, at the micro scale, differences in form that result from regional peculiarities of use, or are a function of the way different individuals form and seal or inscribe each shape, as seems likely, for example, for some of the variation amongst LA single-hole hanging nodules (Krzyszkowska 2005: 159–160). 

While these points must be borne in mind, it is nevertheless reasonable to suggest that the observable changes in document forms point to alterations in the methods of data gathering, processing and storing (Palaima 1984: 305). I would pick out two as particularly significant. The first is the bundle of changes in sealing practices between the First and Second Palace periods (i.e. between CH / limited LA use, and widespread LA use): direct object sealing is abandoned, suggesting, on the one hand, that the security of storerooms and their contents is managed differently, in a less physical way (Weingarten 1990b: 107–108), and, on the other, that direct control of commodities, by means of attaching sealings to them, is replaced by more indirect methods of controlling commodity information with hanging nodules and tablets (Knappett 2001: 86, n. 26). Furthermore, writing, with one exception, no longer appears on seals themselves, but from this point on is incised or painted rather than formed by stamping (Bennet 2008: 9–10). 

What drives these changes is difficult to evaluate, not least because we assume that changes in sealing systems are necessarily tied to changes in writing systems (and possibly language; Bennet 2005: 270).

COMMENT:

Key phrase “we assume”. Changes in sealing systems, from simple pictographic seals to seals incised in Cretan “hieroglyphs” and eventually to Linear A & B incised directly on the seals do not at all necessarily reflect any changes in the writing systems in which the actual documents (usually on papyrus) were written. That is a false assumption. Note here that Bennet specifically states that the writing systems sealed by the seals were probably independent of the figures or exograms found on the seals, these often being so-called Cretan hieroglyphs. The written language(s) of the document contents have have changed over time, but not necessarily in tune with the seals themselves. Point well taken.  

Palaima’s suggestion that LA replaces CH because the latter script is inadequate to record increasingly complex economic activities (1990: 94) is a case in point, and this sort of utilitarian motivation underestimates the potential for writing to be used for ideological reasons. The transition from CH to LA, and from LA to LB, can arguably be seen as part of a deliberate construction of new identities, through the manipulation of knowledge resources or material culture, by elite groups (ALL italics by the Commentator), seeking to differentiate themselves from their predecessors, or exclude others from participating in political or economic life (Bennet 2008: 20; Schoep 2007: 59). Knappett’s observation that, in seeking to look through artefacts to see “the people behind them”, and their motivations or choices, there is a tendency for the objects themselves to be reduced to mere ciphers or emblems of human activity (Knappett 2008b: 122), is also pertinent here. He suggests that more attention be paid to the agency of artefacts, to the possibility that things can “take on a life of their own, entangling humans and pushing them along new, previously unrecognised paths” (Knappett 2008b: 122); while ascribing agency to objects is problematic (Morphy 2009: 6), Knappett is nevertheless right to stress the complexity of the relationship between artefacts and their users. 

COMMENT:

Much more to follow in the upcoming posts on the uses of pictographs and so-called Cretan “hieroglyphic” seals.
milibutka.com

GJUHA SHQIPE_ETIMOLOGJI

anne frandi-coory

A Life in Two Halves

Traditional Polytheist

A site devoted to the study and discussion of ethnic and traditional polytheism throughout the world, in regard to its nature, history, and present standing in general.

Rilkes Panther

fictional stories and social commentary

LAZYBUTHEALTHY

Easy healthy recipes for lazy busy people

The Whirling Bee

Reality has no walls, no edges - a journey in altered states of consciousness

SV3DPRINTER

Next Big Tech field 3D and 4D Printing is, " The Top Brain Game"

Diary of a Pagan Art Student

Like the title says

CreyenteAarav

The Most Provocative Way To Express - Poems ❤

O LADO ESCURO DA LUA

Minha maneira de ver, falar, ouvir e pensar o mundo... se quiser, venha comigo...

blog bangla mail

Welcome My Site

GIRLS16@LUND

4th Lund Conference on Games, Interaction, Reasoning, Learning and Semantics

Site Title

“Love recognizes no barriers. It jumps hurdles, leaps fences, penetrates walls to arrive at its destination full of hope.” — Maya Angelou

LinneaTanner.com - Apollo's Raven

LinneaTanner.com - Apollo's Raven

When Women Inspire

Spotlighting inspirational women and how you can make a positive impact too

Evelina

by Evelina Di Lauro

Yahuah Is Everything

My blogs on The Bible and the true name of God Yahuah and His Son,Yahusha,

The Deadliest Blogger: Military History Page

The historical writing of Barry C. Jacobsen

THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES

Artistic Reconstruction and Original Translation From Homer's "Iliad" by Kathleen Vail

Akhelas Writing

The Myriad Musings of Austin Conrad

Be Like Water

Music, Film and Life

Little Fears

Tales of whimsy, humour and courgettes

Im ashamed to die until i have won some victory for humanity.(Horace Mann)

Domenic Garisto/havau22.com / IF YOU CAN'T BE THE POET, BE THE POEM (David Carradine) LIFE IS NOT A REHERSAL,SO LIVE IT.

Φιλολογικά φύλλα

... από την περιπέτεια της θεωρίας, της ερμηνείας και της διδασκαλίας

Le Blog BlookUp

Imprimez et transformez vos contenus digitaux, blogs et réseaux sociaux, en magnifiques livres papier sur blookup.com

Diwiyana's Dreamscape

Just another WordPress.com site

pseudopr1me

Just another WordPress.com site

Adham Smart

Often written, sometimes read

archbhoo

Just another WordPress.com site

Memnison Journal

Jim Rittenhouse's semidaily journal of news, commentary and reports

Under the influence!

Myths, legends, folklore and tales from around the world

archaeologythimbleful

...in small doses

AFRICAN HOMAGE

CONTEMPORARY ART GALLERY

peiraieus

A Mental Repository

%d bloggers like this: