Tag Archive: applied linguistics

Bachelor of Arts, Linguistics, conferred on Rita Roberts May 7 2020

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN HITTITE: Present and Preterite (past tense) 


Present active:
MI:					HI: uncommon

sing.					Sing.
1 mi					1 hi (/hhi/ahhi)
2 si					       2 ti						
3 zi					      3 i
pl.					pl. MI = HI
1 weni//wani/ueni		1 weni
2 teni					2 teni
3 anzi					3 anzi


es = to be MI
1 esmi
2 essi
3 eszi
1 esuwani
3 asanzi

ses = to sleep MI
1 sesmi
2 ...
3 seszi
1 sesueni
2 ...
3 sesanzi

ed = to eat MI
1 edmi
2 ezzassi 
3 ezzazzi/ezzai
1 eduwani
2 ezzatteni
3 adanzi

kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) 
1 kuemi
2 kuesi
3 kuenzi
1 kuennummeni
2 kuenatteni
3 kunanzi

hark = to hold, to have MI 
1 harmi (k dropped before consonant)
2 harsi/harti (k dropped before consonant)
3 harzi (k dropped before consonant)
1 harweni/harwani (k dropped before consonant)
2 harteni (k dropped before consonant)
3 harkzani

istamas = to hear MI
1 istamasmi
2 istamassi (istamasti/istamaszi) 
3 istamaszi
1 istamasteni
2 ...
3 istamassanzi

punus = to ask MI
1 punusmi
2 ...
3 punuszi
1 punussueni
2 ...
3 punussanzi

uwate = to bring MI
1 uwatemi
2 uwatesi
3 uwatezzi
1 uwateweni (uwatewani
2 uwatetteni (uwatettani)
3 uwadanzi

lami = to detach HI?
1 lami
2 lasi
3 lai
1 ...
2 ...
3 lanzi

te = to speak MI
1 temi
2 tesi
3 tezzi
1 tarweni (te -> ta in the plural)
2 tarteni
3 taranzi

pai = to go MI
1 paimi
2 paisi (pasi/paitti)
3 paizzi
1 paiweni (paiwani)
2 paitteni (paittani)
3 panzi

hatrai = to write MI
1 hatrami
2 hatrasi
3 hatraizzi
1 hatraweni
2 ...
3 ...

kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper”
1 ...
2 kupuesi
3 kuppuwaizi (kupuezzi)
1 ...
2 kuppuwateni
3 kuppwanzi

handai = to add MI
1 handami
2 handasi
3 handaizzi (hantesa/handai)
1 ...
2 ...
3 handanzi

iya = to do MI
1 iyami (iyammi)
2 iyasi
3 iyazi (iyazzi/iezi)
1 iyaweni (iyawani)
2 iyatteni
3 iyanzi

wemiya = to find MI
1 wemiyami
2 wemiyasi
3 wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi)
1 wemiyaweni
2 ...
3 wemiyanzi

harnink = to destroy HI
1 harrikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 harrikti  (drops n before consonant)
3 harrnikti  (drops n before consonant)
1 ...
2 harnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 harninkanzi

sarnink = to replace MI
1 sarnikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 ...
3 sarnikzi (drops n before consonant)
1 sarninkueni
2 sarnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 sarninkanzi

ninik = to mobilize MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 ninikzi
1 ...
2 ninikteni
3 nininkanzi

akkusk = to drink a lot MI 
1 ...
2 uskusi (uskatti) ask -> usk
3 uskizzi
1 ...
2 uskatteni
3 uskanzi

azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 azzikizzi
1 ...
2 azzikkittani
3 azzikktanzi

arnu = to bring MI
1 arnum(m)i
2 arnusi
3 arnuz(z)i 
1 arnummeni
2 arnutenni
3 arnuwa(n)zi

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI
1 assanumi
2 assanusi/asnusi 
3 assanuz(z)i/asnuzi
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuanzi


Preterite active:

MI:					HI:
1 (n)un					1 h(hun)
2 sta					2 (s)ta
3 sta/t					3 s
1 wen/uen				1 wen MI = HI
2 ten					2 ten
3 er/ir					3 er/ir

es = to be MI

1 esun
2 esta
3 esta
1 esuen
2 esten
3 esir

ses= to sleep MI

1 sesun
2 sesta
3 ...
1 sesuen
2 ...
3 seser

ed = to eat MI

1 edun
2 ... 
3 ezta
1 ...
2 ...
3 eter

kuen = to strike, kill MI

1 kuenun (kuenunun)
2 kuinnesta kue -> kui
3 kuenta
1 kueun (kuinnummen)
2 kuenten
3 kuennir

hark = to hold, to have  MI (Alexandre, please double check this!)

1 harkun
2 ...
3 harta
1 harwen
2 harten  
3 harkir

istamas = to hear MI

1 istamassun
2 ...
3 istamasta
1 ...
2 istamasten
3 istamassir

punus = to ask MI

1 punussun
2 punusta
3 punusta
1 punussuen
2 ...
3 punussir

uwate = to bring MI? 

1 uwatenun
2 uwatet
3 uwatet
1 uwatewen
2 ...
3 uwater

lami = to detach MI?

1 laun
2 lais
3 lait
1 lawen
2 ...
3 ...

te = to speak MI

1 tenun
3 tet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

pai = to go MI

1 paun
2 ...
3 pait/paitta
1 paiwen
2 ....
3 pair

hatrai = to write MI/HI?

1 hatranun 
2 hatraes
3 hatrait/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair

kupawi = to count MI Cf. to count (English), compter (French), contare (Italian)

1 kappuwanun – kup -> kapp
2 kappuit
3 kappuwait/kappuet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

handai = to add MI

1 hatrunun  d -> t (drops n before consonant t)
2 hatraes (drops n before consonant t)
3 hatrai/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair (drops n before consonant t)

iya = to do MI

1 iyanun
2 iyas/iyat
3 iyas/iet
1 iyawen
2 iyatten
3 ier

wemiya = to find MI

1 wemiyanun
2 ...
3 wemiyat/wemit
1 wemiyawen
2 ...
3 wemiyer

harnink = to destroy HI?

1 harinkun
2 harikta (drops n before consonant k)
3 harnikta (drops n before consonant k)
1 ...
3 harninkir

sarnink = to replace

1 sarninkun
2 ...
3 sarnikta
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

akkusk = to drink a lot MI

1 uskinun
2 ...
3 uskit
1 usgawen
2 ...
3 ...

arnu = to bring MI

1 arnunun
2 ...
3 arnut 
1 ...
2 ...
3 arnuir/arnuer

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain

1 assanunun
2 ...
3 assanut
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuir

April 25 2020



NOUNS in Hittite: Noun declensions are fragmentary

Declensions: ABL = from, of etc. ALL (directive) = to (direction)

Common (masculine/feminine):
NOM as/is/us
GEN as/iyas
ACC an
INST it/ta
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
NOM es/is
ACC us
GEN an/as
INST it/ta
ABL za/aza

man = antuhsas 
NOM antuhsas
GEN antuhsas
ACC antuhsan
DAT/LOC antuhsi
ABL antuhsaz
NOM antuhses
ACC antuhsus
GEN antuhsas
DAT/LOC antuhsas

anna = mother
NOM annas
GEN annas
ACC annan
DAT/LOC anni
ABL annaz
NOM annis
ACC annus

aruna = sea
NOM arunas
GEN arunas
ACC arunan
DAT/LOC aruni
ABL arunaz(za)
ACC arunus

kessara = hand kess -> kiss
NOM kessaras
GEN kissaras
ACC kisseran
DAT/LOC kissiri
INST kisserit
ABL kissaraz(a)
ACC kisserus

isha = lord
NOM ishas
DAT/LOC ishi/eshe
ALL isha
NOM ishes
DAT/LOC ishas

halki = cereal
NOM halkis
GEN halkiyas
ACC halkin
INST halkit
ABL halkiyaza
NOM halkis
ACC halkius/halkes

tuzzi = army
NOM tuzzis/tuzziyas
GEN tuzzias
ACC tuzzin
DAT/LOC tuzziya
ABL ... tuzziyaz
ACC tuzzius

halukanni = chariot
NOM halukannis
GEN halugannas
ACC halukanin
DAT/LOC haluganni(ya)
INST halukannit
ABL ...haluganniyaz(a)

halhaltumari = cornerstone
DAT/LOC halhaltumari(ya) 
NOM halhaltumares
GEN halhaltumariyas 
DAT/LOC halhaltumariyas
ABL halhaltumaraza

huwasi = grindstone
NOM huwasi
GEN huwasiyas
DAT/LOC huwasi(ya)
ABL huwasiyaz
NOM huwasi

ispantuzzi = wine barrel
NOM ispantuzzi
GEN ispantuzziyas
DAT/LOC ispantuzzi
INST ispantuzzit
ABL ispantuzziaz

zahhai = battle
NOM zahhais
GEN zahhias
ACC zahhain/zahhin
DAT/LOC zahhiya
ABL ... zahhiyaz(a)

lengai = oath
GEN likiyas/lingayas
ACC lingain
DAT/LOC linkiya/lingai
ABL linkiaza
NOM lingais
ACC lingaus

zashai = dream
ACC zashain
DAT/LOC zashiya
INST zashit
ABL ...zashiyaz
ACC zahsimus

harnau = chair
NOM harnaus
GEN harnawas
ACC harnaun
DAT/LOC harnawi

wellu = meadow
NOM wellus
ACC wellun
DAT/LOC welli
ABL welluwaz
DAT/LOC welluwas

heu = rain
NOM heus
GEN hewas
ACC heun
INST heawit
NOM hewes/heyawes
ACC heus

siu = god
NOM siunis/DINGURus
ACC siunin
DAT/LOC siuni
INST siunit 
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
NOM siwannies
ACC simus
GEN siunan/siunas

uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English)
NOM uttar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC udani
INST uddanit
ABL .. udanaza/undananza
NOM uddar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC uddanas

memiya = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc.
NOM memiyas 
GEN memiyanas
ACC memiyan
DAT/LOC memiyani
INST meminit
ACC memiyanus

eshar = blood
NOM eshar
GEN eshanas
DAT/LOC eshani
INST eshanta
ABL eshanaza/esnaza

watar = water Cf. all sorts of Indo-European languages, especially “water” (English)
NOM watar
GEN witenas
DAT/LOC witeni
INST wetenit
ABL ...wetenaza

pahhuar = fire
NOM pahhuwar
GEN pahhuwenas
DAT/LOC pahhueni
INST pahhuenit
ABL pahhuenaz

mehur = time
NOM mehur
DAT/LOC mehueni

hilammar = gate
Common (masculine/feminine):
NOM hillamar
GEN hillamnas
ACC hillamar
DAT/LOC hillamni
INST it/ta
ABL hillamnaz
ALL hillamna

nepis = sky
NOM nepis 
GEN nepisas
DAT/LOC nepisi
ABL nepisaz(a)
ALL nepisa

ais = mouth
NOM ais
GEN issas
DAT/LOC issi
INST issit
ABL issaz

isgaruh = container, vessel
NOM isqaruh/iskarih 
INST isqaruit

arkamma = tribute
NOM arkammas
GEN arkammanaas
ACC arkamman
ACC arkammus

muri(yan) = grapefruit
NOM mures
INST murinit
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
ACC muriyanus

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc.
NOM SA(ideogram)+ir
GEN kardiyas
DAT/LOC kardi
INST kardit
ABL kartaz
ALL karta

parn = house
NOM pir
GEN parnas
DAT/LOC parni
ABL parnaza
ALL parna (almost never attested)

Adjectives: salli = big 
NOM sallis
GEN sallas/sallaiyas
ACC sallin
DAT/LOC sallai
ABL ...sallayaz
NOM sallaes
ACC sallaus/sallius
DAT/LOC sallayas

suppi = pure
NOM suppis
GEN suppayas
DAT/LOC suppai/suppi/suppa/suppaya
INST suppit
ABL suppayaza
NOM suppaes/suppis 
ACC suppaus
DAT/LOC suppayas/suppiyas
ABL suppayaza

karuili = old
NOM karuilis
GEN karuilias
ACC karuilun
ABL karuililes/karuiliyas
NOM  karuiles/ karuiliyas
GEN  karuila
DAT/LOC  karuiliyas

assu = good
NOM assus
GEN assawas
ACC assun
DAT/LOC assawi
INST assawet
ABL ... assawaza
NOM assawes
ACC assamus
INST assawet

parku = high
NOM parkus
GEN parkuwas 
ACC parkun
DAT/LOC pargawe 
ABL pargawaz
NOM pargawes/pargaus
ACC pargamus/pargaus
DAT/LOC pargawas

April 26 2020

Just uploaded to academia.edu, An Introductory Glossary of General Linguistics Terminology (PDF)


This glossary serves as a baseline introduction to linguistics terminology. As such, at first glance, it may not appear to be of much value to those of us who are linguists. However, if you are a professor or teacher of linguistics, you may find this little glossary of benefit to your students, especially undergraduates. As for those of you who are archaeologists and whose field of specialization is not linguistics, you will more than likely find this little lexicon of some real practical value if ever you have need to have recourse to linguistics terminology. There are as well plenty of other people whose specialization is not linguistics, but who would like to familiarize themselves with at least some of the most generalized terminology of linguistics. Moreover, there are those among you who are not professional linguists at all, but who may have contributed something of real merit to the field, or are about to to do so.

Recall the astonishing contribution of Michael Ventris,

Michael Ventris

an architect and not a professional linguist at all, who single-handedly deciphered the Linear B syllabary as the script of the earliest East Greek dialect, Mycenaean Greek, not to mention many other geniuses outside the orbit of linguistics who have also made revelatory if not revolutionary discoveries that no linguist ever realized. We should keep firmly in mind that Michael Ventris alone managed to decipher Linear B, after a half-century of utterly fruitless attempts by professional linguists to accomplish this astounding feat of the intellect. This is not to say that a great many academic linguists have not accomplished similar remarkable breakthroughs in the field, because they most certainly have. Still, linguistics, like any other field of study in the humanities or sciences, is not the exclusive purview of the so-called ivory tower league. Whether or not we are ourselves matriculated linguists, we should always bear this in mind.

Finally, lest we forget, there are many among us may simply be curious about general Linguistics Terminology, in order to familiarize yourself with it, just in case a glossary such as this one, however limited, may whet your appetite for more. You never know. Nothing venture, nothing gained.


Because this little glossary is in PDF format, it is very easy for you to download it, save it on your computer so that you can view it in Adobe Acrobat, and even print it out at your leisure. To download this glossary, click on this LINK:


As for my own status on academia.edu, of which I have been a member for just under a month, yesterday I had 94 followers, today I have 100, while at the same time my page has already been viewed 1,215 times as of the time of this writing. Yesterday I was in the top 1% of researchers cited, or whose work was downloaded on academia.edu, while now I am in the top 0.5%. The most astonishing thing is that my paper, Did you know you speak Mycenaean Greek? You do! sas already been downloaded 373 times from academia.edu, placing it firmly in the top 2% of all articles, documents, research papers etc. downloaded from there in the past 30 days. And it has only been online for three weeks at most.
Is academia.edu for you? You bet it is!
If nothing else, I have come to the definitive conclusion that academia.edu is a far better venue than any other on the entire Internet for students and researchers in any academic field whatsoever. If you wish to see your research papers downloaded more often than anywhere else on the Internet, this is the place to be. It is far more efficient in attracting the attention of the international open research community than any other place on the Internet, bar none. So if you are an academic or even a student in any discipline whatsoever, you really should sign up for academia.edu, and it is free! Go here to sign up:


I am truly grateful for the attention that researchers, academics and students on this prestigious site are giving to my research, yet surely not mine alone, but also that of my distinguished colleague and fellow researcher, Rita Roberts of Crete.

Rita Roberts academia.edu

Keep your eyes on Rita's own academia.edu page,   where she will soon be uploading her seminal article on her translation of Pylos Tablet Py 641-1952, the very first that Michael Ventris himself translated in 1952.

Rita's translation is bound to arouse a lot of attention on academia.edu, since she is an archaeologist with a unique perspective on the import of this famous tablet, thus in a position to produce a translation which those of us as linguists may have overlooked. I for one would never have been able to accomplished a translation in the manner Rita Roberts has finessed hers. Please remember to follow Rita on academia.edu, as that the place where she will eventually be publishing all of her research articles and documents on Mycenaean Linear B.  Until such time as it appears on academia.edu, to review  her excellent translation, please click here:

Rita Roberts Py 641-1952 translation

Our special offer to assist in the promotion of our fellow researchers who often visit our blog:

By the way, if any of you who often visit us here at Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae would like us to promote you on academia.edu (once you have signed up there), we will be delighted to do so, regardless of your own area of research, even if it has nothing to do with linguistics. We shall post the links to the academia.edu pages of the first 5 people who request this of us, once that many have contacted us with this in mind (but not before). So please be patient and bear with us. We are behind you all 100%.


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