Tag Archive: ancient linguistics



Bachelor of Arts, Linguistics, conferred on Rita Roberts May 7 2020






CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN HITTITE: Present and Preterite (past tense) 

Conjugation:

Present active:
MI:					HI: uncommon

sing.					Sing.
1 mi					1 hi (/hhi/ahhi)
2 si					       2 ti						
3 zi					      3 i
pl.					pl. MI = HI
1 weni//wani/ueni		1 weni
2 teni					2 teni
3 anzi					3 anzi

PRESENT:

es = to be MI
1 esmi
2 essi
3 eszi
1 esuwani
...
3 asanzi

ses = to sleep MI
1 sesmi
2 ...
3 seszi
1 sesueni
2 ...
3 sesanzi

ed = to eat MI
1 edmi
2 ezzassi 
3 ezzazzi/ezzai
1 eduwani
2 ezzatteni
3 adanzi

kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) 
1 kuemi
2 kuesi
3 kuenzi
1 kuennummeni
2 kuenatteni
3 kunanzi

hark = to hold, to have MI 
1 harmi (k dropped before consonant)
2 harsi/harti (k dropped before consonant)
3 harzi (k dropped before consonant)
1 harweni/harwani (k dropped before consonant)
2 harteni (k dropped before consonant)
3 harkzani

istamas = to hear MI
1 istamasmi
2 istamassi (istamasti/istamaszi) 
3 istamaszi
1 istamasteni
2 ...
3 istamassanzi

punus = to ask MI
1 punusmi
2 ...
3 punuszi
1 punussueni
2 ...
3 punussanzi

uwate = to bring MI
1 uwatemi
2 uwatesi
3 uwatezzi
1 uwateweni (uwatewani
2 uwatetteni (uwatettani)
3 uwadanzi

lami = to detach HI?
1 lami
2 lasi
3 lai
1 ...
2 ...
3 lanzi

te = to speak MI
1 temi
2 tesi
3 tezzi
1 tarweni (te -> ta in the plural)
2 tarteni
3 taranzi

pai = to go MI
1 paimi
2 paisi (pasi/paitti)
3 paizzi
1 paiweni (paiwani)
2 paitteni (paittani)
3 panzi

hatrai = to write MI
1 hatrami
2 hatrasi
3 hatraizzi
1 hatraweni
2 ...
3 ...

kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper”
1 ...
2 kupuesi
3 kuppuwaizi (kupuezzi)
1 ...
2 kuppuwateni
3 kuppwanzi

handai = to add MI
1 handami
2 handasi
3 handaizzi (hantesa/handai)
1 ...
2 ...
3 handanzi

iya = to do MI
1 iyami (iyammi)
2 iyasi
3 iyazi (iyazzi/iezi)
1 iyaweni (iyawani)
2 iyatteni
3 iyanzi

wemiya = to find MI
1 wemiyami
2 wemiyasi
3 wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi)
1 wemiyaweni
2 ...
3 wemiyanzi

harnink = to destroy HI
1 harrikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 harrikti  (drops n before consonant)
3 harrnikti  (drops n before consonant)
1 ...
2 harnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 harninkanzi

sarnink = to replace MI
1 sarnikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 ...
3 sarnikzi (drops n before consonant)
1 sarninkueni
2 sarnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 sarninkanzi

ninik = to mobilize MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 ninikzi
1 ...
2 ninikteni
3 nininkanzi

akkusk = to drink a lot MI 
1 ...
2 uskusi (uskatti) ask -> usk
3 uskizzi
1 ...
2 uskatteni
3 uskanzi

azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 azzikizzi
1 ...
2 azzikkittani
3 azzikktanzi

arnu = to bring MI
1 arnum(m)i
2 arnusi
3 arnuz(z)i 
1 arnummeni
2 arnutenni
3 arnuwa(n)zi

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI
1 assanumi
2 assanusi/asnusi 
3 assanuz(z)i/asnuzi
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuanzi


PRETERITE:

Preterite active:

MI:					HI:
1 (n)un					1 h(hun)
2 sta					2 (s)ta
3 sta/t					3 s
pl.
1 wen/uen				1 wen MI = HI
2 ten					2 ten
3 er/ir					3 er/ir

es = to be MI

1 esun
2 esta
3 esta
1 esuen
2 esten
3 esir

ses= to sleep MI

1 sesun
2 sesta
3 ...
1 sesuen
2 ...
3 seser

ed = to eat MI

1 edun
2 ... 
3 ezta
1 ...
2 ...
3 eter

kuen = to strike, kill MI

1 kuenun (kuenunun)
2 kuinnesta kue -> kui
3 kuenta
1 kueun (kuinnummen)
2 kuenten
3 kuennir

hark = to hold, to have  MI (Alexandre, please double check this!)

1 harkun
2 ...
3 harta
1 harwen
2 harten  
3 harkir

istamas = to hear MI

1 istamassun
2 ...
3 istamasta
1 ...
2 istamasten
3 istamassir


punus = to ask MI

1 punussun
2 punusta
3 punusta
1 punussuen
2 ...
3 punussir

uwate = to bring MI? 

1 uwatenun
2 uwatet
3 uwatet
1 uwatewen
2 ...
3 uwater

lami = to detach MI?

1 laun
2 lais
3 lait
1 lawen
2 ...
3 ...

te = to speak MI

1 tenun
2 
3 tet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

pai = to go MI

1 paun
2 ...
3 pait/paitta
1 paiwen
2 ....
3 pair

hatrai = to write MI/HI?

1 hatranun 
2 hatraes
3 hatrait/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair

kupawi = to count MI Cf. to count (English), compter (French), contare (Italian)

1 kappuwanun – kup -> kapp
2 kappuit
3 kappuwait/kappuet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

handai = to add MI

1 hatrunun  d -> t (drops n before consonant t)
2 hatraes (drops n before consonant t)
3 hatrai/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair (drops n before consonant t)

iya = to do MI

1 iyanun
2 iyas/iyat
3 iyas/iet
1 iyawen
2 iyatten
3 ier

wemiya = to find MI

1 wemiyanun
2 ...
3 wemiyat/wemit
1 wemiyawen
2 ...
3 wemiyer

harnink = to destroy HI?

1 harinkun
2 harikta (drops n before consonant k)
3 harnikta (drops n before consonant k)
1 ...
2 
3 harninkir

sarnink = to replace

1 sarninkun
2 ...
3 sarnikta
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

akkusk = to drink a lot MI

1 uskinun
2 ...
3 uskit
1 usgawen
2 ...
3 ...

arnu = to bring MI

1 arnunun
2 ...
3 arnut 
1 ...
2 ...
3 arnuir/arnuer

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain

1 assanunun
2 ...
3 assanut
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuir

April 25 2020


DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE

NOUNS in Hittite: Noun declensions are fragmentary

Declensions: ABL = from, of etc. ALL (directive) = to (direction)

Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM as/is/us
GEN as/iyas
ACC an
DAT/LOC i
INST it/ta
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
NOM es/is
ACC us
GEN an/as
DAT/LOC as
INST it/ta
ABL za/aza

man = antuhsas 
sing.
NOM antuhsas
GEN antuhsas
ACC antuhsan
DAT/LOC antuhsi
ABL antuhsaz
pl.
NOM antuhses
ACC antuhsus
GEN antuhsas
DAT/LOC antuhsas

anna = mother
sing.
NOM annas
GEN annas
ACC annan
DAT/LOC anni
ABL annaz
pl.
NOM annis
ACC annus

aruna = sea
sing.
NOM arunas
GEN arunas
ACC arunan
DAT/LOC aruni
ABL arunaz(za)
pl.
ACC arunus

kessara = hand kess -> kiss
sing.
NOM kessaras
GEN kissaras
ACC kisseran
DAT/LOC kissiri
INST kisserit
ABL kissaraz(a)
pl.
ACC kisserus

isha = lord
sing.
NOM ishas
DAT/LOC ishi/eshe
ALL isha
pl.
NOM ishes
DAT/LOC ishas

halki = cereal
sing.
NOM halkis
GEN halkiyas
ACC halkin
INST halkit
ABL halkiyaza
pl.
NOM halkis
ACC halkius/halkes

tuzzi = army
sing.
NOM tuzzis/tuzziyas
GEN tuzzias
ACC tuzzin
DAT/LOC tuzziya
ABL ... tuzziyaz
pl.
ACC tuzzius

halukanni = chariot
sing.
NOM halukannis
GEN halugannas
ACC halukanin
DAT/LOC haluganni(ya)
INST halukannit
ABL ...haluganniyaz(a)

halhaltumari = cornerstone
sing.
DAT/LOC halhaltumari(ya) 
pl.
NOM halhaltumares
GEN halhaltumariyas 
DAT/LOC halhaltumariyas
ABL halhaltumaraza

huwasi = grindstone
sing.
NOM huwasi
GEN huwasiyas
DAT/LOC huwasi(ya)
ABL huwasiyaz
pl.
NOM huwasi

ispantuzzi = wine barrel
sing.
NOM ispantuzzi
GEN ispantuzziyas
DAT/LOC ispantuzzi
INST ispantuzzit
ABL ispantuzziaz

zahhai = battle
sing.
NOM zahhais
GEN zahhias
ACC zahhain/zahhin
DAT/LOC zahhiya
ABL ... zahhiyaz(a)

lengai = oath
sing.
GEN likiyas/lingayas
ACC lingain
DAT/LOC linkiya/lingai
ABL linkiaza
pl.
NOM lingais
ACC lingaus

zashai = dream
sing.
ACC zashain
DAT/LOC zashiya
INST zashit
ABL ...zashiyaz
pl.
ACC zahsimus

harnau = chair
sing.
NOM harnaus
GEN harnawas
ACC harnaun
DAT/LOC harnawi

wellu = meadow
sing.
NOM wellus
ACC wellun
DAT/LOC welli
ABL welluwaz
pl.
DAT/LOC welluwas

heu = rain
sing.
NOM heus
GEN hewas
ACC heun
INST heawit
pl.
NOM hewes/heyawes
ACC heus

siu = god
NOM siunis/DINGURus
as/iyas
ACC siunin
DAT/LOC siuni
INST siunit 
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
pl.
NOM siwannies
ACC simus
GEN siunan/siunas

uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English)
NOM uttar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC udani
INST uddanit
ABL .. udanaza/undananza
pl.
NOM uddar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC uddanas

memiya = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc.
sing.
NOM memiyas 
GEN memiyanas
ACC memiyan
DAT/LOC memiyani
INST meminit
pl.
ACC memiyanus

eshar = blood
NOM eshar
GEN eshanas
DAT/LOC eshani
INST eshanta
ABL eshanaza/esnaza

watar = water Cf. all sorts of Indo-European languages, especially “water” (English)
NOM watar
GEN witenas
DAT/LOC witeni
INST wetenit
ABL ...wetenaza

pahhuar = fire
NOM pahhuwar
GEN pahhuwenas
DAT/LOC pahhueni
INST pahhuenit
ABL pahhuenaz

mehur = time
NOM mehur
DAT/LOC mehueni

hilammar = gate
Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM hillamar
GEN hillamnas
ACC hillamar
DAT/LOC hillamni
INST it/ta
ABL hillamnaz
ALL hillamna

nepis = sky
sing.
NOM nepis 
GEN nepisas
DAT/LOC nepisi
ABL nepisaz(a)
ALL nepisa

ais = mouth
sing.
NOM ais
GEN issas
DAT/LOC issi
INST issit
ABL issaz

isgaruh = container, vessel
sing.
NOM isqaruh/iskarih 
DAT/LOC hi
INST isqaruit

arkamma = tribute
sing.
NOM arkammas
GEN arkammanaas
ACC arkamman
pl.
ACC arkammus

muri(yan) = grapefruit
sing.
NOM mures
INST murinit
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
ACC muriyanus

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc.
sing.
NOM SA(ideogram)+ir
GEN kardiyas
DAT/LOC kardi
INST kardit
ABL kartaz
ALL karta

parn = house
sing.
NOM pir
GEN parnas
DAT/LOC parni
ABL parnaza
ALL parna (almost never attested)




Adjectives: salli = big 
sing.
NOM sallis
GEN sallas/sallaiyas
ACC sallin
DAT/LOC sallai
ABL ...sallayaz
ALL a
pl.
NOM sallaes
ACC sallaus/sallius
DAT/LOC sallayas

suppi = pure
NOM suppis
GEN suppayas
DAT/LOC suppai/suppi/suppa/suppaya
INST suppit
ABL suppayaza
pl.
NOM suppaes/suppis 
ACC suppaus
DAT/LOC suppayas/suppiyas
ABL suppayaza

karuili = old
sing.
NOM karuilis
GEN karuilias
ACC karuilun
ABL karuililes/karuiliyas
pl.
NOM  karuiles/ karuiliyas
GEN  karuila
DAT/LOC  karuiliyas

assu = good
sing.
NOM assus
GEN assawas
ACC assun
DAT/LOC assawi
INST assawet
ABL ... assawaza
pl.
NOM assawes
ACC assamus
DAT/LOC
INST assawet

parku = high
sing.
NOM parkus
GEN parkuwas 
ACC parkun
DAT/LOC pargawe 
ABL pargawaz
pl.
NOM pargawes/pargaus
ACC pargamus/pargaus
DAT/LOC pargawas


April 26 2020


Happy Third Anniversary to Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae!

Happy Third Anniversary to Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae!

Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae was founded in March 2013, and since then it has grown to become the premier Linear B blog on the entire Internet. Our blog covers every conceivable aspect of research into Mycenaean Linear B, including, but not exclusively, decipherment of hundreds of tablets from every single sector of the Minoan/Mycenaean economy (agriculture, military, textiles, spices & condiments, vessels and pottery and the religious sector); the translation of the introduction to Book II of the Iliad, plus the entire Catalogue of Ships in Book II, with particular emphasis on the extensive influence of Mycenaean Linear B and of he Mycenaean world on the Catalogue of Ships; extensive vocabulary, lexicons and glossaries of Linear B; lessons in Linear B; progressive grammar of Linear B; extensive research into the 3,500 Scripta Minoa tablets from Knossos; and above all other considerations, the isolation, classification and decipherment of all 35+ supersyllabograms in every sector of the Minoan/Mycenaen economy (see above). Supersyllabograms were previously and erroneously referred to as “adjuncts” in Mycenaean Linear B. The decipherment of supersyllabograms is the major development of the further decipherment of Linear B since the genius, Michael Ventris, first deciphered it in 1952.

But that is not all. Our blog also zeroes in on Minoan Linear A, with at least one successful attempt at deciphering at least one word on a major Linear A tablet, and that is the Linear A word for “tripod”, a truly serendipitous development, given that the same word was the first word ever translated in Mycenaean Linear B. Our blog also focuses on Arcado-Cypriot Linear C, with a few translations of tablets in that script. In short, no other blog on the Internet deals as extensively with all three of these scripts, Linear A, Linear B and Linear C together.

It is also remarkable that we have had in excess of 80,000 visitors since our blog’s inception in March 2013. While this figure may seem rather smallish to many visitors, may I remind you that Minoan Linear A, Mycenaean Linear B and Arcado-Cypriot Linear C are extremely esoteric in the field of ancient linguistics. To put it another way, how many people in the entire world do you imagine can read Mycenaean Linear B, and even fewer who can read Arcado-Cypriot Linear C? Scarcely more than a very few thousand out of a population of 7+ billion. So I believe that we have made great strides in the past three years, and I fully expect that we shall top 100,000 visitors by the end of this year, 2016.

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