Tag Archive: ancient languages



CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN HITTITE: Present and Preterite (past tense) 

Conjugation:

Present active:
MI:					HI: uncommon

sing.					Sing.
1 mi					1 hi (/hhi/ahhi)
2 si					       2 ti						
3 zi					      3 i
pl.					pl. MI = HI
1 weni//wani/ueni		1 weni
2 teni					2 teni
3 anzi					3 anzi

PRESENT:

es = to be MI
1 esmi
2 essi
3 eszi
1 esuwani
...
3 asanzi

ses = to sleep MI
1 sesmi
2 ...
3 seszi
1 sesueni
2 ...
3 sesanzi

ed = to eat MI
1 edmi
2 ezzassi 
3 ezzazzi/ezzai
1 eduwani
2 ezzatteni
3 adanzi

kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) 
1 kuemi
2 kuesi
3 kuenzi
1 kuennummeni
2 kuenatteni
3 kunanzi

hark = to hold, to have MI 
1 harmi (k dropped before consonant)
2 harsi/harti (k dropped before consonant)
3 harzi (k dropped before consonant)
1 harweni/harwani (k dropped before consonant)
2 harteni (k dropped before consonant)
3 harkzani

istamas = to hear MI
1 istamasmi
2 istamassi (istamasti/istamaszi) 
3 istamaszi
1 istamasteni
2 ...
3 istamassanzi

punus = to ask MI
1 punusmi
2 ...
3 punuszi
1 punussueni
2 ...
3 punussanzi

uwate = to bring MI
1 uwatemi
2 uwatesi
3 uwatezzi
1 uwateweni (uwatewani
2 uwatetteni (uwatettani)
3 uwadanzi

lami = to detach HI?
1 lami
2 lasi
3 lai
1 ...
2 ...
3 lanzi

te = to speak MI
1 temi
2 tesi
3 tezzi
1 tarweni (te -> ta in the plural)
2 tarteni
3 taranzi

pai = to go MI
1 paimi
2 paisi (pasi/paitti)
3 paizzi
1 paiweni (paiwani)
2 paitteni (paittani)
3 panzi

hatrai = to write MI
1 hatrami
2 hatrasi
3 hatraizzi
1 hatraweni
2 ...
3 ...

kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper”
1 ...
2 kupuesi
3 kuppuwaizi (kupuezzi)
1 ...
2 kuppuwateni
3 kuppwanzi

handai = to add MI
1 handami
2 handasi
3 handaizzi (hantesa/handai)
1 ...
2 ...
3 handanzi

iya = to do MI
1 iyami (iyammi)
2 iyasi
3 iyazi (iyazzi/iezi)
1 iyaweni (iyawani)
2 iyatteni
3 iyanzi

wemiya = to find MI
1 wemiyami
2 wemiyasi
3 wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi)
1 wemiyaweni
2 ...
3 wemiyanzi

harnink = to destroy HI
1 harrikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 harrikti  (drops n before consonant)
3 harrnikti  (drops n before consonant)
1 ...
2 harnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 harninkanzi

sarnink = to replace MI
1 sarnikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 ...
3 sarnikzi (drops n before consonant)
1 sarninkueni
2 sarnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 sarninkanzi

ninik = to mobilize MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 ninikzi
1 ...
2 ninikteni
3 nininkanzi

akkusk = to drink a lot MI 
1 ...
2 uskusi (uskatti) ask -> usk
3 uskizzi
1 ...
2 uskatteni
3 uskanzi

azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 azzikizzi
1 ...
2 azzikkittani
3 azzikktanzi

arnu = to bring MI
1 arnum(m)i
2 arnusi
3 arnuz(z)i 
1 arnummeni
2 arnutenni
3 arnuwa(n)zi

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI
1 assanumi
2 assanusi/asnusi 
3 assanuz(z)i/asnuzi
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuanzi


PRETERITE:

Preterite active:

MI:					HI:
1 (n)un					1 h(hun)
2 sta					2 (s)ta
3 sta/t					3 s
pl.
1 wen/uen				1 wen MI = HI
2 ten					2 ten
3 er/ir					3 er/ir

es = to be MI

1 esun
2 esta
3 esta
1 esuen
2 esten
3 esir

ses= to sleep MI

1 sesun
2 sesta
3 ...
1 sesuen
2 ...
3 seser

ed = to eat MI

1 edun
2 ... 
3 ezta
1 ...
2 ...
3 eter

kuen = to strike, kill MI

1 kuenun (kuenunun)
2 kuinnesta kue -> kui
3 kuenta
1 kueun (kuinnummen)
2 kuenten
3 kuennir

hark = to hold, to have  MI (Alexandre, please double check this!)

1 harkun
2 ...
3 harta
1 harwen
2 harten  
3 harkir

istamas = to hear MI

1 istamassun
2 ...
3 istamasta
1 ...
2 istamasten
3 istamassir


punus = to ask MI

1 punussun
2 punusta
3 punusta
1 punussuen
2 ...
3 punussir

uwate = to bring MI? 

1 uwatenun
2 uwatet
3 uwatet
1 uwatewen
2 ...
3 uwater

lami = to detach MI?

1 laun
2 lais
3 lait
1 lawen
2 ...
3 ...

te = to speak MI

1 tenun
2 
3 tet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

pai = to go MI

1 paun
2 ...
3 pait/paitta
1 paiwen
2 ....
3 pair

hatrai = to write MI/HI?

1 hatranun 
2 hatraes
3 hatrait/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair

kupawi = to count MI Cf. to count (English), compter (French), contare (Italian)

1 kappuwanun – kup -> kapp
2 kappuit
3 kappuwait/kappuet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

handai = to add MI

1 hatrunun  d -> t (drops n before consonant t)
2 hatraes (drops n before consonant t)
3 hatrai/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair (drops n before consonant t)

iya = to do MI

1 iyanun
2 iyas/iyat
3 iyas/iet
1 iyawen
2 iyatten
3 ier

wemiya = to find MI

1 wemiyanun
2 ...
3 wemiyat/wemit
1 wemiyawen
2 ...
3 wemiyer

harnink = to destroy HI?

1 harinkun
2 harikta (drops n before consonant k)
3 harnikta (drops n before consonant k)
1 ...
2 
3 harninkir

sarnink = to replace

1 sarninkun
2 ...
3 sarnikta
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

akkusk = to drink a lot MI

1 uskinun
2 ...
3 uskit
1 usgawen
2 ...
3 ...

arnu = to bring MI

1 arnunun
2 ...
3 arnut 
1 ...
2 ...
3 arnuir/arnuer

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain

1 assanunun
2 ...
3 assanut
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuir

April 25 2020

DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE


DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE

NOUNS in Hittite: Noun declensions are fragmentary

Declensions: ABL = from, of etc. ALL (directive) = to (direction)

Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM as/is/us
GEN as/iyas
ACC an
DAT/LOC i
INST it/ta
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
NOM es/is
ACC us
GEN an/as
DAT/LOC as
INST it/ta
ABL za/aza

man = antuhsas 
sing.
NOM antuhsas
GEN antuhsas
ACC antuhsan
DAT/LOC antuhsi
ABL antuhsaz
pl.
NOM antuhses
ACC antuhsus
GEN antuhsas
DAT/LOC antuhsas

anna = mother
sing.
NOM annas
GEN annas
ACC annan
DAT/LOC anni
ABL annaz
pl.
NOM annis
ACC annus

aruna = sea
sing.
NOM arunas
GEN arunas
ACC arunan
DAT/LOC aruni
ABL arunaz(za)
pl.
ACC arunus

kessara = hand kess -> kiss
sing.
NOM kessaras
GEN kissaras
ACC kisseran
DAT/LOC kissiri
INST kisserit
ABL kissaraz(a)
pl.
ACC kisserus

isha = lord
sing.
NOM ishas
DAT/LOC ishi/eshe
ALL isha
pl.
NOM ishes
DAT/LOC ishas

halki = cereal
sing.
NOM halkis
GEN halkiyas
ACC halkin
INST halkit
ABL halkiyaza
pl.
NOM halkis
ACC halkius/halkes

tuzzi = army
sing.
NOM tuzzis/tuzziyas
GEN tuzzias
ACC tuzzin
DAT/LOC tuzziya
ABL ... tuzziyaz
pl.
ACC tuzzius

halukanni = chariot
sing.
NOM halukannis
GEN halugannas
ACC halukanin
DAT/LOC haluganni(ya)
INST halukannit
ABL ...haluganniyaz(a)

halhaltumari = cornerstone
sing.
DAT/LOC halhaltumari(ya) 
pl.
NOM halhaltumares
GEN halhaltumariyas 
DAT/LOC halhaltumariyas
ABL halhaltumaraza

huwasi = grindstone
sing.
NOM huwasi
GEN huwasiyas
DAT/LOC huwasi(ya)
ABL huwasiyaz
pl.
NOM huwasi

ispantuzzi = wine barrel
sing.
NOM ispantuzzi
GEN ispantuzziyas
DAT/LOC ispantuzzi
INST ispantuzzit
ABL ispantuzziaz

zahhai = battle
sing.
NOM zahhais
GEN zahhias
ACC zahhain/zahhin
DAT/LOC zahhiya
ABL ... zahhiyaz(a)

lengai = oath
sing.
GEN likiyas/lingayas
ACC lingain
DAT/LOC linkiya/lingai
ABL linkiaza
pl.
NOM lingais
ACC lingaus

zashai = dream
sing.
ACC zashain
DAT/LOC zashiya
INST zashit
ABL ...zashiyaz
pl.
ACC zahsimus

harnau = chair
sing.
NOM harnaus
GEN harnawas
ACC harnaun
DAT/LOC harnawi

wellu = meadow
sing.
NOM wellus
ACC wellun
DAT/LOC welli
ABL welluwaz
pl.
DAT/LOC welluwas

heu = rain
sing.
NOM heus
GEN hewas
ACC heun
INST heawit
pl.
NOM hewes/heyawes
ACC heus

siu = god
NOM siunis/DINGURus
as/iyas
ACC siunin
DAT/LOC siuni
INST siunit 
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
pl.
NOM siwannies
ACC simus
GEN siunan/siunas

uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English)
NOM uttar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC udani
INST uddanit
ABL .. udanaza/undananza
pl.
NOM uddar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC uddanas

memiya = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc.
sing.
NOM memiyas 
GEN memiyanas
ACC memiyan
DAT/LOC memiyani
INST meminit
pl.
ACC memiyanus

eshar = blood
NOM eshar
GEN eshanas
DAT/LOC eshani
INST eshanta
ABL eshanaza/esnaza

watar = water Cf. all sorts of Indo-European languages, especially “water” (English)
NOM watar
GEN witenas
DAT/LOC witeni
INST wetenit
ABL ...wetenaza

pahhuar = fire
NOM pahhuwar
GEN pahhuwenas
DAT/LOC pahhueni
INST pahhuenit
ABL pahhuenaz

mehur = time
NOM mehur
DAT/LOC mehueni

hilammar = gate
Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM hillamar
GEN hillamnas
ACC hillamar
DAT/LOC hillamni
INST it/ta
ABL hillamnaz
ALL hillamna

nepis = sky
sing.
NOM nepis 
GEN nepisas
DAT/LOC nepisi
ABL nepisaz(a)
ALL nepisa

ais = mouth
sing.
NOM ais
GEN issas
DAT/LOC issi
INST issit
ABL issaz

isgaruh = container, vessel
sing.
NOM isqaruh/iskarih 
DAT/LOC hi
INST isqaruit

arkamma = tribute
sing.
NOM arkammas
GEN arkammanaas
ACC arkamman
pl.
ACC arkammus

muri(yan) = grapefruit
sing.
NOM mures
INST murinit
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
ACC muriyanus

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc.
sing.
NOM SA(ideogram)+ir
GEN kardiyas
DAT/LOC kardi
INST kardit
ABL kartaz
ALL karta

parn = house
sing.
NOM pir
GEN parnas
DAT/LOC parni
ABL parnaza
ALL parna (almost never attested)




Adjectives: salli = big 
sing.
NOM sallis
GEN sallas/sallaiyas
ACC sallin
DAT/LOC sallai
ABL ...sallayaz
ALL a
pl.
NOM sallaes
ACC sallaus/sallius
DAT/LOC sallayas

suppi = pure
NOM suppis
GEN suppayas
DAT/LOC suppai/suppi/suppa/suppaya
INST suppit
ABL suppayaza
pl.
NOM suppaes/suppis 
ACC suppaus
DAT/LOC suppayas/suppiyas
ABL suppayaza

karuili = old
sing.
NOM karuilis
GEN karuilias
ACC karuilun
ABL karuililes/karuiliyas
pl.
NOM  karuiles/ karuiliyas
GEN  karuila
DAT/LOC  karuiliyas

assu = good
sing.
NOM assus
GEN assawas
ACC assun
DAT/LOC assawi
INST assawet
ABL ... assawaza
pl.
NOM assawes
ACC assamus
DAT/LOC
INST assawet

parku = high
sing.
NOM parkus
GEN parkuwas 
ACC parkun
DAT/LOC pargawe 
ABL pargawaz
pl.
NOM pargawes/pargaus
ACC pargamus/pargaus
DAT/LOC pargawas


April 26 2020

BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY


BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY:

In order to decipher Linear A, you need to know Hittite. With the kind assistance of Alexandre Solcà, who knows Hittite very well, I am finally learning the language. How exciting! Here you see my preliminary vocabulary of Hittite. 

ACT = action/AGR = agricultural/ANI = animal, bird etc./AST = astronomy/CLI = climate/COL = colour etc./COM = commerce/FOO = food etc./FUR = furniture etc./GEO = geographic/MIL = military/MUN = municipal/PER = personal/REL = religion/ROY = royalty/SCR = scribal/TEX = textiles/VES = pottery,vessels

ais = mouth PER
akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
antu- (n) : property  AGR
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
arunas = sea GEO
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI ACT
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
TÚGadupli- (n) : garment, dress TEX
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL

E:

ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
ekuna = cold (Akk ka?û)  CLI
ekunima- (c) : the cold CLI
eshar = blood PER
eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
es = to be MI ACT

H:

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
halkis = cereal AGR
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
halukannis = chariot MIL
handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
happar- (n) : trade  COM
happiriya- : town (id URU) MUN 
hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
hark = to hold, to have MI ACT
harki- : white, clear  COL
harnaus = chair FUR
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
GIŠhassalli- (n) : stool (id GIŠGÌRGUB) FUR
haster- : star (id MUL) AST
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
hatrai = to write MI SCR
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR.MIL
heus = rain CLI
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL

I,Y:

UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ishas = lord ROY
ispant- (c) : night AST
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
istamas = to hear MI PER
iya = to do MI ACT

G,K:

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
karuilis = old PER
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
kessaras = hand PER
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) MIL
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN

L:

LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lami = to detach HI? ACT
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
GIŠluttant- : window MUN
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL

M:

malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
mehur = time Cf. English “hour”, français “heure” etc. AST
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR

N:

nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
nekut- (c) : evening AST 
nepis = sky AST
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL

B,P:

pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
pai = to go MI ACT
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
parn = house, nominative = pir + pir : house (§89a; id É-ir) MUN
pattar (n) : wing ANI
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
punus = to ask MI ACT

S:

sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
sarnink = to replace MI ACT
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL

D,T:

dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
dankui- : black; dark (id GE6) AST/MIL
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
te = to speak MI ACT
tekan earth AGR
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL

U:

udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English) ACT
uwate = to bring MI ACT

W:

wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wemiya = to find MI ACT
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR
wetant- : year (id MU) AST
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

Z:

zahhais = battle MIL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

April 22 2020

PRIMARY BY CATEGORY: * = major category

AGR = agricultural *

akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
antu- (n) : property  AGR
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halkis = cereal AGR
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
tekan earth AGR
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR

ANI = animal, bird etc.

hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
pattar (n) : wing ANI
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI

FOO = food etc.

aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

MIL = military *

alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halukannis = chariot MIL
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer vassal(French) MIL
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
zahhais = battle MIL
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

PER = personal *

ais = mouth PER
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
eshar = blood PER
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
istamas = to hear MI PER
kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
karuilis = old PER
kessaras = hand PER
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL

REL = religion *

alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL

ROY = royalty *

eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY

SCR = scribal

handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
hatrai = to write MI SCR
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR

VES = pottery,vessels DUG logogram for vessels *

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES



NOTA BENE! Quantum computing is already here! ... in 2017!... far far sooner than anyone had ever speculated or had even dreamed it could come into being! And it has staggering implications for huge advances in all branches of technology and the sciences! 

Dwave: the Quantum Computing Company (Click here): 

dwave-welcomoe-to-the-future

right here in Canada, no less, has just invented the first truly functional quantum computer. And the implications for the near, let alone the more distant, future of every branch of technology and for all of the sciences mankind is cognizant of are nothing short of staggering, indeed, dare I say, earth-shattering.

What is a quantum computer?

ALL ITALICS MINE

To quote verbatim the D-Wave company's definition of quantum computing:

A quantum computer taps directly into the fundamental fabric of reality — the strange and counter-intuitive world of quantum mechanics — to speed computation.

Quantum Computation:

Rather than store information as 0s or 1s as conventional computers do, a quantum computer uses qubits – which can be a 1 or a 0 or both at the same time. This “quantum superposition”, along with the quantum effects of entanglement and quantum tunnelling, enable quantum computers to consider and manipulate all combinations of bits simultaneously, making quantum computation powerful and fast.

How D-Wave Systems Work:

Quantum computing uses an entirely different approach than (sic: i.e. from) classical computing. A useful analogy is to think of a landscape with mountains and valleys. Solving optimization problems can be thought of as trying to find the lowest point on this landscape. (In quantum computers), every possible solution is mapped to coordinates on the landscape (all at the same time) , and the altitude of the landscape is the “energy’” or “cost” of the solution at that point. The aim is to find the lowest point on the map and read the coordinates, as this gives the lowest energy, or optimal solution to the problem.

Classical computers running classical algorithms can only “walk over this landscape”. Quantum computers can tunnel through the landscape making it faster to find the lowest point. The D-Wave processor considers all the possibilities simultaneously to determine the lowest energy required to form those relationships. The computer returns many very good answers in a short amount of time - 10,000 answers in one second. This gives the user not only the optimal solution or a single answer, but also other alternatives to choose from.

D-Wave systems use “quantum annealing” to solve problems. Quantum annealing “tunes” qubits from their superposition state to a classical state to return the set of answers scored to show the best solution.

Programming D-Wave:

To program the system a user maps their problem into this search for the lowest point. A user interfaces with the quantum computer by connecting to it over a network, as you would with a traditional computer (Comment by myself: This is one of the vital factors in the practical usefulness of the quantum computer). The user’s problems are sent to a server interface, which turns the optimization program into machine code to be programmed onto the chip. The system then executes a “quantum machine instruction” and the results are returned to the user.

D-Wave systems are designed to be used in conjunction with classical computers, as a “quantum co-processor”.

D-Wave’s flagship product, the 1000-qubit D-Wave 2X quantum computer, is the most advanced quantum computer in the world. It is based on a novel type of superconducting processor that uses quantum mechanics to massively accelerate computation. It is best suited to tackling complex optimization problems that exist across many domains such as:

Optimization 
Machine Learning 
Pattern Recognition and Anomaly Detection 
Financial Analysis 
Software/Hardware Verification and Validation

For the massive capabilities and the astounding specs of the D-Wave computer, Click on this link:

d-wave-2x-systewm

273-degress-celsius-near-absolute-zero

Comment by myself: Apparently, the severest limitation of the quantum computer (at least the first generation represented by D-Wave) is that it can only function at the temperature of – 273 celsius, i.e. a mere 0.015 degrees celsius above absolute zero, 180 X colder than the coldest temperature in the universe. But this limitation is merely apparent. Some will have it that this severe restriction makes the machine impractical, since, as they believe, it cannot be networkeed. But nothing could be further from the truth. It can be networked, and it is networked. All that is required is an external link from the near-absolute zero internal configuration of a quantum computer to the external wiring or wireless communication at room temperature at its peripheral to connect it directly to one or more digital computer consoles, thereby allowing the user(s) to connect the quantum computer indirectly to, you got it, the world wide web.

The implications of this real-world connectivity are simply staggering. Since the quantum computer, which is millions of times faster than the faster supercomputer in the world, it can directly feed its answers to any technological or scientific problem it can tackle at super-lightning speed to even personal computers, let alone the fastest supercomputers in existence! It instantly feeds its super-lightning calculations to the “terminal” computer and network (i.e. the Internet), thereby effectively making the latter (digital) system(s) virtually much more rapid than they actually are in reality, if you can wrap that one around your head.
    
MORE ON THE NATURE OF QUANTUM COMPUTING:

From this site:

quantum-computing-ions-sealed-in-a-vacuum

I quote, again verbatim:

Whereas classical computers encode information as bits that can be in one of two states, 0 or 1, the ‘qubits’ that comprise quantum computers can be in ‘superpositions’ of both at once. This, together with qubits’ ability to share a quantum state called entanglement, should enable the computers to essentially perform many calculations at once (i.e. simultaneously). And the number of such calculations should, in principle, double for each additional qubit, leading to an exponential speed-up.

This rapidity should allow quantum computers to perform certain tasks, such as searching large databases or factoring large numbers, which would be unfeasible for slower, classical computers. The machines could also be transformational as a research tool, performing quantum simulations that would enable chemists to understand reactions in unprecedented detail, or physicists to design materials that superconduct at room temperature.

The team plans to achieve this using a ‘chaotic’ quantum algorithm that produces what looks like a random output. If the algorithm is run on a quantum computer made of relatively few qubits, a classical machine can predict its output. But once the quantum machine gets close to about 50 qubits, even the largest classical supercomputers will fail to keep pace, the team predicts.  

And yet again, from another major site:

wauntum-computing-to-overtrun-cybersecuritySpooky action at a distance” is how Albert Einstein described one of the key principles of quantum mechanics: entanglement. Entanglement occurs when two particles become related such that they can coordinate their properties instantly even across a galaxy. Think of wormholes in space or Star Trek transporters that beam atoms to distant locations. Quantum mechanics posits other spooky things too: particles with a mysterious property called superposition, which allows them to have a value of one and zero at the same time; and particles’ ability to tunnel through barriers as if they were walking through a wall.

All of this seems crazy, but it is how things operate at the atomic level: the laws of physics are different. Einstein was so skeptical about quantum entanglement that he wrote a paper in 1935 titled “Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?” He argued that it was not possible.
In this, Einstein has been proven wrong. Researchers recently accessed entangled information over a distance of 15 miles. They are making substantial progress in harnessing the power of quantum mechanics.

Einstein was right, though, about the spookiness of all this.

D-Wave says it has created the first scalable quantum computer. (D-Wave): 

Quantum mechanics is now being used to construct a new generation of computers that can solve the most complex scientific problems—and unlock every digital vault in the world. These will perform in seconds computations that would have taken conventional computers millions of years. They will enable better weather forecasting, financial analysis, logistical planning, search for Earth-like planets, and drug discovery. And they will compromise every bank record, private communication, and password on every computer in the world — because modern cryptography is based on encoding data in large combinations of numbers, and quantum computers can guess these numbers almost instantaneously.

There is a race to build quantum computers, and (as far as we know) it isn’t the NSA that is in the lead. Competing are big tech companies such as IBM, Google, and Microsoft; start-ups; defence contractors; and universities. One Canadian start-up says that it has already developed a first version of a quantum computer. A physicist at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, Ronald Hanson, told Scientific American that he will be able to make the building blocks of a universal quantum computer in just five years, and a fully-functional demonstration machine in a little more than a decade.

These will change the balance of power in business and cyber-warfare. They have profound national security implications, because they are the technology equivalent of a nuclear weapon.

Let me first explain what a quantum computer is and where we are.

In a classical computer, information is represented in bits, binary digits, each of which can be a 0 or 1. Because they only have only two values, long sequences of 0s and 1s are necessary to form a number or to do a calculation. A quantum bit (called a qubit), however, can hold a value of 0 or 1 or both values at the same time — a superposition denoted as “0+1.”

The power of a quantum computer increases exponentially with the number of qubits. Rather than doing computations sequentially as classical computers do, quantum computers can solve problems by laying out all of the possibilities simultaneously and measuring the results.

Imagine being able to open a combination lock by trying every possible number and sequence at the same time. Though the analogy isn’t perfect — because of the complexities in measuring the results of a quantum calculation — it gives you an idea of what is possible.

Most researchers I have spoken to say that it is a matter of when — not whether — quantum computing will be practical. Some believe that this will be as soon as five years; others say 20 years. (ADDDENDUM by myself. WRONG! Not in 20 years, but right now. We have already invented the first functional quantum computer, the D-Wave (see above)). 

One Canada-based startup, D-Wave, says it has already has done it. Its chief executive, Vern Brownell, said to me in an e-mail that D-Wave Systems has created the first scalable quantum computer, with proven entanglement, and is now working on producing the best results possible for increasingly complex problems. He qualified this claim by stressing that their approach, called “adiabatic computing,” may not be able to solve every problem but has a broad variety of uses in optimizing computations; sampling; machine learning; and constraint satisfaction for commerce, national defence, and science. He says that the D-Wave is complementary to digital computers; a special-purpose computing resource designed for certain classes of problems.

The D-Wave Two computer has 512 qubits and can, in theory, perform 2 raised to 512 operations simultaneously. That’s more calculations than there are atoms in the universe — by many orders of magnitude. Brownell says the company will soon be releasing a quantum processor with more than 1,000 qubits. He says that his computer won’t run Shor’s algorithm, an algorithm necessary for cryptography, but it has potential uses in image detection, logistics, protein mapping and folding, Monte Carlo simulations and financial modeling, oil exploration, and finding exoplanets (and allow me to add, in breaking the entire genome!)

So quantum computers are already here in a limited form, and fully functional versions are on the way. They will be as transformative for mankind as were the mainframe computers, personal computers, and smartphones that we all use. As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure.

(ADDENDUM: I think not! It will happen far, far sooner than that! I predict possibly as early as 2020.)  It is past time we began preparing for the spooky technology future we are rapidly heading into. Quantum computing represents the most staggering and the swiftest advancement of human hyperintelligence in the history of humankind, with the potential for unlocking some of the most arcane secrets of the universe itself. It signifies, not just a giant, but literally a quantum leap in human intelligence way, way beyond the pale. If we thought the Singularity was near before the advent of the quantum computer, what about now? Think about this, even for the merest split second, and you will blow your own mind!   It certainly blew mine!  Think of this too. What if one were to directly tap the human mind into a room temperature digital peripheral of a quantum computer? What then? I pretty much have a very good idea of what then!  

The staggering implications of quantum computing for the potential total decipherment of, not only Minoan Linear A, but of every other as yet undeciphered, unknown ancient language:
 
In the next post, I shall expostulate the profound implications the advent of the quantum computer is bound to have on the decipherment of not only Minoan Linear A, but of every other as-yet unknown, and undeciphered, ancient language. I strongly suspect that we will now soon be able to crack Minoan Linear A, and several other unknown ancient languages to boot.

And, trust me, I shall be one of the first historical linguists at the forefront of this now potentially attainable goal, which is now tantalizingly within our reach. 


NEW link added: ANCIENTSCRIPTS.COM at the bottom of the page:

You can click on it here:

Ancient Scripts


but once this post is passed, you will have to scroll down to the bottom of the page to:

Friends & Links (Bottom left)

and then click on the site’s name:

ancient scripts link LBK&M


This is an extremely comprehensive site on ancient languages, Occidental and Oriental.



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