Tag Archive: Ancient Greek



Now on academia.edu. Verb paradigms in Hittite infinitives present past imperative participles substantives

here (click on the image):





I have been learning Hittie for the past 5 months and I have fully mastered the language. Hittie is the first ever Indo-European language, from which Minoan Linear A, Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek, Latin and all modern Occidental languages are derived.

Here is list of Verb paradigms in Hittite infinitives present past imperative participles substantives:

Common verbs classified:	+ Linear A (LA=) + Linear B (LB=) + Greek (gr=) & Latin (la=) (where applicable) + English + français

existence/creation:

es = to be = la = essere = to be = English = is = français = être/es/est LB = eesi = they are  gr = ei0mi
essa/issa = to realize, do 
tahr? to be able to 
tarna = to let, allow; to abandon; to leave; to forgive; to let, put (a spoon in a liquid) 
huinu = to cause
asas/ases = to sit  = English = sit = français = s'asseoir LA = ase/asi =  to sit, to settle, to put into
ki/kikki = to lie down gr = kei=mai
aniya = to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) 
samn?i = to create, bring up, raise = English = to assemble = français = assembler
give
food:

ad/ed = to eat + azzikk = to eat again + hassik/ispai = to eat until full = English = edible
eku = to drink	
akkusk = to drink a lot

life & death:

ak/ek/akkisk = to die 
armaniya/irmaliya = to fall ill = English = harm
dassanu = to make strong 
has = to open; to give birth (for a woman); to testify (for a man) 
huis/huisw?i = to live, to stay alive 
haddules = to recover
maliskunu = to weaken = English = malaise = français = mal, malade, malaise
ses/suppariya = to sleep, to fall asleep = English = supine 
teshaniya = to sleep, dream 

perception:

uh/usk//sakuwai = to see
usk = to see often
istamas = to hear = English = to listen gr = i3sthmi = to stand

expression:

dariyanu = to call 
halz?i = to call, name + halzessa = to call , to name; to read  = English = hail 
lamniya = to name; to call; to order; to assign, appoint
mem?i = to talk, say; to announce = la = memoria = memory English = memory = français = mémoire
talliya = to call, invite; to implore 
te/tar (2 infinitives) = to speak
tarsik = to talk again, proclaim 
tarsikk = to say/speak/talk several times
tekkus(sa)nu = to indicate; to show; to accuse = English = accuse = français = accuser gr = dei/knumi
tekuss?i = to appear, show  
s?kiya = to declare gr = fa/skw
tarkumm?i = to announce, report 
watarnah = to order; to entrust; to inculcate; to command, lead; to ask; to inform 
punus = to ask, to examine 
uesk = to implore = English = ask 
wek = to wish, ask, demand, claim = English = wish/ask LB = eukoto = he wishes
wewakk(iya) = to ask again LB = eukoto = he wishes

education:

hatrai = to write = English = write LA = jatikutu = to write?
handai = to add = English = hand/handle 
kupawi/kappuwar = to count = English = cut = français = couper
sak/sek = to know = English = to seek
annanu= to teach, educate
ishiullah = to teach 
lazziya = to rectify, set straight LA = kireza?
siy?i = to open (by pushing), push; to stamp, flatten; ? to draw; ? to seal; to cover with a seal = English = to seal gr = shmai/nw = to signify, mark, seal

motion:

uwa = to come
?nna = to drive; to receive; to come, hurry
pai = to go gr = bai/nw = to go
arr?sa p?war = to go 
d?la/d?liya = to leave = English = dally
tiya = to move forward
watkunu = to drive away, to dismiss 
huwai(huya) = to run, to flee = English = flee = français = fuir 
pars = to run, to flee = français = partir = je pars 
piddai  = to run, hasten, flee + to pay = English = pittance LA = daipita =  to lay, put, sit, pay
as  = to stay, to come to stay
sakuwantariya = to stop, rest 
zenna/zinna = to end, finish; to settle, put an end to; to demolish 
husk = to wait
istand?i = to remain, stay; to hesitate, wait, tarry = English = stand gr = i3sthmi = to stand
ispart = to escape = la = evanescere = to disappear English = escape = français = disparaître
kark = to disappear 
sanna = to conceal, hide 
maus = to fall 
waktu = to jump
wahnu/weh = to turn
up = to rise (the sun) = English = up 

action:

dai/te/ti/tai = to put
tittanu = to put, set. awan arha t. : to remove, withdraw
tittiya = to put, set out 
ep = to grab
iya = to do
hark(iya) = to hold, to have + to collapse LA = apieke LB = oka +  LB = ekee= to have + ekei = he has + ekonsi = they have
d? = to take; to take as possession; ? to take for oneself + to decide in favor of s.o. 
huitiya = to pull
hamenk= to attach, to link; to marry
tarm?i = to attach, fix 
karp = to lift
w?k = to bite, bite off = English = to whack
duwarn?i = to break 
parsiya = to break LA = parosu
la = to detach
mark = to cut, distribute = English = mark LA = makarite, almost definite!
tuhs/tuhhus  = to cut; to separate (a girl from her lover) 
mat/maz/mazas = to support = français = mettre
sarkuwai = to tighten
wesuriya = to squeeze
maninkuwah/maninkues = to shorten
wete= to build + wetenu = to have sth. built, reinforced, fortified  Linear B = wete = he works gr = e1rgon = work
sarlai = to raise = la = sublevare = to raise = français = soulever
taks/takkes/taggas = to gather; to implement, undertake; ? to found, buildLB = akere = to collect + LB = apeeke  = to let go gr = ta/cij = arranging, putting in place, order, arrangement etc.
zikk = to put several times
has/hes = to open
siy?i = to open (by pushing), push; to stamp, flatten; ? to draw; ? to seal; to cover with a seal =  la = consignare = to seal = English = to seal gr = shmai/nw = to signify, mark, seal
hatk = to close 
istap = to close; to block = la = subsistere = to stand = English = stop gr = i3sthmi = to stand
less?i = to pick up = français = laisser
karsanu = to omit 
kanes = to point out; to obtain, get; to find out, realize; to acknowledge, accept LB = dekasato = to be accepted
harp?i = to pile, to heap = English = heap  
sarnink = to replace
was/wes = to buy/to dress + wessiya = to dress

arnu = to bring, to send; to address 
uwate = to bring
uda = to bring; to cause (distress) LB = pere = to bring
piya = to send
uppa = to send 
piyanna = to give = English = pay = français = payer
ussaniya = to give, sell 
piyan?i = to reward, give a present = la = dependere = to pay = English = pay = français = payer
maniyahh = to give back
pesk = to give several times
dask = to take several times LB = dosei = he gives
wemiya = to find
sah/sahn = to search
n?i/ne = to guide, lead; to turn sth.
nann? = to drive, shove, push  
pehute = to supply
assanu/asnu =  to prepare/obtain = la = assignare = to assign = English = assign (absolutely the same word!) 
newah = to renew = la = novus = newb= English = new/renew  gr = ne/oj = new
pahs = to protect
pahsanu = to ensure; to guarantee, protect; to strenghten, reinforce 
hap (Mid.) = to succeed 
wek = to require = la = egere = call for = English = require LB = weke = to work gr= e1rgon
handalliya = to dare, risk 
mal?i = to approve 
markiya = to disagree 

agriculture & vessels/pottery:

ahu(w?i) =  to pour; to empty (a container) = English = wash LA = ra2sa (raisa?)/rua?/rujami?
+ lahu(w?i) = to pour; to empty (a container) LA = ra2sa (raisa?)/rua?/rujami?
ishuw?i = to pour + ishuwann?i = la = effusus = pouring rain = to pour out = English = wash
less?i = to pick up LB = resi?
suhha = to pour
suppiyahh = to clean
parkunu = to cleanse; to excuse = la = purus = clean
arra = to wash français = arrosser =to water
hat = to dry = English = hot
salliya = to melt (away), dissolve = la = (dis)solvi = to dissolve = English = dissolve
m?i = to grow, blossom; to prosper + mid. miyari =  he/she is born
makkes = to become many, grow =  la = maximus = the greatest = English = maximum/maximize = français =  maximum
salles = to grow, increase = la = salio = to spring, to jump, to leap LA =  sareju?
parkiya = to raise, grow; to remove; to flatter 
maknu = to multiply, increase, pile up = = la = maximus = the greatest =  English = maximum/maximize = français =  maximum
mes (Mid.) =  to grow, prosper = la = maxime = the most (adv.) = English = most
uliliya = to grow, blossom  
ul?i = to unite, blend
zanu/zeya = to cook 
sallanu = to make larger; to stretch; to raise, bring up = la = salio = to spring, to jump, to leap
dankues = to get dark = la = obscurus = dark = English = dark LA = dakusene
luk =  to light; to set ablaze + middle = to brighten, get light = English = light
maiszasti = to glow, shine = la = micare = to glitter
teth?i = to thunder = = la = (in)tonare = to thunder = English = to thunder
war/+warnu (set on fire) = to burn = English = warm
wars = to wipe off, slip off; to pluck, harvest = English = wash
wesiya/wisiya = to graze (trans.) 

military/government:

tamas = to squeeze; to press; to attack, pester, force = English = pester
dammesh?i = to damage, strike, punish = English = to damage = français = endommager
dannattah = to devastate, ravage = = la = damno = to condemn, sentence, punish = English = to damage 
tarh(za) = to defeat, submit, conquer (with -za) 
harni(n)k = to destroy
hull?i/hulliya = to fight = to topple (a decree) 
hullanz?in = to give battle 
harr/kuskus  = to crush = la = fungere = to crush = English = crush
kakkur = to cut, maim = la = caedere = to cut = English = cut gr = ko/ptw
t?ya = to rob, steal; to abduct 
s?ruw?i = to plunder 
ispar = to spread; to cover; to crush, tread on = la = dissipare = to disperse =  English = disperse = français = disperser, éparpiller gr = spei/rw = to sow, scatter, spread
ninik= to mobilize
hatkesnu = to bother, disturb; to attack, plague, press; to add 
h?ni(n)k = to injure, to damage, to hurt = = English = hurt
wen = to harm 
hurna = to hunt  
hatukes = to worsen 
kuen = to strike, kill = la = caedere = to kill = English = kill gr = a0poktei/nw
walh = to strike; to attack
zah = to strike
zahhiya = to fight
walhann?i = to hit, beat 
hazziknu = to beat, hit, strike; to fight s.o. 
hazziya = to push, stab, strike
pessiya = to throw, push, project; to dismiss, reject, abolish = English = push/press = français = presser
hatt?i = to put to death; to cut off  = English = hit
hariya = to bury 
taksul?i = to be friendly, peaceful, tolerate each other; to sign a treaty 
hassuw?i/hassuizn?i = to govern as king 

emotional:

dusk = to rejoice, be happy 
m?g?i = to complain = la = mugire = to rumble, groan
ilaliya = to desire, envy 
nah = to fear
uwai = to worry = English = worry
wiya = to lament/wesk = iterative of wiya
sa= to be angry
waggariya = to be indignant, rebel = English = to wag indignant

judicial/religious:

ha = to believe
walla/wallu = to glorify, praise; to pride oneself on sth. 
ariya = to study an oracle, ask an oracle =la =oraculum = oracle = Eng= oracle = fr = oracle
azzikk = to adore (all the time)
assiya = to love 
hahhars = to laugh = English = haha
parkus/parkues = to become pure = = la = parcere = to spare, economize = English = pure = français = pur gr = kaqaro/j = pure + kaqai/rw = to purify
warressa = to hasten to help = English = hasten
hanna = to judge, decide
has = to open; to give birth (for a woman); to testify (for a man) 
tuwadd = to have mercy, pity  
hanti tiya = to accuse 
wasta = to sin = English = waste
idalawes = to become evil = la = idolon = a spectre = English = idol/idolize = français =  idole/idolizer
idalawahh = to behave badly = la = idolon = a spectre = English = idol/idolize = français =  idole/idolizer
huwap = to do evil 
huek = to swear  (under oath) + to throw down = English = heck/heckle
sull?i/sulliya = to argue, quarrel; to scold, rebuke = English = sully
zammur?i = to offend, insult 
h?wart?- : to swear, curse 
link = to swear
mald= to vow, swear
wars/warsiya = to calm down (intrans.)

Conjugations follow

35 pp. 

summer haiku/haiga/shahai – mother goddess = déesse mère = dea madre




mother goddess
of Mount Ida, harvest queen...
your sheer golden locks! 

* the earliest name for Demeter

déesse mère
du mont Ida, reine des moissons ...
tes cheveux dorés !

dea madre
del Monte Ida alto ... 
lucchetti dorati!
Richard Vallance


The top of Minoan Linear A Tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) restored on academia.edu

Click on the link below to read this key contribution to research into Minoan Linear A tablets:





Minoan Linear A tablets appear to be classed in two primary areas of interest (a) agriculture, and more specifically, crops and grains and (b) religious and sacerdotal. It is to the former that we turn our attention in this study. Focusing on certain Linear A tablets which deal primarily or almost exclusively with grains, we find that these three tablets yield the most promising results, Haghia Triada tablets HT 86 & 95 and Zakros tablet ZA 20. While HT 86 and HT 95 are intact, ZA 20 is not. Other Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada also contribute to our findings.





Is it possible to envision an intact version of the original ZA 20 tablet from Zakros? We believe so, and with that firmly in mind we have attempted the first ever restoration of the top of ZA 20, resulting in what amounts to a plausible intact version, however hypothetical, of the original.  So without further ado, we present the full restoration of our version of Linear A tablet ZA 20.






Restoration the full text of the badly damaged Linear A tablet from Gournia:




Here we see my restoration of the full text of the badly damaged Linear A tablet from Gournia, which includes line 0. at the top and line 4. at the bottom. This is just a personal interpretation, which may stray from the actual text of the original tablet... but we cannot really know this. Note that the RECTO (front side) and the VERSO (reverse side) are reversed. If you horizontally flip the VERSO it fits correctly into the RECTO. So this means that we have to read the text on the RECTO from left to right (dextrograde) and on the VERSO from right to left (sinistrograde). The reconstruction certainly makes sense. It was hard work, but worth it and fun! 


summer haiku = virgin of the sea, in Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek, English and French

Priestess of the Winds 620

virgin of the sea,
the priestess of the winds
blesses our fleet

vièrge de la mer,
la prêtresse des vents
bénit notre flotte 
 
Richard Vallance


2 haiku in Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek, English and French, believe it or not! Believe it!

sheep 2 haiku in Linear B



Translation of Linear B tablet KN 571 Rb 01 by Rita Roberts:

KN 571 R b 01

This is the very last tablet Rita Roberts has had to translate to fulfill the requirements of her third year of university.  In 3 years she has translated at least 250 tablets. Congratulations are in order! 


To the Land of Dreams: Overview of the Linear B Lexicon

to the land of dreams

This site provides us with a superb overview and summary of the contents of the Linear B Lexicon by Chris Tselentis.... a must read!  

It includes examples of noun declensions and verb conjugations. The entire Linear B Lexicon is found on this site!

examples of conjugation



Translation of Linear B tablet, KN 586 Rm 11, Knossos,  by Rita Roberts:

KN 586 M m 11

This is far from being a straightforward tablet to decipher. It presents at least 3 difficulties:

1. the presence of the relatively rare logogram RIYO (see the tablet above) in the putative personal name ARIYOA.
2. the presence of digamma (#) twice in the name on line 2, which could be either the putative personal name, KOWOWEYA or RUWOWEYA, depending on how one is able to decipher the first left-truncated syllabogram on that line, which could be either KO or RU.
3. the presence of  what appears to be the rare syllabogram JU at the end of the second line, but we cannot even be sure of that.

The tablet is damaged enough to raise the questions in 2. and 3. above.


Utube pronunciation of Linear B!

You have to check this out if you want to know how to pronounce Linear B! This Utube video is just amazing!

Linear B pronuncation Utube




winter haiku d’haiku – have you ever seen = as-tu jamais vu, translation of Hermippus, an ancient Greek poet

have you ever seen 
a pomegranate seed
in drifts of snow?

pomegranate seed haiku 620

as-tu jamais vu
une graine de grenade
dans une congère ?

Hermippus

traduction en français par Richard Vallance

I converted this beautiful poem by Hermippus, an ancient Greek poet, into a haiku. It is not my original work at all, but I just love this poem! I think you will agree.

J’ai transformé ce beau poème par Hermippus, poète grec de l’antiquité, en un haiku. Ce n’est guère une oeuvre originale de ma part, mais je l’aime passionnément ! Je crois que vous serez d’accord.



Summer haiku - Knossos by the sea = Knossos au bord de la mer in Linear B, ancient Greek, English and French

haiku-konoso-para-tarasa-anemoiyereya-f

Konoso
para tarasa
anemoiereya 

Knwsso/j
para_ qa&ssash]
a21nemou i'e/ria

Knossos 
by the sea
Priestess of the winds

Knossos
au bord de la mer
prêtresse des vents

Richard Vallance



Rule 10a: Converting Linear B to Greek: Q series of syllabograms to Greek k:

q series k



winter haiku in Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek, English and French, snow on the summit, with the English version below and all of the other languages on the haiku image of the mountain and the church:

snow on the summit
of a Cretan mountain −
a church

snow-on-mountain-2017-kalo-horio

Richard Vallance

REPOST from 2017

Rule 9b: Linear B K = Greek g


Rule 9b: Linear B K = Greek g:

Linear B K = Greek G 620

 


HOW TO SAY 8 WORDS in Egyptian hieroglyphics, Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek and modern Greek!

how to say 8 words in Egyptian hieroglyphics Linear B ancient Greek modern GreekLBKM

 


PYRAMID in Egyptian hieroglyphics, Mycenaean Linear B, ancient and modern Greek:

BNBNT = pyramid in Egyptian hieroglyphics, Mycenaean Linear B, ancient and modern Greek

 


FALCON in Egyptian hieroglyphics, Mycenaean Linear B, ancient Greek & modern Greek:

Egyptian hieroglyphics B I K = falcon + Linear B IERAKA + ancient and modern Geek

 

 


Translation of Linear B tablet Knossos KN 710 Ma 05 by Rita Roberts:

Linear B tablet KN 710 MA 05 by Rita Roberts

This translation is self-explanatory. The translation of the supersyllabogram O on top of the water jug is entirely appropriate. Notice that Rita Roberts is beginning to master the (archaic) ancient Greek alphabet.


Linear B - KN Dd1171, article by Peter J. Keyse on academia.edu 

Click on this graphic to view Keyse’s article:

Linear B - KN Dd1171


Peter J. Keyse provides a thorough analysis of Linear B tablet  KN Dd 1171 in this fascinating article, which is well worth reading for anyone who is familiar with the Linear B syllabary, and certainly for anyone who is studying Linear B in depth. His article is not without errors. For instance, he deciphers PoRo as the name of someone in what he calls the PoMe “worker class” = a shepherd,

Linear B - KN Dd1171 PORO

but his interpretation of of PORO is clearly incorrect, as this word  has 3 distinct meanings, one of which is the Linear B word for “a foal”, as demonstrated by Chris Tselentis in his Linear B Lexicon, here:

Tselentis PORO

(The other 2 meanings of POME offered by Tselentis do not fit the context)

while POME is quite obviously Mycenaean Greek for “shepherd”:

Tselentis POME

Keyse also notes that Michael Ventris identified 3 major styles for incisions - those at Knossos, Pylos and Mycenae. In his own words: The vertical lines are quite faint scratches and not easily seen. The cuts in the clay are ‘under-cut’ i.e. pushed in at an angle . This preoccupation with Linear B scribal hands recurs in a great many articles on Linear B. Keyse also covers the what he ascertains to be the phonetic sounds of the numerics on this tablet. He also emphasizes the nature and particulars characteristics of the scribal hand on this tablet.

But it his conclusion which is most fascinating. He says,

In conclusion: 

What would Dd1171 sound like if read aloud? Po-Ro. 20 OVISm, 72 OVISf. Pa-I-To. Pa 8 OVISm. While it reasonable to say that Linear B was no more the spoken language of its day than ‘double-entry bookkeeping’ speak is for accounting clerks today it is also true to say that accountants do on occasions talk in journals and double-entry (and not only when at dinner parties and down the pub) and they certainly call over inventories to each other. It is clear that Linear B had a sound but perhaps it is unlikely that we can fairly reproduce it today. Considering the importance of numbers within the Linear B archive I find it surprising that no phonic system has been devised to represent them or if devised is not clearly documented in the literature. 

COMMENT by Richard Vallance Janke on the sound, i.e. the general pronunciation of Linear B. In actuality, we probably do have some idea of how Mycenaean Greek was pronounced. Its closest cousin was Arcado-Cypriot, represented both by its own syllabary, Linear C, and by its own archaic alphabet. The Mycenaean and Arcado-Cypriot dialects were much closer phonetically than even Ionic and Attic Greek. Phonological details of the archaic Arcado-Cypriot dialect appear in C.D. Buck, The Greek Dialects, © 1955, 1998. ISBN 1-85399-566-8, on pg. 144. He provides even more information on Arcado-Cypriot on pp. 7-8, and classifies it as an East Greek dialect, pg. 9. This is highly significant, because if Arcado-Cypriot is East Greek, ergo Mycenaean Greek also is. This places both of the archaic East-Greek dialects, Mycenaean and Arcado-Cypriot, firmly in the camp of all East Greek dialects, including Arcadian, Aeolic, Lesbian, Cyprian, Pamphylian, Thessalian, Boeotian, and the much later Ionic and Attic dialects. So it is probably fair to say that we may have at least an idea, even if somewhat inaccurate, of how Mycenaean Greek was pronounced. And this has huge implications for the further study of Mycenaean Greek phonology.

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