Category: Vocabulary



Credible decipherment of several grains mentioned on of Linear A tablet HT 10 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A tablet HT 10 Haghia Triada dealing with several grain crops

After several abortive attempts at realizing a relatively convincing decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 10 (Haghia Triada), I believe I have finally managed to come through. This has to be one of the most challenging Linear A tablets I have ever been confronted with. Any credible decipherment eluded me for months on end, until it finally struck me that all I needed to do was to identify the grain crops most commonly cultivated in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean. And this is precisely what I have just done.  

Neolithic and Bronze age grains cultivated in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic and Bronze Age eras (the most common italicized):

barley (sara2/sarai?) *
einkorn (dideru) *
emmer (kunisu) *
flax (sara2/sarai?) *
freekeh (sara2/sarai?) *
and
bran (less common)
bulgur (less common)
groats (less common)
lentils (less common)
millet (dare -or- kasaru)
spelt (dare -or- kasaru)
vetch for fodder (less common)

Now it strikes me that if we find any of these grains recurring on several Linear A tablets, and we do, these grains must be the most common cultivated then. As it so happens, the 3 grain crops most frequently referenced in Linear A tablets are dideru, kunisu and sarai2 (sarai). They appear over and over and in abundant quantities on several Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada (HT 8 HT 10 HT 28 HT 85-68 HT 91 HT 93 HT 95 HT 114 HT 121 & HT 133), on HM 570, on Khania KH 10, Kophinas KO Za 1 and on Zakros ZA 20. We now know for certain that dideru means “einkorn (wheat)” and kunisu “emmer (wheat)”. It is also highly likely that sara2 (sarai) references “barley”, “flax” or “freekah”. Which one we cannot be sure, but it almost certainly has to be one of these. In addition, we also find dare and kasaru on HT 10. It stands to reason that, by elimination, dare and kasaru are probably either “millet” or “spelt” or vice versa. I have eliminated bran, bulgur, groats, lentils and vetch, as these crops appear to have been relatively less common. 

Free translation of HT 10:

emmer wheat on 4 hills + PA? + 16 1/2 bushel-like units of another type of grain (millet or spelt) *333? + RO + 6 *u325 + 14 bushel-like units of groats (?) + 2 1/2  of *301 (whatever that is), all stored in 8 vases, of which 2 are pithoi (very large) and also stored in 1 vessel of another type + 2 bushel-like units of bran, flax, millet or spelt & 16 young shoots of grain + 6 /12 of *312 TA ? & 6 bushel-like units of millet or spelt, of which 9 1/4 units were lost to death (i.e. never matured)...

My preliminary research into the types of grains cultivated in the Neolithic and Bronze Age Mediterranean has clearly facilitated this plausible decipherment of HT 10, and has moreover confirmed my even more accurate translations of several other Linear A tablets dealing with grain, almost all of them co-incidentally from Haghia Triada.



A major advance in the decipherment of Linear A, the impact of 22 Linear A ligatured logograms, of which 12 are in Mycenaean-derived Greek:

Linear A ligatured logograms

Here we see 22 ligatured logograms in Linear B. By ligatured logograms we mean two or more Linear A syllabograms bound together as one unit. To date, no previous researcher, not even Andreas Zeke of the Minoan Language Blog, has isolated any more than 10 ligatured logograms. This comes as a great surprise to me, if not a real shock. Considering the huge impact these 22 ligatured logograms is bound to have on the decipherment of Linear A, why any ancient language linguist in the past 117 years since the discovery of the first Linear A tablets at Knossos would not account for all 22 of the ligatured logograms I have taken firmly into account is beyond me.

Since there are at least 2 syllabograms bound together, it is impossible to determine which syllabogram comes first. This means that in the case of 2 ligatured syllabograms, the word represented may be reversed. For instance, in the case of the first ligature in the table below, the ligature could be either aka or kae, although the first is more plausible in the second in this case. If the first ligature is indeed aka, then it is highly likely that it is the Linear A equivalent of the Greek word aska, which is the archaic accusative of askos (here Latinized), meaning a leather bag or wine skin, more likely the second than the first. In the case of the third, we have either kuwa, the exact Linear A equivalent of Linear B kowa, which deciphered means girl”or if reversed, waku, which in ancient Greek is agu (Linear A orthography) or agos, meaning “any matter of religious awe/guilt/sacrifice”, of which the last definition is the most convincing.

12 Mycenaean-derived Greek ligatures:

Linear A logograms ligatured Greek


When it comes to ligatures consisting of more than 2 syllabograms, the number of permutations and combinations rises dramatically. Whereas with 2 ligatured logograms there are only 2 possibilities, with 3 there are 9, and with 4 there are 16… at least theoretically. However, in practical terms, just one syllabogram, the first on the left, very likely certainly takes precedence, meaning that the number of permutations and combinations is probably no greater than 2 even in these cases. However, there is no way of knowing for certain. For instance, what are we to make of the eleventh ligature, which can read as either mesiki or sikime or kimesi, or as 6 additional permutations? As it so happens, 2 translations seem most plausible. The first is mesiki, which can be translated as Greek meseigu (Latinized), meaning “in the middle”, whereas the second is kimesi, which can be rendered as keimesi, instrumental plural of keimos, “with muzzles or halters for a horse”. Either translation is perfectly plausible; so we must account for both.

All in all, of the 22 ligatured logograms, 12 or over half are susceptible to translation into Greek. If anything, this illustrates the great impact of the Mycenaean-derived superstratum on Linear A. In this table, only 10 ligatures appear to be in Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language, aka the Minoan substratum. Finally, with the addition of these 22 ligatured logograms and a few more words I have recently unearthed, the number of words in our Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon soars from 988 to an astonishing 1022, which means that the corpus of Linear A vocabulary now amounts to at least 20 % of that for Linear B. No previous Lexicon of Linear A even approaches this upper limit. Prof. John G. Younger’s Linear A Lexicon, the most thorough-going to date, contains only 774 intact Linear A terms, exclusive of broken words with some syllabograms missing, strings of greater than 15 syllabograms, and any words containing numeric syllabograms, which are utterly indecipherable at any rate. This means that our Lexicon is an astonishing 24.3 % larger than that of Prof. Younger. In addition, I have managed to decipher at least 30 % of Linear B, the highest amount ever. I shall be soon publishing our Lexicon on my academia.edu account, by mid-July at the latest, and it is bound to have a considerable impact on the ancient linguistics community.


Linear A roundel pendant, Titisutisa, the name of a princess?

Linear a roundel Titisutisa onomastics

This Linear A roundel bears what is ostensibly a personal name ending in a. If indeed the feminine nominative singular ends in a in the Minoan language, as it does in most Indo-European occidental languages. However, since there are no genders in Basque, a language isolate, it is possible that there are none in Minoan, provided that it too is a language isolate. But even if it is, that does not necessarily imply that there are no genders.   


Comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 988 words, with 214 more entries than in John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon:

comprehensive Linear A lexicon of 988 terms

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Youngers Reverse Linear A Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former, along with additional Linear vocabulary which I have found on my own. By my count, there are 988 words, 214 more than in Prof. John G. Youngers Reverse Linear A Lexicon, which has 774 entries, not counting numeric syllabograms, of which no one knows the phonetic values at any rate + long strings + broken series of syllabograms, though I may have made the occasional error in addition, since I had to subtract some repetitive words and add others from the tablets, which are not in the Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed under one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna 
dakusene(ti)
japa/japadi/japaku
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri 
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu 
reda/redamija/redana/redasi 
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are,
2 Broken series of syllabograms &
3 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

This is the raw Lexicon, without definitions. Definitions of Old Minoan (OM), pre-Greek substratum (PGS) and Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) terms will soon be published in sub-Lexicons pursuant to this Lexicon on my academia.edu account. 

adai 
adakisika
adara/adaro/adaru
ade/adu 
Adunitana  
adureza 
aduza
ajesa 
aju 
Akanu/Akanuzati  = Archanes (Crete)  = 10
aka 
akaru 
aki/akii  = garlic
akipiete(ne?)
akumina
ama 
amaja
amawasi
amidao/amidau 
amita = 20
ana 
ananusijase
anatu 
anau
anepiti
aparane 
apaki 
apero 
api 
ara = 30
araju 
arako
aranare/aranarai (sing.) 
arati
aratiatu 
aratu  
arauda
aredai
Arenesidi  
aresana = 40
ari/arinita
arisu
arokaku
arote 
aru/arudara
aruma 
aruqaro
arura 
asadaka
asamune = 50
asara2 
asasumaise
ase/asi
aseja 
asidatoi 
asijaka
asikira 
asisupoa
asona
asuja = 60
Asupuwa 
atade 
atanate 
atare 
ati 
atika
atiru
atu 
aurete 
awapi = 70
azura

daa 
dadai/dadana
dadipatu
dadumata
dadumina/dadumine
dai/daina
daipita 
dajute
daka/daki/daku/dakuna = 80
dakusene(ti)
damate Cf. Linear B damate
dame/dami/daminu  
danasi 
danekuti
daqaqa
daqera
dare 
darida 
daropa = 90
darunete 
daserate
dasi 
datapa 
datara/datare
data2 
datu  
dawa  (Haghia Triada)  CF LB dawo
daweda 

dea = 100
deauwase 
dedi
dejuku
demirirema 
depa/depu 
deripa
detaa 
dide/didi
dideru
didikase/didikaze  = 110
dii 
dija/dije
dika 
Dikate  = Mount Dikte
dikime
dikise 
dima
dimaru
dimedu
dinaro = 120
dinau
dipa3a 
dipaja
diqise 
dirasa 
diredina
dirina
diru 
disa
disipita = 130
ditajaru
ditamana  = dittany
du/dua/duja
dumaina 
dumedi
dumitatira2 (dumitatirai)
dunawi
dupa3na
dupu3re 
dura2 = 140
durare
duratiqe
dureza/durezase
dusi/dusini
dusima 
dusu
duti
duwi 
duzu

edamisa = 150
edu 
eka 
epa3
ero
esija
etanasu
etori 
ezusiqe

ia 
Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3  = Mount Ida  = 160
Idamate/idamete  
Idarea 
idunesi 
iduti 
ija 
ijadi 
ijapame  
ijate 
ika 
Ikesedesute   = 170
Ikurina  
ikuta
ima
imeti 
inaimadu
inajapaqa
ipinama
ira2 
iruja
isari  = 180
ise
itaja
itaki
itijukui 
itinisa
Ititikuna  
Izurinita  

jaa
jadi/jadikitu = 190
jadireja 
jadisi
jadu
jadurati
jai 
jainwaza
jaiterikisu 
jaitose
jaja
jakisikinu = 200
jako/jaku/jakute
jamaa
jamauti
jami/jamidare 
januti
japa/japadi/japaku 
japametu 
japanidami 
japarajase
jara2qe = 210
jara/jare/jaremi 
jarepu2  
jarete
jari/jarina/jarinu
jaripa3ku
jarisapa
jaru/jarui 
jasaja
jasamu 
jasapai = 220
jasaraanane
jasasarame
jasidara
jasea/jasepa 
jasie 
jasumatu 
jata/jatai/jatapi 
jate/jateo
jatimane
jatituku+ jatituku (repeated) = 230
jatoja
jawi
jedi 
jeka 
jemanata
jetana 
jua
judu
juerupi 
juka = 240
juma/jumaku
juraa
jureku
juresa 
jutiqa
juu

ka (extremely common)
kada/kadasaa
kadi 
kadumane   = 250
kadusi 
kae
kai/kaika 
kairo
kaji/kaju 
kaki/kaku
kakunete
kami
kana/kanatiti/kanau 
kanajami = 260
kanaka 
kanita 
kanuti 
kapa/kapaqe/kapi 
kaporu 
kapusi
kaqa/kaqe
kara 
karona
karopa2 (karopai) = 270
karu  
karunau 
kasaru 
kasi 
kasidizuitanai  
Kasikidaa   
kasitero 
katanite
kataro  scarab (Egyptian)
kati 
kaudeta = 280 
keda 
keire 
kekiru
kera/kero  
keta/kete 
ketesunata  
kezadidi
kida/kidi 
kidapa 
kidaro = 290
kidata
kidini
kidiora
kii/kiipa
kija  
kika 
kikadi 
kikiraja
kimu 
kina = 300
kinima
kinite
kipaa 
kipisi (fairly common) 
kiqa
kira/kiro 
kireta2 
kiretana 
kireza
kiro/kirisi/kiru  = 310
kiso 
kisusetu 
kitai/kitei 
kitanasija 
kitiqa
kito 
koiru 
koja
kopu
koru  = 320
Kosaiti  
kuda
kuja
kujude 
kuka
kukudara 
kumaju 
kumapu 
kunisu
kupa/kupi = 330 
kupa3natu 
kupa3nu 
kupa3pa3
kupa3rija  
kupaja 
kupari 
Kupatikidadia  
kupazu
kuqani 
kura/kuramu  =340
kurasaqa 
kureda 
kureju 
kuro/kurotu 
kuto 
kuruku
kuruma 
kutiti  Kutaistos Cf. LB Kitaito
kutukore
kuzuni = 350

maa
madadu 
madi 
mai/maimi
majutu 
makaise
makaita 
makarite
makidete 
mana/manapi (common)= 360
maniki
manirizu 
manuqa
maru/maruku/maruri
masa/masaja 
masi/masidu
masuja
masuri
matapu
mateti = 370
matiti 
matizaite 
matu 
maza/mazu 
meda
medakidi
mekidi
mepajai
mera 
merasasaa/merasasaja (very common)  = 380
mesasa 
mesenurutu
meto 
meturaa 
meza 
mia
midai 
midani 
midamara2 (midamarai)
midara = 390
midemidiu
mie
miima 
mijanika
mijuke 
mikidua
mikisena
minaminapii
minedu
mini/miniduwa  = 400
minumi
minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) 
mio/miowa
mipa
mireja 
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita = 410
miturea 
mizase
mujatewi
muko 
mupi 
murito
muru
musaja 

naa
nadare = 420
nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi
nadiwi
nadu
nadunapu2a
naisizamikao   
naka
nakiki
nakininuta
nakuda
namarasasaja  = 430
namatiti
nami
namikua/namikuda
namine 
nanau 
nanipa3
napa3du
narepirea
naridi
narinarikui  = 440
narita
naroka
naru 
nasarea
nasekimi 
nasi 
nasisea
nataa/nataje
natanidua
natareki (common)  = 450
nati 
nazuku/nazuru
nea 
neakoa  
nedia
nedira
neka/nekisi 
nemaduka
nemaruja
nemiduda = 460
nemusaa
Nenaarasaja 
neqa
neramaa
nerapa/nerapaa 
nere 
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
nesasawi
nesekuda
neta = 470
netapa 
netuqe
nidapa
nidiki/nidiwa 
niduti
nijanu
niku/nikutitii
nimi
nipa3  
nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nisai)  = 480
niro/niru 
nisi 
nisudu
nisupu
niti
nizuka
nizuuka
nua
nude
nuki/nukisikija  = 490
numida/numideqe 
nupa3ku (extremely common)
nupi
nuqetu 
nuti/nutini
Nutiuteranata  
nutu
nuwi

odami/odamia
opi = 500
ora2dine (oraidine)
osuqare
otanize
oteja 

pa (common)/paa
padaru
padasuti 
pade
padupaa
Paito = Phaistos = 510
pa3a/pa3ana
pa3da 
pa3dipo
pa3katari 
pa3kija 
pa3ku
pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi
pa3pa3ku
pa3qa
pa3roka  = 520
pa3sase
pa3waja
paja/pajai/pajare
paka (very common)/paku (very common)/pakuka 
pamanuita  
panuqe 
para 
parane 
paria 
paroda = 530
parosu
pasarija
pase 
pasu 
pata/patada/pataqe/patu 
patane 
pia/pii 
pija/pijani/pijawa 
piku/pikui/pikuzu
pimata  pimento = 540
pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) 
pina/pini 
pirueju
pisa
pita/pitaja 
pitakase/pitakesi
pitara 
piwaa
piwaja
piwi = 550
posa 
potokuro
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 
pu3pi
pu3tama
puko
punikaso
puqe
pura2  = 560
pusa/pusi
pusuqe

qara2wa 
qa2ra2wa
qajo
qaka
qanuma
qapa3 (qapai) 
qapaja/qapajanai
qaqada = 570
qaqaru 
qareto 
Qaqisenuti  
qaro 
qasaraku 
qatidate 
qati/qatiki 
qatiju 
qedeminu
qeja = 580
qeka 
qenamiku 
qenupa
qepaka
qepita 
qepu
qequre 
qera2u/qera2wa
qeri
qero = 590
qerosa 
qesite
qesizue
qesupu
qesusui
qeta2e
qeti/qetiradu 
qetune 
qisi
qoroqa = 600 
quqani 

raa
rada/radaa/radakuku/radami
radarua 
radasija
radizu
radu 
ra2i
ra2ka 
ra2madami   = 610
ra2miki
ra2natipiwa 
ra2pu/ra2pu2
ra2ri (rairi)  = lily
ra2rore
ra2ru
ra2saa 
raja/raju
rakaa 
raki/rakii/rakisi/raku = 620
ranatusu
rani 
raodiki 
rapa/rapu
rapu3ra
raqeda
rarasa
rarua
rasa/rasi 
rasamii = 630
rasasaa/rasasaja
rata/ratapi 
ratada
ratise (ritise?) 
razua
rea 
reda (common)/redana/redasi 
redamija
redise 
reduja = 640
reja/rejapa 
rekau 
rekotuku 
reku/rekuqa/rekuqe 
rema/rematuwa 
remi
renara/renaraa 
renute
repa 
Repu2dudatapa   = 650
repu3du
reqasuo
reradu
rera2tusi
reratarumi 
rerora2
rese/resi/resu  See sere
retaa/retada
retaka 
retata2 = 660
retema 
reza
rezakeiteta 
ria (common) 
ridu
rikata
rima 
rimisi 
ripaku
ripatu = 670
riqesa
rira/riruma
rirumate
risa
Risaipa3dai  
Risumasuri  
ritaje 
rite/ritepi
ritoe 
rodaa/rodaki = 680
roika
roke/roki/roku
romaku 
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka 
rosa  = rose 
rosirasiro 
rotau 
roti = 690
rotwei 
rua 
rudedi
ruiko
ruja  
rujamime 
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike 
Rukito
ruko
rukue = 700
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase 
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi
rutari 
rutia 
ruzuna

sadi
saja/sajama/sajamana = 710
sajea
saka
sama/samaro
samidae 
samuku 
sanitii
sapo/sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2 (sarai)/sarara =720
sareju 
saro/saru/sarutu 
sasaja
sasame  = sesame
sasupu 
sato 
sea/sei 
sedina 
sedire
seikama = 730
Seimasusaa
seitau
sejarapaja  
sejasinataki  
sekadidi
sekatapi
sekidi  
Sekiriteseja  
sekutu 
semake = 740
semetu 
senu
sepa
sere 
sesapa3
Sesasinunaa  
Setamaru
Seterimuajaku
setira 
Setoija   = 750
Sewaude   
sezami 
sezanitao
sezaredu
sezatimitu 
sia 
sidare/sidate
sidi/sidija 
sii/siida/siisi  
siitau = 760
sija 
Sijanakarunau
sika 
siketapi
sikine 
Sikira/sikirita
sima 
simara 
simita 
simito/simitu  = mouse = 770
sina
sinada
sinae  
sinakanau (common)
sinakase  
sinamiu
sinatakira
sinedui
sipiki 
sipu3ka = 780
sire/siro/siru/sirute 
siriki 
Sirumarita2   
Sitetu  
situ 
siwamaa
sokanipu  
sokemase 
sudaja 
suja = 790
Sukirita/Sukiriteija  = Sybrita
suniku (common)
supa3 (supai) 
supi/supu 
sure 
Suria  
suropa 
sutu/sutunara
suu
suzu = 800

taa
tadaki/tadati
tadeuka 
taikama
Tainaro
tainumapa
Ta2merakodisi 
ta2re/ta2reki 
ta2riki
Ta2rimarusi    = 810
ta2tare
ta2tite
ta2u 
tajusu 
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui
tamaduda
tanamaje
tanate/tanati
Tanunikina  = 820
tamaru 
tami/tamia/tamisi 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti  
tapa 
tapiida
tapiqe
tara/tarina
tarasa
tarawita = 830
tarejanai 
tarikisu 
taritama
tasa/tasaja 
tasise 
tata/tati 
tateikezare
tedasi/tedatiqa
tedekima
teepikia = 840
Teizatima  
tejai 
tejare 
tekare
teke/teki
tekidia
temada/temadai
temeku 
temirerawi 
tenamipi = 850
tenata/tenataa 
tenatunapa3ku  
tenekuka 
teneruda
teniku 
tenitaki
tenu/tenumi (common)
tepi
tera/tere/teri tera 
teraseda = 860
tereau 
tereza
teri/teridu 
terikama
tero/teroa
terusi (extremely common) 
tesi/tesiqe 
Tesudesekei 
tetita2
tetu = 870
Tewirumati
Tidama  
tidata 
tidiate
tiditeqati 
tiduitii/tiisako 
tija 
tika 
tikiqa
tikuja = 880
Tikuneda
timaruri/timaruwite
timasa 
timi 
timunuta
tina 
Tinakarunau
tinata (common)/tinita
tinesekuda
tininaka = 890
tinu/tinuka 
tinusekiqa 
tio
tiqatediti 
tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu
tiraduja 
tira2 
tirakapa3
tire 
tisa = 900
tisiritua 
tisudapa
Tita
titema
titiku
titima
tiu
tiumaja
tizanukaa
toipa = 910
tome
toraka  = Linear B toraka
toreqa
tuda
tujuma
tukidija
tukuse
tuma/tumi/tumitizase
tunada/tunapa
tunapa3ku = 920
Tunija
tupadida
tuqe
turaa 
Turunuseme 
turusa
tusi/tusu/tusupu2
tute/tutesi

udami/udamia 
udimi = 930
udiriki
uju 
uki
Uminase  
unaa
unadi (common) 
unakanasi  
unana 
unarukanasi/unarukanati
upa = 940
uqeti 
urewi 
uro
uso/usu
uta/uta2 
utaise
utaro 
uti 

waduko
waduna = 950
Wadunimi  
waja
wanai 
wanaka 
wapusua  
wara2qa
watepidu
watumare 
wazudu
wetujupitu = 960
widina
widui
wija 
Wijasumatiti  
Winadu
winipa
winu 
winumatari 
wiraremite 
wireu = 970
wirudu
Wisasane  
witero 

zadeu/zadeujuraa
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata = 980
zirinima
zudu
zukupi
zuma
zupaku
zusiza
zusu
zute = 988

VERSUS Younger = 774 ( – numeric syllabograms + long strings + broken series of syllabograms). Hence Youngers lexicon amounts to 78.3 % of this one, i.e. this lexicon contains 214 more entries and is 21.7 % longer.


For the first time ever in history, a conjectural full restoration of an entire Linear A tablet, ZA 20 (Zakros):

Linear A tablet ZA 20 Zakros restored

In the previous post, I conjectured how the text of the missing top of Linear A tablet ZA 20 (Zakros) might have read. While we shall never know for certain, one thing is sure: we do know that the entire tablet dealt with grain crops. It therefore stands to reason that the missing text on the top must have inventoried grains. With this firmly in mind, I have endeavoured to reconstruct what I believe how the missing text may have read. It could very well have run something along these lines:

kireta2 (kiretai) 11 dideru 42 dideru 30 qerie 22 qerie 6

NOTE that kireta2 (kiretai) is the Minoan orthography for Greek krithai (Latinized), which of course is barley.

Translation: 11 bushel-like units of barley, 42 units of emmer wheat, 30 units of emmer wheat mixed with 22 units of roasted einkorn, and 6 units of pure roasted einkorn

for a total of 111

which when taken into account with total of 19 on the bottom half of the tablet yields a grand total of 130.

Hence the decipherment of the entire tablet with the top half restored as conjectured, reads as follows:

11 bushel-like units of barley, 42 units of emmer wheat, 30 units of emmer wheat mixed with 22 units of roasted einkorn, and 6 units of pure roasted einkorn + ro? with dry units of measurement (i.e. bushel-like units) + 4 units of mi? + ? + ? + along with 1 bushel-like unit of wheat 7 12 bushel-like units of te*123 (flax?) + 2 bushels of rumatase (spelt?) for a grand total of 130.

As you can readily see, this decipherment makes perfect sense, and in any case, even if the text of original tablet did not read quite this way, it must have read very much like this.

You will forgive my awful scribal hand. I cannot hope to be able to replicate the finer hand of the original scribe.


Provisional count of Mycenaean-derived vocabulary in Linear A = 33.4 %:

provisional count of New Minoan words in Linear A

I have just finished calculating the provisional maximum number of probable/possible Mycenaean-derived New Minoan words in our Linear A Lexicon of 988 words, and the count comes to 330, which is 33.4%. However, there is still a good deal of research to be done before I can determine how many of these potential New Minoan words are in fact just that. I estimate that, once I have eliminated the possible candidates, and restricted myself to the probable, this figure should drop to around 25%, which is roughly in line with the percentage of French words in English = 29%.


Linear A bar, MA 2 (Malia), probable translation: penny royal as a means of treatment:

Malia MA 2

Linear A bar, MA 2 (Malia) deals with some sort of (herbal) remedy as a means of treatment. It strikes me that it may be penny royal (unana). The word jamauti is New Minoan for “as a remedy”, apparently in the instrumental.


Linear A tablet ZA 14 (Zakros) appears to be almost entirely inscribed in Mycenaean-derived Greek:

Linear A ZA 14 Zakros

minoan fashion linen dresses

 

Linear A tablet ZA 14 (Zakros) appears to be almost entirely inscribed in Mycenaean-derived Greek. The only exception is the word tumitizase, which from the context very likely means linen, one of the most highly prize cloths or textiles in Minoan/Mycenaean times. All of the other Mycenaean derived words have been adjusted to meet the exigencies of Minoan grammar. Comments: Megidi almost certainly is in a Minoan oblique case. Given that I have extrapolated 5 more words with the ultimate di: dimedi, medakidi, mekidi, sekadidi and sekidi, it appears that this case may be the genitive singular, probably masculine. Further research is required to substantiate this claim, if at all possible. Mycenaean-derived punikaso is such a striking match with Linear B poinikiyo that it almost certainly means Phoenician. With reference to textiles, this word signifies “crimson”. In addition, qatiju is a close match with ancient Greek, geitheo (here Latinized) = to delight in, which in Minoan grammar is rendered as qatiju, i.e. gatheiu. Also, we have kupi = xhoufi from xhous, “in liquid measure” and panuke = fanuthe from fanos, meaning “brightly washed” and finally jawi for iawi = in violet (Greek).

To summarize, the decipherment makes perfect sense if all the vocabulary is interpreted as being Mycenaean-derived, except for tumitizase, which context practically demands signifies “linen”, the Old Minoan word corresponding with Linear B rino.

This remarkable decipherment lends even further credence to the hypothesis that a Mycenaean-derived superstratum imposed itself on the Minoan substratum. I have already deciphered at least six Linear A tablets which are primarily inscribed in Mycenaean-derived Greek, along with more inscribed in an admixture of Old and New Minoan.


Badly damaged, but still largely legible Linear A tablet from Gournia in Mycenaean derived Greek:

Minoan-Crete-Gournia-Linear-A

Gournia Crete

Although this tablet is badly damaged, the text remains legible. The word kadusi is instrumental plural for a bucket or pail, while daro is a piece of wood (burning/on fire). As for the single syllabogram RO on the first line of the RECTO, it looks very much like it is the last syllable for udoro, which is the word for water in Mycenaean Linear A. So while this tablet is inscribed in the Linear A syllabary, it must have been written just before the adoption of Linear B as the new syllabary. 2 roundels from Gournia were composed ca. 1600 BCE, but this damaged tablet must have been inscribed later, ca. 1500-1450 BCE.


Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words, the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever by far, with at least 250 terms more than Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon:

comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words

At this juncture in my ongoing endeavour to decipher Linear A, I have run across so many tablets with New Minoan Mycenaean derived superstratum words that I am confident I am well on the way to deciphering New Minoan. Such is not the case with Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language a.k.a. the Minoan substratum. But even there I have managed to decipher at least 100 words more or less accurately, bringing the total of Old Minoan, New Minoan and pre-Greek substratum vocabulary to around 250 out of the 969 Linear A words I have isolated in my Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon, by far the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever to appear online, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon by at least 250.

Since this new Lexicon is so large and I intend to publish it soon in its entirety on my academia.edu account, there is no point rehashing it here. Instead, I shall tantalize you with just a few excerpts, to give you at least a notion of how far I have taken this labour-intensive project.   

*******************************************************     

Excerpta from the Complete Linear A lexicon of 969 words:

This lexicon comprises all of the intact words in John G. Younger’s Linear A Reverse Lexicon (which is far from comprehensive) plus every last intact word on every single tablet at his site, wherever any of the latter are not found in the former. By my count, there are 969 words, some 250 more than in Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon. Words which are apparent variants of one another are listed as one entry, e.g.

daka/daki/daku/dakuna 
dakusene(ti)
japa/japadi/japaku
kira/kiro/kirisi/kiru
maru/maruku/maruri 
merasasaa/merasasaja
nesa/nesaki/nesakimi
piku/pikui/pikuzu 
reda/redamija/redana/redasi 
saro/saru/sarutu
tami/tamia/tamisi
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea

The following entries have been deliberately omitted:
1 Words containing any syllabograms which are either partially or wholly numeric, since we do not know what the phonetic values of these syllabograms are.
2 Strings of syllabograms > than 15 characters.

KEY:
OM = Old Minoan, the original Minoan language, denominated the Minoan substratum. Words are tagged OM only where I have been able to decipher any of them.
PGS = pre-Greek substratum, i.e. words, man of which are non-Indo-European, in existence before Mycenaean and ancient Greek, but which entered Greek and were probably present in Old Minoan, even if many of them do not appear on Linear A tablets or fragments. 
NM = New Minoan, Mycenaean derived or words of Mycenaean origin in Linear A

a
adai 
adakisika
adara/adaro/adaru OM
ade/adu OM -or- NM = ades-, ados- sort of cereal 
adunitana
adureza OM
aduza
ajesa 
aju 10
Akanu PGS = Archanes (Crete) 

... passim ...
 
dame/dami (sing. damai) PGS
daminu
danasi 80
danekuti
daqaqa
daqera OM
dare
darida OM
daropa OM
darunete
daserate
dasi OM
datapa 90
datara/datare
data2 OM
datu OM 
Dawa PGS (Haghia Triada) 
daweda OM

... passim ...

kanaka PGS
kanita
kanuti
kapa/kapaqe/kapi NM 
kaporu NM
kapusi NM?
kaqa/kaqe
kara NM
karona NM?
karopa2 (karopai) OM 260
karu NM?
karunau
kasaru
kasi
kasidizuitanai
kasikidaa
kasitero NM

... passim ...

mini/miniduwa NM
minumi
minute (sing. minuta2 - minutai)
mio/miowa 400
mipa
mireja
miru
mirutarare
misimiri
misuma
mita PGS

Paito = Phaistos
pa3a/pa3ana NM?
pa3da
pa3dipo
pa3katari
pa3kija 510

... passim ...

pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) OM
pina/pini 
pirueju
pisa
pita/pitaja 540
pitakase/pitakesi NM
pitara
piwaa/piwaja
piwi
posa NM
potokuro NM?
pu2juzu
pu2su/pu2sutu 
pu3pi
pu3tama 550
puko OM = tripod

... passim ...

roke/roki/roku
romaku
romasa
ronadi
rore/roreka
rosa PGS = rose
rosirasiro PGS = planted rose (rose + hole sunk in the ground)
rotau 680
roti OM = a type of grain or wheat (Petras)
rotwei
rua
rudedi
ruiko
rujamime
ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike
Rukito (topo) PGS
ruko NM?
rukue 690
ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase
rupoka
ruqa/ruqaqa (common)
rusa (common/rusaka
rusi 
rutari
rutia
ruzuna

... passim ...

sadi
saja/sajama/sajamana OM 700
sajea
saka NM
sama/samaro
samidae PGS?
samuku OM
sanitii
sapo/sapi
saqa
saqeri
sara2 (sarai)/sarara PGS = sharia wheat 690 710

... passim ...

taikama OM PGS
tainumapa
ta2merakodisi
ta2re/ta2reki
ta2riki
ta2rimarusi
ta2tare
ta2tite
ta2u
tajusu 800
takaa/takari
taki/taku/takui NM
tamaduda
tanamaje
tanate/tanati NM
tanunikina
tamaru
tami/tamia/tamisi NM 
tani/taniria/tanirizu 
taniti 810 
tapa NM = Linear B

... passim ...

udami/udamia NM?
udimi
udiriki
uju NM?
uki NM?
uminase OM 
unaa
unadi (common) 920
unakanasi
unarukanasi/unarukanati
upa
uqeti
urewi
uro NM
uso/usu
uta/uta2
utaise
utaro 930
uti

waduko
wadunimi
waja NM
wanai
wanaka PGS
wapusua
wara2qa
watepidu NM
watumare 940
wazudu
wetujupitu
widina
widui
wija NM
wijasumatiti
Winadu PGS (topomastics)
winipa
winu NM
winumatari NM 950
wiraremite
wireu NM
wirudu 
wisasane
witero NM?

zadeu/zadeujuraa
zadua
zama/zame
zanwaija
zapa 960
zare/zaredu/zareki/zaresea
zasata 
zirinima 
zudu
zukupi
zuma
zupaku
zusiza
zute 969 


Linear A fragment Petras V House III = grain husks in New Minoan + comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 969 words:

Linear A fragment Patras V House III

This Linear A fragment is one of the most recent findings. It appears to be entirely in New Minoan, i.e. from the Mycenaean derived superstratum. It definitely deals with wheat, as its ideogram appears to the far left. What appears to be the syllabogram ti or pi (though I interpret it as the latter) is inscribed with RO, which just happens to correspond to the Mycenaean and ancient Greek word lopos, but which in this case is lopi (i.e. dative singular).  Hence, it would appear that we are dealing with 1 1/2 units (something along the lines of bushels) of wheat husk. When I speak of bushels, I mean merely a generous approximation, since we have no idea what the standard unit of measurement for wheat or barley was either in the Minoan or in Mycenaean era. But it gives us at least an idea of how much wheat we are dealing with.

At this juncture in my ongoing endeavour to decipher Linear A, I have run across so many tablets with New Minoan Mycenaean derived superstratum words that I am confident I am well on the way to deciphering New Minoan. Such is not the case with Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language a.k.a. the Minoan substratum. But even there I have managed to decipher at least 100 words more or less accurately, bringing the total of Old Minoan, New Minoan and pre-Greek substratum vocabulary to around 250 out of the 969 Linear A words I have isolated in my Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon, by far the most complete Linear A Lexicon ever to appear online, exceeding Prof. John G. Younger’s Reverse Linear A Lexicon by at least 250.          


Decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 95 (recto/verso) almost intact:

Linear A tablet HT 95 recto verso

Even though there is only one word of probable Mycenaean derivation, saru, from Greek saro, which literally means “a broom”, and in this instance, which refers to a threshing floor or the process of threshing wheat, almost all of the remaining Old Minoan words on this tablet can be deciphered more or less accurately. The Minoan word kunisu definitely means “emmer wheat”, while dideru is “roasted einkorn”. Even though we do not know exactly what the other types of grains or wheat, dame and minute are, it is highly likely that both of these words are the plural of the diminutives damai and minuta2 (minutai), which in turn implies that these terms refer to fine grains. I take it from context that dadumata means “harvesting”.

And so the decipherment flies.

Here are illustrations of emmer wheat and roasted einkorn:

roasted einkorn and emmer wheat


Complete decipherment of the Kafkania Pebble, ca. 1700 BCE. Is this the first ever inscription in proto-Greek?

Linear A Kafkania pebble 1700 BCE

This medallion is particularly striking, insofar as it actually appears to be inscribed entirely in proto-Greek. So even though this medallion dates from the Middle Helladic or Middle Minoan era (ca. 1700 BCE), the text appears not to be Minoan at all, but proto-Greek! If this is the case, this is by far the earliest inscription ever unearthed actually inscribed in proto-Greek. The decipherment makes perfect sense. Moreover, the presence of the king is clearly implied in this inscription. And what is even more astonishing is this: the Royal Seal of Malia, equally archaic, inscribed in Cretan hieroglyphics, appears to describe in no uncertain terms the word, wanaka!

the Royal Seal of Malia with wanaka inscribed

If this is true, then wanaka, which as we all know means “king” in Mycenaean Greek, in other words, in a language which came to the fore much later than the Minoan language, is in all probability either a Minoan word or, failing that, in the pre-Greek substratum. It is just as conceivable that all of the words on the Kafkania Pebble fall within the pre-Greek substratum, in other words, that all of these terms were to be taken over by the Mycenaeans at least a century later (ca. 1600 BCE at the earliest).

This is an amazing discovery, to say the very least.


Partial decipherment of Linear A inscription PH 1 (Arkalochori Axe):

Linear A tablet PH 1 Arkalochori Axe

My decipherment is partial. The only candidate for Mycenaean derived vocabulary is the word uro = entire, whole, i.e. total, a synonym of kuro = reaching, attaining, i.e. total.
The  word jaku obviously refers to the cargo. 


POST 1,500: Phaistos fragments in Linear A, # 3 = 8a/8b (recto/verso), harvesting olives and wheat with a team of oxen:

Phaistos PH 8a 8b PD20 PO35 36

Phaistos fragments in Linear A 8a/8b apparently deal with the harvesting of olives from 8 olive trees + 2 bushel-like units of grains or wheat by 11 harvesters employing a team of oxen. It certainly makes perfect sense. There is also mention of 1 bushel-like unit of sharia wheat.  When I say “bushel-like”, I am merely making an approximation, since we have no idea of the exact actual standard unit of dry measurement for grain was in Mycenaean times.  Note that since this fragment is from Phaistos, it is much more likely that it is inscribed primarily in Mycenaean than in Old Minoan, since Phaistos was a Mycenaean settlement. So once again, we are faced with the prospect that we have here a fragment inscribed in Linear A just prior to the adoption of Linear B as the official Mycenaean syllabary, and once again, the fragment probably dates from ca. 1450 BCE. This happenstance, if that is what it is, lends further credence to the hypothesis that a number of Linear A tablets were inscribed either in an admixture of Old Minoan, the original Minoan language, and New Minoan, the Mycenaean derived superstratum. In this particular case, I would even go so far as to contest that even the word sara2 (sarai) is an Old Minoan hold out which leaked into Mycenaean Greek. As I shall demonstrate in the next post, there appear to be at least two score Old Minoan words which survived into Mycenaean Greek. This phenomenon is analogous to Anglo-Saxon words surviving into Medieval and Modern English, even though Germanic (i.e. Old English or Anglo-Saxon) comprises only 26 % of all English vocabulary, the other 64 % + being either of Norman French, Latin or Greek provenance.  

The probability that latter-day Linear A fragments appear to be inscribed in a mixture of Old Minoan and New Minoan (the Mycenaean derived superstratum) lends further credence that the Linear A syllabary, in its latter-day existence, just prior to its abandonment in favour of the new official Linear B syllabary, was simultaneously the syllabary of both Old Minoan and New Minoan, at least by ca. 1450 BCE.  

This is post 1,500, in a long run of posts since the inauguration of our major Linear A, Linear B and Linear C site in the spring of 2013, making this the premier Internet site in its league. 


Second of 6 Linear A fragments from Phaistos in New Minoan = matere = to Mother (Earth)?

Phaistos PH 15a 15b PD 29 10 39 22 PD 6 27

This second of 6 Linear A fragments from Phaistos appears to bear the inscription 2. = matere, which would be Mycenaean Greek dative for  “to mother”, with right-truncated text possibly following being waiaia or gaiaia = genitive singular = “of Earth”, i.e. “to Mother Earth”. The inscription tagged 1. consists of what appears to be an unidentifiable right-truncated syllabogram on the left, followed by the 2 ideograms identified.  It would thus appear that this fragment is at least partially inscribed in New Minoan, with the word “to mother” being derived from Mycenaean. There is a greater likelihood than might have otherwise been the case that this fragment is in New Minoan, since its provenance is Phaistos, where a large number of Linear B tablets, many of them quite detailed and lengthy, have been unearthed. So in view of this, it would appear that this fragment (of a larger tablet) was probably inscribed in the Linear A syllabary immediately prior to its abandonment and replacement by the new official syllabary, Linear B. Hence its date of composition would probably have been ca. 1450 BCE, and no earlier. 


Rational partial decipherment of Minoan Linear A tablet HT 117 (Haghia Triada)  & the first real glimpse of Minoan grammar actualized:

LinearA tablet HT 117 Haghia Triada 620

This albeit partial decipherment of Minoan Linear A tablet HT 117 (Haghia Triada) incorporates an approximately equal admixture of Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language, also known as the Minoan substratum (of which I am unable to decipher most of the words) and of New Minoan, i.e. the superstratum of words of probable Mycenaean provenance, most of which I have been able to decipher with relative ease. While some of the New Minoan translations obviously appear to break the grammatical rules of Mycenaean Greek, such as mitu for “mint”, which is after all mita (and feminine) in Mycenaean Greek or daminu for “in 1 village”, which is damo in the nominative in Linear B, these adjustments can be readily accounted for by the fact that Old Minoan grammar is not at all the same beast as Mycenaean grammar. Although we are not yet familiar with much of Old Minoan grammar, which is after all the grammar of Minoan, just the same as modernized Anglo-Saxon grammar is the grammar of English, in spite of the enormous superstratum of French, Latin and Greek words in the latter language, this tablet alone perhaps affords us a first glimpse into the mechanics of Minoan grammar. Thus, it would appear that mitu may be the Minoan accusative of mita, and daminu may be the locative of damo in Minoan. Although there is no scientific way for me to substantiate this claim, I believe I am onto something, and that I may be making the first cracks in the obdurate wall of the grammar of the Minoan language substratum.  If this is so, then I may be actually pointing the way to unravelling at least a subset of Old Minoan grammar.  To illustrate my point, let us take a look at these phrases in English, as adapted from their Norman  French superstrata.  In French, the phrases would read as follows: avec la menthe”& “ dans le village”, whereas in English they read as “with mint” & “in the village”. Take special note of the fact that, while the Norman French superstrata words in English, “mint” and “village” are (almost) identical to their Norman French counterparts, the grammar of the phrases is entirely at odds, because after the grammar of French, which is a Romance language, and of English, which is a Germanic, cannot possibly coincide.  But here again, I must emphatically stress that English grammar is an entirely different matter than English vocabulary, of which the latter is only 26 % Germanic, but 29 % French, 29 % Latin and 4 % Greek, the latter 3 languages, namely, the superstrata, accounting for fully 64 % of all English vocabulary! We must always make this clear distinction between English grammar, which is essentially Anglo-Saxon modernized, and English vocabulary, which is only minimally Germanic.

If we carry this hypothesis to its logical outcome, we can readily surmise that the same phenomenon applies to the Linear A syllabary. Where grammar is concerned, the Linear A syllabary is Old Minoan, i.e. the original Minoan language or substrate. Where vocabulary is concerned, Linear A represents an admixture of Old Minoan vocabulary, such as uminase, kuramu, kupa3nu (kupainu), tejare and nadare (all of which I cannot decipher) and of New Minoan Mycenaean derived vocabulary, such as makarite, mitu, sata, kosaiti and daminu on this tablet alone. The orthography of the latter words is not actually consistent with Mycenaean grammar, because constitutionally it cannot be. Once again, the grammar is always Minoan, whereas the vocabulary often falls into the New Minoan (Mycenaean derived) superstratum.

In the case of makarite, it would appear that, if the word is dative in Minoan, the Minoan dative is similar to the Mycenaean, ending as it seems to in i. The ultimate te in makarite appears to be the Mycenaean or ancient Greek enclitic te (and). In the case of mitu, which is mita and feminine in Mycenaean Greek, it would appear that the Minoan word is either masculine or that in this case at least, it is instrumental, meaning “with mint”, in which case the Minoan feminine instrumental appears to terminate with u. The word kosaiti appears to follow the same lines. The first two syllables, kosai, apparently are Mycenaean, but the ultimate ti is Minoan, and once again, instrumental (plural). Again, daminu appears to repeat the same pattern. The word damo is masculine (or neuter) in Mycenaean. But the ultimate is inu here, which appears to be the Minoan locative, inu. To summarize, we must make a clear-cut distinction between any New Minoan vocabulary on any Linear A tablet, and its orthography, which must of necessity follow the orthographic conventions of the Minoan language, and not of the Mycenaean, from which any such words are derived. I intend to make this abundantly clear in subsequent posts.  


Decipherment of Linear A tablet HT 7, probably inscribed in New Minoan, i.e. the Mycenaean superstratum:

Linear A tablet HT 7 Hagha Triada 620

Linear A tablet HT 7 (Haghia Triada) may have been inscribed entirely in New Minoan, i.e. in the Mycenaean superstratum, and not in the Minoan substrate language at all. The decipherment does makes sense in proto-Greek, but I cannot account for the presence of the numbers 3 & 4, which casts doubt on it.
There is also the problem of human sacrifice. Some historians allege that the Minoans practised human sacrifice, but there is no proof of this at all. Besides, I find a bit strange that a civilization as advanced as the Minoan would have indulged in such a barbaric practice.  But you never know.


First of 6 extremely rare Linear A fragments from Phaistos: 12a 12b 12 c

Phaistos PH 12a 12b 12c PD 14 PD 23 PD 35 in Linear A

Above is the first of 6 extremely rare Linear A fragments from Phaistos: 12a 12b 12 c. The text is extremely difficult to interpret, but I have done my level best. 12a is pretty much indecipherable. 12b consists of fractions. 12c  consists of the single syllabogram TE, which might possibly be the supersyllabogram TE, which usually stands for tereza, a large standard unit of liquid measurement. It would mesh well enough with 12b, since that fragment is all fractions. But there is no way we can confirm this at all, since 12c is a fragment, doubtless with almost all of its original text absent. So without context, we cannot be sure of anything. 


Supplement to the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon of 903 words in Linear A: Onomastics and Topomastics: +12 = 904 - 916

Complete Linear A Lexicon banner

It is understood that I have personally interpreted the words below as either eponyms (personal names) or toponyms (place names), but some of them may be neither, being perhaps merely words. It is also possible that one or more of the 3 terms I have listed as onomastics may be topomastics, and that any number of those I have classed as topomastics may be onomastics (or neither).

Onomastics: 

Kanajami
Tateikezare
Tidiate

Toponomastics:

Akanu = Archanes (Crete)
Dawa (Haghia Triada) 5
Dikate = Mount Dikte
Idaa = Mount Ida
Kura
Meza (= Linear B Masa)
Paito = Phaistos (= Linear B) 10
Sukirita/Sukiriteija = Sybrita
Winadu = Linear B Inato 12

TOTAL for the Comprehensive Linear A Lexicon = 916

LinneaTanner.com - Apollo's Raven

LinneaTanner.com - Apollo's Raven

When Women Inspire

Highlighting Inspiring Women Around the World

Evelina

by Evelina Di Lauro

God Is Everything

Jesus Lord Jehovah God Christian Bible Religion Holy Spirit

The Deadliest Blogger: Military History Page

The historical writing of Barry C. Jacobsen

THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES

Artistic Reconstruction and Original Translation From Homer's "Iliad" by Kathleen Vail

Akhelas Writing

Myriad Musings of Austin Conrad

Be Like Water

Music, Film and Life

Little Fears

Flash fiction tales of humor, horror and whimsy

Im ashamed to die until i have won some victory for humanity.(Horace Mann)

Domenic Garisto/havau22.com / IF YOU CAN'T BE THE POET, BE THE POEM (David Carradine) LIFE IS NOT A REHERSAL,SO LIVE IT.

Φιλολογικά φύλλα

... από την περιπέτεια της θεωρίας, της ερμηνείας και της διδασκαλίας

Le Blog BlookUp

Imprimez et transformez vos contenus digitaux, blogs et réseaux sociaux, en magnifiques livres papier sur blookup.com

Diwiyana's Dreamscape

Just another WordPress.com site

The Evolutionary Mind

Raw, Unfiltered, Motivation

pseudopr1me

Just another WordPress.com site

Adham Smart

Often written, sometimes read

Elder Mountain Dreaming

Dreamer's Collective, Dream & Soul Journeys, Magic Soul Circles, Sacred Artist's Retreat-Residency, Traditional Food Gardens, 13 Moon Lunar Work-Study, Art Circles, Fire Circles, Seasonal Moon Sweats, Folk Healing, Medical Intuitive, Readings, Grounded Mysticism and Disciplined Dream Advancement and More.

archbhoo

Just another WordPress.com site

Memnison Journal

Jim Rittenhouse's semidaily journal of news, commentary and reports

Under the influence!

Myths, legends, folklore and tales from around the world

archaeologythimbleful

...in small doses

AFRICAN HOMAGE

CONTEMPORARY ART GALLERY

peiraieus

A Mental Repository

My Blog

This WordPress.com site is the cat’s pajamas

Hidalgo & Suárez - Estudio de Historia y Genealogía

Genealogista profesional en España - Professional genealogist in Spain - Généalogiste professionnel en Espagne

Rearview Mirror

Music, Film, Art, History and more....

Virginia Views

Country Living for Beginners

Varina's Moon Rising

To Strive, To Seek, To Find, And Not To Yield

uerbavolant

4 out of 5 dentists recommend this WordPress.com site

ArchaeoFox: Exploring the World Through the Past

Follow the research of an Archaeology Phd student over the next four years: The things he discovers, the places it brings and the people he meets along the way. (Site spelling variations; Arceofox archeofox archeryfox)

Rafael Tenório

Jornalista | Escritor | Redator

hipmonkey

He Come Groovin' Up Slowly

A Closer Look

This is the blog where I read, think about reading or complain about it.

%d bloggers like this: