Category: Grammar & Vocabulary

Now on, Translation of Linear A tablet HT 13 into proto-Greek:

Linear A tablet HT 13 on academiaedu

You can now find my article on the Translation of Linear A tablet HT 13 into proto-Greek on my account above (Click on the graphics to jump directly to it):

You are welcome to participate in the open session on this DRAFT article by clicking on View Comments beneath the title here:

HT 13 comments

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Linear B Tablet Pylos TA 716, bridle chains and swords:

This tablet speaks for itself.

Linear B tablet py-ta-716


THE MYCENAEAN LINEAR B “ROSETTA STONE” TO MINOAN LINEAR Tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) Vessels and Pottery

Richard Vallance

has just been uploaded to my account, here:

Mycenaean Rossetta Stone for Linear A tablet HT 31

To DOWNLOAD it, click on the DOWNLOAD button on the top right hand side of the page.


In partnership with The Association of Historical Studies, Koryvantes (Athens), we address past and current prospects for the decipherment of the Minoan language, which has never met with any credible success in the 117 years since the ?rst discovery of Minoan Linear A tablets by Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos in 1900. A considerable number of philologists and historical linguists, some of them amateurs, claim to have deciphered the Minoan language, yet no one has ever formulated a convincing decipherment. We advance a unique and entirely untested approach to unravelling the text of Minoan Linear A tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada), based on the principle of cross-correlative retrogressive extrapolation (CCRE) from Mycenaean Linear B to Linear A. HT 31 so closely parallels Mycenaean Linear B tablet, Pylos Py TA 641-1952 (Ventris) that the latter effectively serves as a kind of “Rosetta Stone” for the former. There is also credible evidence that a Mycenaean derived superstratum imposed itself on Linear A as the result of the Mycenaean conquest of Knossos and Crete ca. 1500 – 1450 BCE or, failing that, their all but absolute suzerainty over Knossos and its dependencies. Approximately 300 or 26 % of 1166 intact words in Linear A are very likely of Mycenaean origin.

Rita Roberts’ translation of Knossos tablet KN J 1 f 01, her last tablet for her second year of university:

Linear B tablet KN 1 J f 01 priestess of the winds

Line 1: Deukijojo = month name + temeno = shrine. The damaged first syllabogram looks like TO. The actual word temeno =temple” does not appear on the first line of this tablet, since it appears that the the scribe has made a scribal error, which actually happens quite often on Linear B tablets. The writing is messy, and appears to read teno, which would explain the scribal error, i.e. he missed on one syllabogram. Deukijojo could either be a month name, in which case it means “the tenth month” or more properly in this content, “of the tenth month” or it could simply be a persons name. If it refers to the tenth month, then it follows that the entire tablet refers to this month.

Line 2:

Wakatanujo – or- Dukatanayo = name + newejo = “of something new” + 3 units (probably bales) of barley. Hence the line refers to 3 new units (probably bales) of barley from Wakatanujo – or- Dukatanayo

Line 3:

Padarejode = a place hame, which is a sanctuary = hence, olive oil from Dardare and 2 units (probably bales) of barley.

Line 4:

Pade = name plus olive oil and 1 unit (probably a bale) of barley

Line 5:

Pasiteoi = “to all gods” barley and 1 unit of olive oil

Line 6:

olive oil and barley for Qerasiya = goddess Artemis, with numerals absent because of right truncation.

Line 7:

1 unit of barley to all the gods at Aminiso = Amnisos

Line 8:

2 units (probably pithoi) of olive oil for the goddess Erinu. Note that Erinu references one of the Furies (Erynies) in Greek. So it would appear that the scribe tells us that there was a sacrifice to at least one of or probably all of the Furies to appease them so that crops would thrive.

Line 9:

Gold and olive oil and 1 cyperus plant, probably dedicated to the priestess of the winds in Line 10.

Line 10:

4 cyperus plans dedicated to Anemo Ijereja = to the priestess of the winds

Line 11:

Blank and truncated.

Line 12:

3 units (probably pithoi) of olive oil and 2 units of barely plus 2 cyperus trees (also probably dedicated to the priestess of the winds)

Line 13:

Blank and truncated.


This is the very last tablet Rita Roberts is to translate for her second year of university, and it is by far the most challenging she has ever been confronted with to date. Congratulations to Rita! She is now about to take her final examination for her second year, which is to consist of 25 questions in increasing level of difficulty, the last 5 of which are to be translations of tablets, plus her second year thesis paper, What did the Minoan agricultural sector contribute to the Mycenaean Empire? This paper must be at least 25 pages long, inclusive of the bibliography but excluding illustrations, which will add to the page length of her thesis. Since this thesis paper is much more difficult than her first year thesis, I am allotting her three months to complete it, i.e. Feb. 15 – May 15. However, she must complete the rest of the examination in just 2 weeks (Feb. 15 – March 1 2018).

In the next post, I shall re-inscribe the entire tablet in archaic Greek from the Mycenaean.


Article, Linear B Lexicon for the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots just published on

Click on the TITLE to view and download the article:

aEpochs title

just uploaded to my account at the link above. To download it, click the green DOWNLOAD button on the right side of the document.

Illustrations from the article:

bNew Kingdom chariot

c4 spoke chariots

dcomposite parts Mycenaean chariots

eMycenaean Chariots Lexicon

gKnossos tablet KN 894

This Lexicon is the only one of its kind in the entire world. To date, no one has ever published a Linear B Lexicon on a subject as focused as the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots.

This article has just been published in the prestigious European journal, Epohi (Epochs), Vol. 25, Issue 2 (2017), published bi-annually by the Department of History of St. Cyril and St. Methodius, University of Veliko, Tarnovo, Bulgaria. I have been invited by the Editor-in-Chief, Stefan Iordanov, to publish new papers in the near future (sometime in 2018) and again in 2019. Considering that the Editor-in-Chief, Stefan Iordanov, solicited me to submit this article sight unseen, you can be sure I shall submit more papers to the journal.

Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 3: entries 801-1166

Linear A Lexicon 2018 entries 801-1116

This lexicon adopts the conventions followed by L.R. Palmer in his ground-breaking work on Linear B, The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, © 1963, 1998. ix, 488 pp. ISBN 0-19-813144-5 (1998). For Palmers glossary, which follows these conventions, see pp. 402-473.  We have adopted these conventions to make the vocabulary of Linear A accessible to any and all, from lay persons not yet familiar with Linear A and non-linguists (somewhat) familiar with Linear B and/or A all the way to professional linguists adept in Linear B, and possibly also in Linear A, in order that everyone, regardless of education or scholastic background may readily access our Linear A Lexicon and come to familiarize him- or herself with at least the rudiments of Linear A, or in the case of professional linguists, with the intricacies of the syllabary.    

This Lexicon represents all of the vocabulary Alexandre Solça and I myself have compiled, plus around 100 additional exograms deciphered by Peter van Soebergen in his superb 4 volume set, Minoan Linear. Amsterdam, Brave New Books, © 2016. ISBN 9789402157574  
Originally published 1987 

801. rosa  
802. rosasiro 
803. rotau  
804. roti 
805. rotwei 
806. rua 
807. rudedi 
808. ruiko 
809. Rujamime 
810. ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike 
811. Rukito 
812. ruko
813. rukue
814. ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase
815. rupoka
816. ruqa/ruqaqa 
817. rura2 (rurai)
818. rusa/rusi
819. rusaka
820. rutari 
821. rutia 
822. ruzuna

823. sadi
824. saja
825. sajama/sajamana
826. sajamadi
827. sajea 
828. saka 
829. samidae 
830. samuku 
831. sanitii 
832. sapo/sapi
833. saqa
834. saqeri 
835. sara2 (sarai)/sarara/saro/saru 
836. saradi
837. sarara
838. sareju 
839. saro/saroqe
840. saru/sarutu 
841. sasaja
842. sasame 
843. Sasara(me)  
844. sasupu 
845. sato/sata 
846. sea/sei 
847. sedina 
848. sedire 
849. seikama 
850. Seimasusaa  
851. seitau
852. Sejarapaja 
853. Sejasinataki
854. Sekadidi 
855. Sekatapi 
856. sekidi  
857. Sekiriteseja 
858. sekutu 
859. semake
860. semetu 
861. senu 
862. sepa
863. sere -or- rese 
864. sesapa3
865. Sesasinunaa
866. sesi -or- sise
867.  setamaru 
868.  Seterimuajaku
869.  Setira 
870.  Setoija 
871. sezami 
872. sezanitao 
873. sezaredu 
874. sezatimitu 
875. sia 
876. side/sidi/sidare
877. sidate/sidatoi 
878. sidija
879. sii/siida/siisi 
880. siitau 
881. sija 
882. Sijanakarunau
883. sika 
884. siketapi
885. sikine 
886. Sikira/Sikirita 
887. sima 
888. simara 
889. simeki
890. simita 
891. sina
892. sinada
893. sinae  
834. sinakanau
895. sinamiu
896. sinatakira
897. sinedui
898. sipiki 
899. sipu3ka 
900. sire/siro/siru/sirute
901. siriki 
902. sireneti
903. sirumarita2 (sirumarita1)
904. sita2 (sitai) -or- ta2si (taisi) 
905. sitetu 
906. situ 
907. situra2re 
908. siwamaa
909. sodira
910. sokanipu
911. sokemase  
912. sudaja
913. suja 
914. sukinima
915. Sukirita/Sukiriteija  
916. suniku 
917. supu2ka
918. supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) 
919. supi/supu/supu2 (supui) 
920. sure  
921. suria
922. suropa 
923. sutu/sutunara
924. suu 
925. suwaresu
926. suzu 

923. taa
924. tadaki/tadati
925. tadeuka 
926. taikama 
927. Tainaro 
928. tainuma
929. tainumapa 
930. Ta2merakodisi (Taimerakodisi)
931. ta2re (raire)
932. ta2reki /ta2riki (aireki/tairiki)
933. Ta2rimarusi (Tairimarusi) 
944. tai2si (taisi) 
945. ta2tare
946. ta2tite
947. ta2u 
948. tajusu
949. takaa/takari 
950. taki/taku/takui
951. Tamaduda 
952.  Tanamaje
953.  Tanarateutinu 
954.  tanate/tanati  
955.  Tanunikina 
956.  tamaru 
957. tami/tamia/tamisi 
958. tani/taniria/tanirizu 
959. tanika
960. taniti 
961. Tanunikina
962. tanurija
963. tanuwasa... 
964. tapa
965. tapiida
966. tapiqe
967. tara/tare
968.  tarasa 
969.  tarawita
970. tarejanai
971. tarikisu 
972. tarina (tawena)
973. taritama 
974. taro 
975. tasa/tasaja 
976. tasaza
977. tasise 
978. tata/tati 
979. tatapa3du (tatapaidu)
980. ta2tare (taitare)
981. ta2tite (taitite)
982. Tateikezare... (truncated)
983. tedasi/tedatiqa 
984. tedekima 
985. teepikia 
986. teizatima
987. teja(i)/teija
988. teijo
989. tejare 
990. tekare
991. teke/teki 
992. tekidia 
993. temada/temadai
994. temeku
995. temirerawi 
996. tenamipi 
997. tenata/tenataa 
998. Tenatunapa3ku
999. tenekuka
1000. teneruda 
1001. teniku 
1002. tenita(ki) 
1003. tenu/tenumi 
1004. tepi
1005. tera/tere
1006. teraseda 
1007. tereau 
1008.  tereza 
1009.  teri (tewe)/teridu
1010.  terikama 
1011.  tero/teroa 
1012.  terota -or- rotate -or- tatero
1013. terusi 
1014.  tesi/tesiqe  
1015. Tesudesekei 
1016. tetita2 (tetitai)
1017. tetu 
1018. Tewirumati  
1019. Tidama  
1020. tidata 
1021. tidiate
1022. tiditeqati
1023. tiduni/tiduitii
1024. tiisako 
1025. tija
1026. tika 
1027. titiku 
1028. tikiqa 
1029. tikuja 
1030. tikuneda
1031. timaruri/timaruwite
1032. timasa 
1033. timi 
1034. timunuta 
1035. tina
1036. Tinakarunau 
1037. tinata/tinita  
1038. tinesekuda 
1039. Tininaka
1040. tinu/tinuka/tinuja 
1041. tinusekiqa 
1042. tio 
1043. tiqatediti
1044. tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu 
1045. tiraduja 
1046. tira2
1047. tirakapa3 (tirakapai)
1048. tire 
1049. tisa 
1050. tiri 
1051. tiriadidakitipaku
1052. tisiritua
1053. tisudapa
1054. tita 
1055. titema 
1056. titiku 
1057. titima 
1058. titisutisa 
1059. tiu
1060. tiumaja 
1061. tizanukaa
1062. toipa 
1063. tome 
1064.  toraka 
1065. toreqa
1066. toro
1067. totane 
1068. tuda
1069. tui 
1070. tujuma 
1071. tukidija
1072. tukuse 
1073. tuma/tumei/tumi 
1074. tumitizase 
1075. tunada
1076. tunapa
1077. tunapa3ku
1078. tunija

1079. tunu/tunuja

1080. tuqenu… (truncated)

1081. turunu 
1082. Tupadida
1083. tuqe
1044. turaa 
1085. turunuseme 
1086. turusa
1087. tusi/tusu 
1088. tusupu2
1089. tute/tutesi 

1090. udami/udamia
1091. udeza
1092. udimi 
1093. udiriki 
1094. ukanasi... (truncated) 
1095. ukare 
1096. Ukareasesina 
1097. uki 
1098. uminase 
1099. unaa 
1019. unadi 
1100. unakanasi
1101. unana 
1102. unarukanasi/unarukanati
1103. upa 
1104. uqeti 
1105. urewi 
1106. uro 
1107. uso/usu 
1108. uta/uta2 (utai) 
1109. utaise
1110. utaro 
1111. Utinu 

1112. waduko
1113. waduna
1114. Wadunimi 
1115. waja 
1116. wanai 
1117. wanaka
1118. waomi 
1119. wapitinara2 
1120. wapusua  
1121. wara2qa (waraiqa)

1122. wasato

1123. Wasatomaro

1124. + wasukinima

1125. watepidu 
1126. Watumare
1127. wazudu 
1128. weruma/werumati
1129. wetujupitu
1130. widina 
1131. widui 
1132. widunimi 
1133. wija 
1134. Wijasumatiti 
1135. winadu
1136. winipa 
1137. winu
1138.  winumatari 
1139. wiraremite 
1140. wireu 
1141. wirudu 
1142. wisasane 
1143. witejamu 
1144. witero

1145. zadeu
1146. adeujuraa 
1147. zadua 
1148. zakisenui
1149. zama/zame
1150. zanwaija
1151. zapa 
1152. zare/zaredu
1153. zareki
1154. zaresea 
1155. zasata 
1156. zirinima
1157. zokupa
1158. zokutu 
1160. zukupi 
1061. zuma 
1062. zupaku 
1163. zurinima
1164. zusiza 
1165. zusu HT 1
1166. zute 


Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 2: entries 440-800

Linear A Lexicon 2018 entries 440-800

This lexicon adopts the conventions followed by L.R. Palmer in his ground-breaking work on Linear B, The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, © 1963, 1998. ix, 488 pp. ISBN 0-19-813144-5 (1998). For Palmers glossary, which follows these conventions, see pp. 402-473.  We have adopted these conventions to make the vocabulary of Linear A accessible to any and all, from lay persons not yet familiar with Linear A and non-linguists (somewhat) familiar with Linear B and/or A all the way to professional linguists adept in Linear B, and possibly also in Linear A, in order that everyone, regardless of education or scholastic background may readily access our Linear A Lexicon and come to familiarize him- or herself with at least the rudiments of Linear A, or in the case of professional linguists, with the intricacies of the syllabary.    

This Lexicon represents all of the vocabulary Alexandre Solça and I myself have compiled, plus around 100 additional exograms deciphered by Peter van Soebergen in his superb 4 volume set, Minoan Linear. Amsterdam, Brave New Books, © 2016. ISBN 9789402157574  
Originally published 1987 

440. maa
441. madadu 
442. madati
443. madi HT 3
444. mai/maimi 
445. majutu 
446. makai/makaise 
447. makaita 
448. makarite  
449. mana/manapi 
450. maniki 
451. Manirizu 
452. manuqa
453. maro/maru/maruku/maruri 
454. masa/masaja 
455. masi/masidu 
456. Masuja 
457. masuri 
458. matapu
459. mateti 
460. mati/matiti 
461. matizaite 
462. maza/mazu  
463. medakidi  
464. Mekidi 
465. mesiki -or- sikime – or - kimesi 
466. mepajai
467. mera 
468. merasasaa/merasasaja 
469. mesasa
470. Mesenurutu
471. meto 
472. Meturaa
473. meza 
474. mia
475. midai 
476. midani 
477. midamara2 (midamarai) 
478. midara
479. midemidiu 
480. mie
481. miima  
482. Mijanika
483. mijuke
484. mikidua 
485. mikisana/mikisena
486. minaminapii 
487. minedu
488. mini 
489. miniduwa 
490. minumi
491. minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) 
492. mio/miowa 
493. mipa
494. mireja
495. miru 
496. mirutarare  
497. misimiri
498. misuma
499. mita 
500. miturea 
501. mizase
502. Mujatewi
503. muko 
504. mupi 
505. murito 
506. muru HT 3

507. naa 
508. nadare
509. nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi 
510. nadiwi
511. nadu
512. Nadunapu2a 
513. Naisizamikao 
514. naka  
515. nakiki 
516. Nakininuta
517. nakuda 
518. Namarasasaja
519. Namatiti
520. nami  
521. namikua/namikuda
522. namine 
523. nanau 
524. nanipa3
525. napa3du
526. nara/naru 
527. narepirea
528. naridi 
529. narita
530. naroka 
531. nasarea
532. nasekimi 
533. nasi 
534. nasisea
535. nataa/nataje 
536. Natanidua
537. natareki 
538. nati
539. nazuku/nazuru 
540. nea 
541. neakoa  
542. nedia
543. nedira
544.  neka/nekisi 
545. nemaduka 
546. Nemaruja
547. nemi -or- mine 
548. Nemiduda 
549. Nemusaa 
550. Nenaarasaja 
551. neqa 
552. Neramaa 
553. nerapa/nerapaa 
554. nere 
555. nesa/nesaki/nesakimi 
556. Nesasawi 
557. Nesekuda  
558. neta 
559. netapa
560. netuqe
561. nidapa
562. nidiki/nidiwa 
563. niduti
564. nijanu
565. niku/nikutitii 
566. nimi
567. nipa3 
568. nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nitai) )
569. niro/niru 
570. nise/nisi 
571. nisudu 
572. nisupu
573. niti/nitinu 
574. nizuka
575. nizuuka
576. nua
577. nude 
579. nuduwa
580. nuki/nukisikija
581. numida/numideqe
582. nupa3ku 
583. nupi 
584. nuqetu 
585. nuti/nutini 
586. Nutiuteranata
587. nutu
588 nuwi 

589. odami/odamia 
590. okamiza
591. Okamizasiina
592. opi  
593. ora2dine (oraidine) 
594. osuqare 
595. otanize
596. oteja 

597. pa/paa
598. padaru
599. padasuti
600. pade
601. padupaa
602. pa3a/pa3ana 
603. pa3da 
604. pa3dipo
605. pa3e
606. pa3karati 
607. pa3kija
608. pa3ku 
609. pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi 
610. pa3pa3ku
611. pa3qa 
612. pa3qe -or- qepa3 i.e. paiqe -or- qepai
613. pa3roka
614. pa3sase 
615. pa3waja 
616. paiki... (truncated right) 
617. Paito 
618. paja/pajai
619. pajare 
620. paka 
621. paku 
622. Pamanuita
623. para 
624. parane 
625. paroda
626. parosu 
627. pasarija 
628. pase
629. paseja 
630. pasia
631. pasu 
632. pata/patu 
633. patada
634. patane  
635. pataqe
636. pazaku
637. pia/pii 
638. pija/pijani/pijawa 
639. piku/pikui/pikuzu 
640. pimata 
641. pimitatira2 (pimitatirai)
642. pina/pini 
643. pirueju
644. pisa 
645. pita/pitaja 
646. pitakase/pitakesi  
647. pitara/pite(ri) 
648. piteza
649. pitisa
650. piwaa
651. piwaja
652. piwi
653. posa 
654. posi -or- sipo 
655. potokuro
656. pu2juzu
657. pu2ra2 (pu2rai)
658. pu2reja
659. pu2su/pu2sutu 
660. pu3pi
661. pu3tama
662. puko 
663. punikaso
664. puqe
665. pura2 (purai)
666. pu2reja... (truncated)
667. pusa/pusi
668. pusuqe
669. putejare

670. Qara2wa 
671. Qa2ra2wa 
672. qajo
673. qaka 
674. qakure
675. qanuma  
676. qapa3 (qapai) 
677. qapaja/qapajanai 
678. qaqada  
679. Qaqaru 
680. qara2wa (qaraiwa)
681. qareto 
682. qaqisenuti
683. qaro  threshold 
684. qasaraku 
685. qatidate 
686. qati/qatiju/qatiki 
687. qedi 
688. qedeminu 
689. qeja 
690. qeka 
691. qekure
692. Qenamiku
693. qenupa
694. qepaka
695. qepita
696. qepu 
697. qequre 
698. qera2u/qera2wa/qera2ja HT 1
699.  qeria/qeriu 
700. qero 
701. qerosa 
702. qesidoe
703. qesite
704. qesizue 
705. qesupu
706. qesusui
707. qeta2e (qetaie)
708. qeti 
709. qetune/qitune 
710. qisi
711. qoroqa 
712. quqani 
713. raa
714. rada/radaa/radakuku/radami 
715. radarua 
716. radasija
717. radizu 
718. radu/rade 
719. ra2ka (raika) 
720. Ra2madami (raimadami)
721. ra2miki (raimiki)
722. ra2natipiwa (rainatipiwa)
723. ra2pu/ra2pu2 (raipu/raipu2)
724. ra2ri (rairi) 
725. ra2rore
726. ra2ru 
727. ra2saa 
728. ra2ti (raiti)
729. Raja/Raju 
730. raka/rakaa
731. ranatusu
732. rani
733. raodiki 
734. rapa/rapu 
735. rapu3ra 
736. raqeda
737. rarasa
738. raride... (truncated right) 
739. rarua
740. rasa/rasi 
741. rasamii 
742. rasasaa/rasasaja 
743. rata/ratapi 
744. ratada
745. ratise (ritise?)
746. razua 
747. rea 
748. reda/redana/redasi 
749. Redamija
750. redise 
751. reduja 
752. reja/rejapa 
753. rekau 
754. rekotuku 
755. reku/rekuqa/rekuqe
756. rema/rematuwa
757. remi
758. renara/renaraa 
759. renute
760. repa
761. Repu2dudatapa 
762. repu3du
763. reqasuo
764. reradu 
765. Rera2tusi (Reraitusi)
766. Reratarumi 
767. rerora2 (rerorai)
768. rese/resi/resu  
769. retaa/retada 
770. retaka 
771. retata2
772. retema 
773. reza 
774. rezakeiteta 
775. ria 
776. ridu 
777. rikata 
778. rima 
779. rimisi 
780. ripaku
781. ripatu 
782. riqesa
783. rira/riruma
784. rirumati 
785. risa
786. Risaia3dai 
787. Risumasuri 
788. ritaje 
789. rite/ritepi 
791. ritoe
792. rodaa/rodaki 
793. roe 
794. roika 
795. roke/roki/roku 
796. romaku
797. romasa
798. ronadi
799. rore/roreka
800. rorota -or- taroro

Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 1: entries 1-439

Linear A Lexicon 2018 entries 1-439

This lexicon adopts the conventions followed by L.R. Palmer in his ground-breaking work on Linear B, The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, © 1963, 1998. ix, 488 pp. ISBN 0-19-813144-5 (1998). For Palmers glossary, which follows these conventions, see pp. 402-473.  We have adopted these conventions to make the vocabulary of Linear A accessible to any and all, from lay persons not yet familiar with Linear A and non-linguists (somewhat) familiar with Linear B and/or A all the way to professional linguists adept in Linear B, and possibly also in Linear A, in order that everyone, regardless of education or scholastic background may readily access our Linear A Lexicon and come to familiarize him- or herself with at least the rudiments of Linear A, or in the case of professional linguists, with the intricacies of the syllabary.    

This Lexicon represents all of the vocabulary Alexandre Solça and I myself have compiled, plus around 100 additional exograms deciphered by Peter van Soebergen in his superb 4 volume set, Minoan Linear. Amsterdam, Brave New Books, © 2016. ISBN 9789402157574  
Originally published 1987 

1. adai
2. adakisika 
3. ade
4. adara/adaro/adaru 
5. adidakitipaku 
6. adikite(te)...
7. adoro 
8. adi
9. adina/adine
10. adu 
11. adu2sara
12. adukumina 
13. Adunitana
14. adure/adureza
15. aduza
16. ajesa 
17. aju
18. aka 
19. Akanu/Akanuzati 
20. Akanuzati 
21. akara/akaru HT 2
22. akarakitanasijase 
23. ake 
24. akipiete(ne?)

25. akiro

26. akoane

27. akumina
28. ama
29. amaja 
30. amarane... (truncated)
31. amawasi
32. amidao/amidau
33. amata
34. amita 
35. ana
36. ananusijase
37. anaqa
38. anatijowaja
39. anatu 
40. anau
41. anepiti
42. apa3di (apaidi)... (truncated)
43. apadupa... (truncated 
44. apaija
45. apaki
46. aparane
47. apaki
48. apero
49. api 
50. apu2nadu
51. ara 
52. araju 
53. arako 

54. arakokuzu

55. aranare/aranarai HT 1
56. aratiatu 
57. aratu/aratumi... (truncated)
58. arauda
59. aredai

60. Arekinedisa(?)ma

61. Arenesidi  
62. arepirena
63. aresana
64. ari
65. arinita 
66. arija
67. aripa
68. ari/aru 
69. arisu 
70. arenita
71. aro/aru
72. arokaku 
73. arote
74. arote2
75. arisu
76. aru
77. arura 
78. arudara  
79. aruma 
80. aruqaro 
81. asadaka 
82. asamune 
83. Asara2
84. Asasarame 
85. asasumai(no)
86. Asasumaise
87. ase/asi
88. asu
89. aseja/asuja 
90. asesina 
91. asidatoi  
92. asijaka
93. asikira 
94. asisupoa
95. asona 
96. Asuja
97. asumi
98. asupuwa 
99. atade 
100. ataijodeka
101. ataijowa(e)
102. atanate 

103. A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja

104. atare 
105. atika 
106. atiru
107. atu 
108. aurete
109. auta 
110. awapi 
111. azura

112. daa 
113. dadai/dadana
114. Dadakitipaku
115. dadumata
116. dadumina/dadumine 
117. dadute
118. dai/daina
119. daipita
120. daka/daki/daku
121. dakuna
122. Dakusene(ti) 
123. damate 
124. dame/dami
125. daminu
126. danasi
127. danekuti
128. daqaqa
129. daqera 
130. dare 
131. darida (daweda)
132. daropa 
133. darunete
134. daserate
135. dasi
136. datapa 
137. datara/datare
138. data2 (datai)
139. datu 
140. Dawa 
141. dea 
142. deauwase 
143. dedi 
144. dejuku 
145. deka -or- kade 
146. Demirirema
147. depa/depu
148. deponiza
149. dewa -or- wide
150. dide/didi
151. dideru 
152. didikase/didikaze HT 1
153. dii
154. dija/dije
155. dika/dikaki.../dikatare (right truncated) 
156. Dikate 
157. dikime
158. dikise 
159. dima/dimaru 
160. dimedu
161. dinaro
162. dinasuka
163. dinau 
164. dipa3a (dipaia)
165. dipaja 
166. diqe -or- qedi
167. diqise
168. dirasa
169. diradina/diredina
170. direna (diwena)
171. dirina
172. diru 
173. disa
174. disipita 
175. ditajaru
176. ditamana 
177. du/dua/duja
178. dudama
179. duja
180. dumaina 
181. dumedi
182. dumitatira2 (dumitatirai)
183. dunawi
184. dupa3na (dupaina)
185. dupitewa 
186. Dupu3re (dupure)
187. dura2
188. durare 
189. duratiqe
190. dureza/durezase
191. durui... (truncated)
192. dusi/dusini
193. dusima 
194. dusu 
195. duti 
196. duwi 
197. duzu/duzuwa

198. edamisa
199. edija
200. edu
201. eka  
202. enasi
203. eniwa
204. epa3 (epai)
205. ero 
206. esija
207. etanasu
208. eta2qe (etaiqe)
209. etori 
210. ezusiqe

211. ia
212. Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3
213. Idamate/Idamete 
214. idami
215. idapa3isari 
216. Idarea
217. idorinita
218. Idunesi 
219. iduti 
220. ija 
221. ijadi 
222. ijapa
223. Ijapame 
224. ijaredija
225. ijate
226. ika 
227. Ikesedesute  
228. Ikurina
229. ikuta
230. imas
231. imisara
232. ina
233. inaimadu
234. inaja
235. Inajapaqa 
236. inasi
237. inawa
238. ipasaja
239. ipinama/ipinamina
240. ipinamasirute
241. ira2 (irai)
242. iruja 
243. isari 
244. ise 
245. itaja 
246. itaki
247. itijukui
248. Itinisa 

249. itisapuko

250. Ititikuna
251. itowaja
252. Izurinita

252. jaa
254. jadi/jadu
255. jadikitetedupu2re
256. jadikitu
257. jadireja
258. jadurati
259. jai  
260. jainwaza 
261. jaiterikisu 
262. jaitose 
263. jaja 
264. jakisikinu 
265. jako/jaku/jakuti 
266. jamaa 
267. jamauti 
268. jami/jamidare 
269. januti 
270. japa/japadi 
271. japaka/japaku 
272. Japametu 
273. Japanidami
274. japarajase 
275. jara2qe (jaraiqe)
276. jara/jare/jaremi 
277. jarepu2
278. jarete
279. jari/jarina/jarinu 
280. jaripa3ku  
281. jarisapa 
282. jaru -or- ruja
283. jarui 
284. jasaja 
285. jasumatu 
286. jasapai
287. Jasaraanane 
288. jasasaramana/jasasarame 
289. jasidara 
290. jasea/jasepa 
291. jasie  
292. jasuma(tu) 
293. jataiouja
294.  jate/jateo 
295. jatimane 
296. jatituku+ jatituku 
297. jatoja
298. jawapa3... (truncated)
299. jaupamaida
300. jawi 
301. jedi 
302. jeka
303. jemanata 
304. jetana 
305. jua 
306. judu 
307. juerupi 
308. juka
309. jukunapakunuu
310. juma/jumaku 
311. juraa 
312. jureku  
313. juresa 
314. jutiqa
315. juu 

316. kadi 
317. kadumane
318. kadusi
319. kae/kai
320. kaika 
321. kairo 
322. kaji/kaju
323. kaki/kaku
324. kakupa
325. kakunete/kakusunetu
326. kami  
327. kana/kanatiti/kanau 
328. kanaka 
329. Kanijami 
330. kanita 
331. kanuti 
332. kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi 
333. kapasara2 (kapasarai)
334. kaporu 
335.  kapu3si 
336.  kaqa/kaqe 
337.  kara/karu  
338.  karero
339.  karona
340.  karopa2 (karopai) 
341.  karu 
342.  karunau 
343.  kasaru 
344.  kasi
345.  Kasidizuitanai 
346. Kasikidaa
347. kasitero 
348. katanite
349. kataro 
350. kati 
351. kaudeta 
352. kaudoni
353. kauzuni 
354. keda 
355. keire
356. Kekiru
357.  kera/kero
358. keta/kete/ketu 
359. Ketesunata 
360. kezadidi
361. kida/kidi 
362. kidapa 
363. kidaro 
364. kidata/kidate
365. kidini 
366. kidiora
367. kii/kiipa
368. kija 
369. kika 
370. kikadi  
371. kikina 
372. kikiraja
373. kimara2 (kimarai)
374. kimu 
375. kina  
376. kinima
377. kinite
378. kipaa (see also unaa below)
379. kipira2 (kipirai)/kipirija
380. kiqa 
381. kira 
382. kireta2
383. kiretana HT 2
384. kiretaiwinu + kiretana winu
385. kireza 
386. kiro/kirisi/kiru HT 1
387. kirusata -or- rusataki -or- satakiru
388. kiso 
389. kisusetu
390. kitai/kitei  
391. kitanite 
392. kitanasija/kitanasijase
393. kiti 
394. kitina 
395. kitiqa
396. kito 
397. koiru 
398. koja 
399. komu 
400. kopu
401. koru 
402. Kosaiti 
403. kuda 
404. kudona
405. kuduri (kuduwe?)
406. kujude 
407. kuka 
408. kukudara 
409. kumaju 
410. kumapu
411. kuminaqe 
412. kunisu 
413. kupa/kupi
414. kupa3natu
415. Kupa3nu HT 1 HT 3
416. kupa3pa3 
417. kupa3rija
418. kupaja 
419. kupari 
420. Kupatikidadia
421. kupazu 
422. kupi
423. kuqani
424. kura
425. kuramu 
426. kurasaqa 

427. kuratujo

428. kureda 
429. kureju
430. kuro/kurotu 
431. kuto/kutu
432. kuruku
433. kuruma 
434. Kutiti 
435. kutu 
436. kutukore
437. kuwa -or- waku 
438. kuzu 
439. kuzuni 

CRITICAL POST: Ancient words from 3,000 – 1,200 BCE in modern English:

First the ancient words in modern English, and in the next two posts, how words infiltrate from earlier to diachronically close later languages. These posts are real eye-openers, explaining how words from earlier languages trickle into later, e.g. Akkadian and Sanskrit into Linear A (Minon) and Linear B (Mycenaean) + how all of the ancient words here infiltrate English.

Akkadian/Assyrian (3,000 BCE):


babel babilu = Babylon; gate of God (Akkadian)

bdellium budulhu = pieces (Assyrian)

canon, canyon qanu = tube, reed (Assyrian)

cumin kumunu = carrot family plant (Akkadian)

natron sodium (Akkadian)

myrrh murru (Akkadian)

sack saqqu (Akkadian)

shalom = hello sholom/shlama = hello (also Hebrew)

souk saqu = narrow (Akkadian)

Semitic (2,000-1,000 BCE):

arbiter arbiter (Latin from Phoenician)

byssus bwtz = linen cloth, to be white (Semitic)

chemise gms = garment (Ugaritic)

deltoid dalt (Phoenician)

fig pag (paleo-Hebrew)

iotacism iota (Phoenician)

map (Phoenician)

mat matta (Phoenician)

shekel tql (Canaanite)

Egyptian (2690 BCE):

Egyptian-Papyrus 19k BCE





baboon 5

barge, bark, barque, to embark




chemistry 10

copt, coptic




endive 15





lily 20





myth 25





phoenix 30



sack See also saqqu (Akkadian)


Susan(na), Phineas, Moses, Potiphar, Potiphera 35


stibium = eye paint


uraeus (emblem on the headdress of the pharaoh)39

Sanskrit (2,000 BCE):


aniline nili (Sanskrit)

Aryan aryas = noble, honourable

atoll antala

aubergine vātigagama = eggplant, aubergine

avatar avatara = descent

bandana bandhana = a bond

banyan vaṇij = merchant

basmati vasa

beryl vaidūrya (Sanskrit, Dravidian)

bhakti bhakti = portion

candy khaṇḍakaḥ, from khaṇḍaḥ = piece, fragment

cashmere shawl made of cashmere wool

cheetah chitras = uniquely marked

chintz chitras = clear, bright

cot khatva

cobra kharparah = skull

crimson krmija = red dye produced by a worm

crocus kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow

datura dhattūrāh = a kind of flowering plant

dinghy dronam = tiny boat

ginger srngaveram, from srngam “horn” + vera = body

guar gopali = annual legume

gunny goni = sack

guru gurus = bachelor

jackal srgalah = the howler

Java/java = island/coffee Yavadvipa= Island of Barley, from yava

= barley + dvipa =island

juggernaut jagat-natha-s = lord of the world

jungle jangala = arid

jute jutas = twisted hair

karma karman = action

kermes kṛmija = worm-made

lacquer lākṣā

lilac nila = dark blue

loot lotam = he steals

mandala mandala = circle

mandarin mantri = an advisor

mantra mantras = holy message or text

maya maya = illusion

Mithras mitrah = friend

mugger makara = sea creature, crocodile

musk mus = mouse

nard naladam = nard

nirvanas nirvanas = extinction, blowing out (candle)

opal upalah = opal

orange narangas = orange tree

pal bhrata = brother

palanquin palyanka = bed, couch

panther pāṇḍara = pale

pepper pippali = long pepper

punch pancha = drink from alcohol, sugar, lemon, water,

tea or spices

pundit paṇdita =learned

rajah rajan = king

rice vrihi-s = rice, derived from proto-Dravidian

rupee rūpyakam =silver coin

saccharin sarkarā

sandal wood candanam = wood for burning incense

sapphire sanipriya = sacred to Shani (Sanskrit) = Greek,


sari sati = garment

shawl sati = strip of cloth

sugar sharkara = ground sugar

swami svami = master

tank tadaga-m =pond, lake pool, large artificial

container for liquid

thug sthaga = scoundrel

tope stupah

yoga yogas = yoke, union

yogi yogin = one who practices yoga, ascetic

zen dhyana = meditation

Linear A (1,800-1,500 BCE):

linear a tablet kh5 khania

cedar keda = cedar

cumin kuminaqe = and cumin See also Linear B kumino

kumi/non Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant


lily rairi (also Egyptian) -or- nila = dark blue


pimento			pimata = pimento
rose				rosa  = rose 
sack				saka sa/kka  <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of hair from 
				goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj a shield made
				of wicker See also saqqu = sack (Akkadian)

Linear A & Linear B (1,800-1,200 BCE):

Linear B tablet with ideogram

agriculture akara/akaru a1kra (arch. acc.) – or – = end, border

+ akaru a0gro/j = field Cf. Linear B akoro a0gro/j

democracy		dima/dimaru dh=maj <- dh=moj = land, country;
				people Cf. Linear B	damo = village da=moj
				Mother goddess of Mount Ida	Idamate/Idamete
Rhea, goddess of Mount Ida Idarea  0Idar9ea 
healer			ijate i0a/ter = doctor, physician Cf. Linear iyate
calligraphy		karu = ka/llu <- ka/lloj = beautiful, fine,
copper			kaki/kaku xalku/ <- xalko/j = copper, bronze
crimson			punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
crocus			kuruku kro/koj = crocus, saffron Cf. crocus
				kunkunam = saffron, saffron yellow (Sanskrit)
Lykinthos			Rukito Cf. Linear B Rukito Lu/kinqoj
minth			mita mi/nqa = mint Cf. Linear B mita 
nard				naridi na/ridi <- na/rdoj = with nard. See also
				naladam (Sanskrit)
new				nea ne/a (feminine) = new Cf. Linear B ne/#a = new     
pistachio-nut		pitakase/pitakesi pista/kesi = with pistachio-nuts
				(instr. pl.) 
Phoenician		punikaso funi/kasoj = crimson, red (of wine)
				Cf. Linear B ponikiya ponikiyo foini/kioj
				= crimson Cf. krmija = red dye produced by a
				worm (Sanskrit)
Phaistos			Paito Faisto/j Cf. Linear Paito 
Rhea			rea r9e/a = goddess, Rhea
sack				saka sa/kka (arch. acc.) <- sa/kkoj = coarse cloth of
				hair from goats; sackcloth -or- sa/ka <- sa/koj
				a shield made of wicker Cf. See also
				saqqu (Akkadian)
sesame			sasame sasa/me = sesame Cf. Linear B sasa/ma
terebinth tree		tarawita = terebinth tree Cf. Linear B kitano 
				ki/rtanoj & timito ti/rminqoj 
thalassian		tarasa = sea Cf. Linear B tarasa qa/lassa
thorax			toraka  qw/rac  = breastplate, cuirass = Linear B
throne			turunu qo/rnoj = throne Cf. Linear B torono
wine 			winu  #i/nu = wine Cf. Linear B wono = wine, vine
wine dedicated to Mother Earth winumatari NM #i/numa/tari = wine
				dedicated	to Mother Earth
yoked			zokutu zogutu/ <- zogwto/j = yoked, with a cross-		
zone				zuma zw=ma girdle, belt; girded tunic 

Mycenaean Linear B (1,600-1,200 BCE):

aeon eo e0wn = being

anemometer anemo a0ne/mwn = wind

angel akero a0ngge/loj = messenger

agora akora a0gora/ = market

axles akosone a1conej = axles

amphorae aporowe a0mfore#ej

armaments amota a3rmo/ta = chariot

anthropology atoroqo a0nqrw/poj = man, human being

aulos (musical instrument)auro a0ulo/j = flute, musical instrument

cardamon kadamiya kardami/a = cardamon

celery serino se/linon = celery

chiton kito xitw/n = chiton

circular kukereu kukleu/j = circle

coriander koriyadana koli/adna

cumin kumino kum/minon Cf. kumunu = carrot family plant


curator korete kore/ter = governor

cypress kuparo ku/pairoj

divine diwo Di/#oj = Zeus

duo dwo du#o/ = two

elephant erepa e0le/faj = ivory (in Mycenaean)

eremite eremo e1remoj = desert

foal poro pw/loj = foal

gynecology kunaya gunai/a = woman

heterosexual hatero a3teroj e3teroj = other

hippodrome iqo i3ppoj = horse

labyrinth dapuritoyo = labyrinth laburi/nqoj

linen rino li/non

lion rewo le/#wn = lion

mariner marineu marineu/j = sailor, mariner

maternal matere ma/ter = mother

Mesopotamia Mesopotomo Mesopota/moj = Mesopotamia

metropolis matoropuro matro/puloj = mother city

nautical nao nau/j = ship

non-operational noopere nwfe/lioj = useless

operation opero o1feloj = operation

paternal pate pa/ter = father

paramedic 		para para\ = beside, from beside, by the side of,
				beyond etc.
pharmaceutical	pamako fa/rmakon = medicine
polypod			porupode polu/pode polu/pouj = octopus
progressive		poro pro\ = in front of 
purple			popureyo pofurei/a = purple
quartet			qetoro tetta/rej = four

schinus kono skoi/noj (flowering pepper)

strategic tatakeu startageu/j = general

stylobate			tatamo staqmo/j = standing post, door post
temenos			temeno (piece of land assigned as an official
				domain (to royalty)
theological		teo qe/oj = god
trapeze			topeza to/rpeza tra/peza = table
tripod			tiripode tri/pwj = tripod
vision			wide #ei/de = to see 
xenophobic		kesenuwiyo ce/n#ioj = stranger

© by Richard Vallance Janke 2017

POST 1,702: The supersyllabogram DI in Linear A, dipa3a (dipaia) + dipaja = from a cup

Minoan cups

The supersyllabogram DI in Linear A, dipa3a (dipaia) almost certainly refers to a cup. It is debatable whether or not this form is Linear A nominative singular; however, the form dipaja = from a cup, is likely to be genitive singular.

DI = dipa3a (dipaia) PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup 
DI = dipaja PGS di/paia <- di/paj de/paj = from a cup (alternate?)

How circular language in the movie, Arrival, determines the aspacial/atemporal nature of logograms throughout the ages:

In the movie, Arrival (2016), which chronicles the arrival on earth of 12 mysterious ships, apparently from outer space, the following statements leap out at us:

parsing the language of the heptapods in the movie, Arrival

1. Unlike all written languages, the writing is semiseriographic. It conveys meaning. It doesn't represent sound. Perhaps they view our form of writing as a wasted opportunity.  
2. How heptapods write: ... because unlike speech,  a logogram is free of time. Like their ship, their written language has forward or backward direction. Linguists call this non-linear orthography, which raises the question, is this how they think? Imagine you wanted to write a sentence using 2 hands, starting from either side. You would have to know each word you wanted to use as well as much space it would occupy. A heptapod can write a complex sentence in 2 seconds effortlessly.

The key to all of this is the phrase a logogram is free of time. Allow me to illustrate. Logograms are also often called ideograms, and that is what I prefer to call them. Another word to describe them is icon. When we examine ancient Linear A and B ideograms and compare them with modern ones, the results are astonishing, to wit:




All of the aforementioned examples make it quite clear that ideograms, whether they be as ancient as those in Linear A and Linear B (i.e. about 3,400 years old) or modern ... or for that matter, neolithic or even earlier, all bear a striking resemblance to one another. Take for instance the Linear A ideogram for “scales” and compare it with just one modern one (among so many others), and we see immediately that they are extremely similar. Now take the Linear B ideograms for man” and “woman” and compare these with the washroom symbols for the same and once again the similarity is almost too good to be true. Then there is the Linear B ideogram for a four-spoke wheel compared with a modern one for an eight-spoke wheel. The number of spokes is not relevant to this discussion, only the fact that the ancient Linear B ideogram for “wheel” is practically identical to the modern one.

The implications for the decipherment of ideograms in any language, ancient or modern (let alone Linear A and Linear B) versus those in any modern language are staggering. We can be sure that the ancient ideograms varied little from one language to another, let alone between Minoan and Mycenaean. In fact, the syllabogram TE, which sometimes represents wheat, in Linear A and Linear B is almost identical to the same ideograms in cuneiform!

It is patently obvious that since the distinction between the ancient ideograms and their modern equivalents enumerated above is so thin, all of these ideograms (or logograms or icons) are not only time independent (atemporal) and spatially independent (aspatial), they are also language independent. This is a stunning phenomenon.

The implications for the further decipherment of Linear A are simply overwhelming.

And this is why in the movie, Arrival, the heptapods assert, “There is no time.”

My article, Lexicon of Chariot Construction in Mycenaean Linear B, has been accepted in advance by the international historical journal, Epohi/Epochs:

Epohi Epochs historical journal

I shall be submitting it to the editor-in-chief, Stefan Iordanov of the Faculty of History of St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo (hence forward referred to as UVT), Bulgaria. The editorial board consists of highly prestigious researchers:

Executive Editor:

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo


Ivan Tyutyundjiev, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Deputy Editors in Chief:

Plamen Pavlov, Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo


Acad. Vasil Gyuzelev, Prof., Dr. Hab., Member of the Bulgarian Academy of science and President of the Association of Byzantinists and Medievalists in Bulgaria

Demetrios Gonis, Dr. Hab., Professor Emeritus of University of Athens (Greece)

Mirosław Jerzy Leszka, Prof., Dr. Hab., University of Lodz (Poland)

Tatyana Leontyeva, Prof., Dr. Hab., State University of Tver (Russia)

Milko Palangurski, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Petko Petkov, Проф. д-р Петко Петков, St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Rumen Yankov, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Mariya Ivanova, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Dan Dana, Chargé de recherche de 1ère classe, Ph.D., Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique – Paris (France)

Issue editors:

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D.

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D.


Another Linear A tablet bites the dust… Troullos TL Za 1… horsemanship and hunting:

Troullos tablet TL Za 1

This tablet or nodule completely eluded me for over 2 years. Then tonight, all of sudden, its meaning literally burst wide open. The first hint came when I began to decipher the obvious Linear words, all of which happen to be Mycenaean-derived New Minoan NM1. The most obvious word, which stands out like a sore thumb, is WAJA = #ai/a in Mycenaean-derived Greek, in other words land. The rest of the Mycenaean-derived words were more difficult to extract from the agglutinated text, since in an agglutinative language such as Minoan, words which would otherwise be separate in a fusional or inflected language, such as ancient or modern Greek or German, are simply strung together in long strings. So it is difficult to know where one word ends and another begins … but far from impossible. Because so many words on this tablet are agglutinated, it presents a particularly challenging target for decipherment. But decipher it I did, as you can see below.

If we break apart the agglutinated words, meanings start to surface. For instance, ATAI*301 appears to mean 0astai= from oastei=a, meaning of the town, community.

Moving on, we have QARE0 = ba/lei ba/loj = at the threshold (locative singular). For the time being, I do not know what OSU, which is almost certainly Old Minoan, means but I am confident I shall soon figure it out. If we then decipher the first 2 agglutinated words ATA*301WAJA. OSUQARE, we get something along these lines (OSU being omitted for the time being), on the … threshold of community of town, i.e. on the … outskirts of the community or town

The the next two agglutinated words are UNAKANASI. UNA is Old Minoan. KANASI is instrumental plural Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) for ka/nnasi (instr. plural) = made of reeds, i.e. wicker. This almost certainly refers to the chariot itself, which like almost all Mycenaean chariots, is probably made of wicker, as illustrated below. If my hunch is correct, given that KANASI means made of wicker, then UNA must necessarily mean chariot, hence a chariot made of wicker. Remember: UNAKANASI is a composite agglutination of 2 words, first Old Minoan (UNA) and the second Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) = KANASI.

Troullos tablet original with Mycenaean horse and chariot and modern horse halter

IPINAMASIRUTE is another agglutination, this time consisting of 3 words, all of them Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1). The tablet or nodule above provides us with the full translation, which in its actual order reads, with horsemanship + running + (towards) prey. In other words, we have a charioteer, whose name is JASASARAME, clearly a highly skilled charioteer and hunter, whose ridership or horsemanship allows him to run towards his prey, and at a fast pace at that, given that NAMA always refers to something flowing fast, usually a stream, but in this context, clearly horses, 2 of them, of course, since Mycenaean chariots always have two horses.

So the free translation runs along these lines, and very well indeed,

Jasasarame, the hunter-charioteer, in his chariot made of wicker, is exercising his (considerable) ridership skills, by running at break-neck speed (or: running by a stream) towards the wild prey he is hunting on the outskirts of his town (community).

This decipherment, which is almost entirely in Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) hangs together admirably well. It is a major breakthrough in the ongoing saga of the decipherment of Linear A. It is also buttressed by the fact that the tablet or nodule actually looks like a horses halter. While the word halter appears, at least at first sight, not to figure in the text, this is of little consequence. The tablet itself makes it quite clear enough that here we have two horses (always two with Mycenaean chariots) and that a well-heeled, and most likely aristocratic or warrior-class charioteer, Jasasarame, is at the reins.

I rest my case.

Translation of a very tricky Linear B tablet, Knossos KN 913 D k 01 by Rita Roberts:

Knossos tablet KN 913 D k 01 translation by Rita Roberts

The decipherment of this tablet is far from clear-cut, and all because of 1 word, paro, the first on both lines 1 and 2. This word very likely corresponds to the ancient Greek pa/loj (palos) = a lot (cast), meaning a lot cast by one or more people to decide who is obliged to do something, and in this case, which is apparently a religious context, that something is the sacrifice of a billy goat and a she goat. Etowono got the lot for the ram, probably the long stick, if that is what it was, given that we are dealing with a ram here. Komawete got the short one for the she goat. It kind of makes sense, and in fact there would seem to be no other rational interpretation of this tablet. It is one of the trickiest I have ever assigned to Rita, and this aroused her suspicions in the first place. Because she could not possibly have recognized the (archaic or ancient) Greek for paro, I had to delve into that word. Otherwise, her translation is highly commendable, and deserves a full 100 %.


Translation of Linear B tablet Knossos KN 854 K j 11 by Rita Roberts:

Knossos tablet KN 854 K j 11 by Rita Roberts


Rita Roberts’ translation of Linear B tablet KN 342 J e 01 concerning olive oil:

Knossos tablet KN 342 J e 01 by Rita Roberts

Astonishing commentary on my Exhaustive Linear A lexicon, comparing my achievements to those of Albert Einstein!

In the past week since I first uploaded my Exhaustive Linear A Lexicon, it has received 410 hits, i.e. downloads, as of 5:00 pm., Monday 7 August 2017. This amounts to almost 60 downloads a day. To download it, click below. You will then be taken to the next page, where you simply click the green DOWNLOAD button.

Exhausitve Linear Lexicon Richard Vallance Janke

The lexicon has catapulted me from the top 5% to the top 0.1% of users.
Comments and commendations have been pouring in. Unquestionably, the most astonishing is this one:

Linear A research by Richard Vallance Janke related to Albert Einstein and Coliln Renfrew

Other comments include:

wonderful topic... 

Inspired by your new perspective on one of the most studied cultures in the world.

Yes when you see their artifacts and the technology needed to create such items is amazing... Thanks for the reply and keep up the great work 


T. Farkas’ brilliant decipherment of Linear B tablet KN 894 Nv 01:

Knossos tablet KN 984 Nv 01

Linear B transliteration

Line 1. ateretea peterewa temidwe -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

Line 2. kakiya -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair 1. kakodeta -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for pair or set tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

Line 3. kidapa temidweta -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair 41 tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

line 4. odatuweta erika -ideogram for wheel, SSYL ZE for set or pair 40 to 89 tablet broken off (i.e. right truncated)

Translation (my knowlege of Greek grammar is not sufficient at present to write out proper sentences [NOTE 1] but I have looked up and know the Greek equivalents for the Linear B words which I will write here.)

Line 1. Pair/set of inlaid/unfinished? elmwood chariot wheel rims

Οn your blog you have translated ateretea as “inlaid” from the Greek ἀιτh=ρeς. I found these words ατελείωτος , ατελεις … that means “unfinished” Do you think that could work? Either way I get that ateretea is an adjective that describes the wheel rims [2].

α)τερεδέα/ατελείωτος πτελεFάς τερμιδFέντα ζευγάρι a1ρμοτα, (sorry for the mishmash Greek [3]).

Line 2. 1 Copper [4] set or pair of wheel fasteners , bronze set or pair of wheel fasteners

I looked around the net and some say copper was used as a band or even as a tire and as leather tire fasteners on bronze age chariot wheels.

Since the deta on kakodeta refers to bindings perhaps this line is refering to sets of types of fasteners of both copper and bronze for wheels? (hubs, linch pins, nails, etc…) [Richard, YES!]

χαλκίος ζευγάρι α1ρμοτα, χαλκοδέτα ζευγάρι α1ρμοτα

Line 3. 41 Sets or pairs of “kidapa” chariot wheel rims

Looked around the net didn’t find and words to match kidapa…I did take note that you think ― like L.R. Palmer ― that it means ash-wood.

κιδάπα τερμιδFέντα ζευγἀρι α1ρμοτα

Line 4. 40 to 89 ? sets of toothed/grooved willow-wood chariot wheels.

Ive looked at many diagrams and pictures of chariot wheels… but none that I could find were clear enough to really understand what might be meant by toothed [5]… Ι even watched a documentary where an Egyptian chariot is built. It is called building Pharaoh’s Chariot. Perhaps one day I’ll happen upon some chariot wheels somewhere and finally understand what is meant.

ο0δατFέντα ε0λικα ζευγἀρι α1ρμοτα 40 -89 ?

Comments by our moderator, Richard Vallance Janke:

This is absolutely brilliant work! I am astounded! 100 % hands down. This is one of the most difficult Linear A tablets to decipher. I too take kidapa to mean ash wood, as it is a tough wood. It is also probably Minoan, since it begins with ki, a common Minoan prefix:

kidapa OM = ash wood? (a type of wood) Appears only on Linear B tablet KN 894 N v 01
kidaro MOSC NM1 kidaro ke/dron = juniper berry-or- kedri/a = oil of cedar Cf. Linear B kidaro
kidata OM = to be accepted or delivered? (of crops) Cf. Linear B dekesato de/catoj

See my Comprehensive Linear A lexicon for further details I imagine you have already downloaded the Lexicon, given that at least 16 % of Linear A is Mycenaean-derived Greek. This decipherment alone of an extremely difficult Linear B tablet entitles you to a secondary school graduation diploma, which I shall draw up and send to you by mid-August.

Specific notes:

[1] Thalassa Farkas declares that … my knowlege of Greek grammar is not sufficient at present to write out proper sentences… , but the actual point is that it is not really possible to write out Greek sentences in Mycenaean Greek, in view of the fact that sentences are almost never used on Linear B tablets, given that these are inventories. Grammar is not characteristic of inventories, ancient or modern. So it is up to us as decipherers to reconstruct the putative “sentences which might be derived from each of the tabular lines in an inventory. So long as the sentences and the ultimate paragraph(s) make sense, all is well.

[2] wheel rims is an acceptable reading.

[3] This is hardly mishmash Greek. It is in fact archaic Greek, and archaic Greek in the Mycenaean dialect, absolutely appropriate in the context.

[4] In Line 2, kakiya (genitive singular of kako) might mean copper, but is much more likely to mean “(made of) bronze” (gen. sing.), given that copper is a brittle metal, more likely to shatter under stress than is bronze. Copper tires would simply not hold up. Neither would pure bronze ones. Either would have to be re-inforced, and in this case by kidapa = ash-wood. That is the clincher, and that is why the word kidapa appears on this tablet.

[5] In Line 5, temidweta does not mean with teeth, but the exact opposite, with grooves” or “with notches. After all, if we invert teeth in 3 dimensions, so that they are inside out, we end up with grooves. This can be seen in the following illustration of a Mycenaean chariot in the Tiryns fresco of women (warrior) charioteers:

Tiryns fresco women charioteers

On the other hand, scythes, which are after all similar to teeth, were commonplace on ancient chariots, including Egyptian, a nice little clever addition to help cut or chop up your enemies. Still, it is unlikely that Mycenaean chariots would be reinforced by scythes, in view of the fact that there are far too many of them even on fresco above. That is why I take temidweta to mean indentations” or “notches”. But temidweta could refer to “studs”, which like notches, are small, even though they stick out.




New interpretation of Linear A tablet HT 7 (Haghia Triada):

Linear A tablet HT 7 Haghia Triada


A few months ago, I tentatively deciphered Linear A tablet New interpretation of Linear A tablet HT 7 (Haghia Triada), but when I look back on that decipherment now, I find it implausible. So I have re-interpreted here in light of new data I have acquired since then. As the tablet is inscribed mostly in Old Minoan, it is rather difficult to make complete sense of it. However, the two Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) terms offer us a clue. These are iruja = a priestess and tanati, which appears to be dative singular for “death”. However, although iruja is nominative singular, it is followed by the number 3, which would seem to indicate that there are 3 priestesses. And the Minoan plural of a is e, hence iruje. The only explanation I can find for this discrepancy is that the 3 priestesses are operating independently, one by one, each one making at least 1 offering, while 1 priestess makes 2, for a total of 4. But this translation, which is rather convoluted, remains in doubt because I cannot verify with any real certainty the meanings of the Old Minoan words. However, it does manage to hold together. Perhaps someday in the future, we shall unearth more Linear A tablets, which will provide us with insight into the significance of the Old Minoan vocabulary.

Linear A tablet HT 38 (Haghia Triada) with 2 supersyllabograms, dealing with wine:

Linear A tablet TA HT 38 Linear A

This intriguing tablet apparently deals with containers for wine, ranging from a type of vase (daropa) to a wine-skin (aka) to cloth, which appears to have been treated to be water-proof. Since the ideogram for pig appears immediately to the left of aka, we can surmise that the wine-skin is made of pigs hide. The notion that cloth containers could have been water-proofed is somewhat in doubt, but the overall decipherment of HT 38 appears sound enough.


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