THE MYCENAEAN LINEAR B “ROSETTA STONE” TO MINOAN LINEAR Tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) Vessels and Pottery has just been uploaded to my academia.edu account, here: To DOWNLOAD it, click on the DOWNLOAD button on the top right hand side of the page. ABSTRACT In partnership with The Association of Historical Studies, Koryvantes (Athens), we address past and current prospects for the decipherment of the Minoan language, which has never met with any credible success in the 117 years since the ?rst discovery of Minoan Linear A tablets by Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos in 1900. A considerable number of philologists and historical linguists, some of them amateurs, claim to have deciphered the Minoan language, yet no one has ever formulated a convincing decipherment. We advance a unique and entirely untested approach to unravelling the text of Minoan Linear A tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada), based on the principle of cross-correlative retrogressive extrapolation (CCRE) from Mycenaean Linear B to Linear A. HT 31 so closely parallels Mycenaean Linear B tablet, Pylos Py TA 641-1952 (Ventris) that the latter effectively serves as a kind of “Rosetta Stone” for the former. There is also credible evidence that a Mycenaean derived superstratum imposed itself on Linear A as the result of the Mycenaean conquest of Knossos and Crete ca. 1500 – 1450 BCE or, failing that, their all but absolute suzerainty over Knossos and its dependencies. Approximately 300 or 26 % of 1166 intact words in Linear A are very likely of Mycenaean origin.

## Category: Ancient Greek

## THE MYCENAEAN LINEAR B “ROSETTA STONE” TO MINOAN LINEAR Tablet HT 31 (Haghia Triada) Vessels and Pottery

## Rita Roberts’ translation of Knossos tablet KN J 1 f 01, her last tablet for her second year of university

Rita Roberts’ translation of Knossos tablet KN J 1 f 01, her last tablet for her second year of university:

Line 1: *Deukijojo* = month name + *temeno* = shrine. The damaged first syllabogram looks like TO. The actual word *temeno *= “temple” does not appear on the first line of this tablet, since it appears that the the scribe has made a scribal error, which actually happens quite often on Linear B tablets. The writing is messy, and appears to read *teno*, which would explain the scribal error, i.e. he missed on one syllabogram. *Deukijojo* could either be a month name, in which case it means “the tenth month” or more properly in this content, “of the tenth month” or it could simply be a person’s name. If it refers to the tenth month, then it follows that the entire tablet refers to this month.

Line 2:

*Wakatanujo – or- Dukatanayo *= name + *newejo* = “of something new” + 3 units (probably bales) of barley. Hence the line refers to 3 new units (probably bales) of barley from *Wakatanujo *– or-* Dukatanayo*

Line 3:

*Padarejode* = a place hame, which is a sanctuary = hence, olive oil from Dardare and 2 units (probably bales) of barley.

Line 4:

*Pade* = name plus olive oil and 1 unit (probably a bale) of barley

Line 5:

*Pasiteoi * = “to all gods” barley and 1 unit of olive oil

Line 6:

olive oil and barley for *Qerasiya* = goddess *Artemis, *with numerals absent because of right truncation.

Line 7:

1 unit of barley to all the gods at *Aminiso = Amnisos*

Line 8:

2 units (probably pithoi) of olive oil for the goddess *Erinu.* Note that *Erinu* references one of the Furies (*Erynies*) in Greek. So it would appear that the scribe tells us that there was a sacrifice to at least one of or probably all of the Furies to appease them so that crops would thrive.

Line 9:

Gold and olive oil and 1 cyperus plant, probably dedicated to the priestess of the winds in Line 10.

Line 10:

4 cyperus plans dedicated to* Anemo Ijereja* = to the priestess of the winds

Line 11:

Blank and truncated.

Line 12:

3 units (probably pithoi) of olive oil and 2 units of barely plus 2 cyperus trees (also probably dedicated to the priestess of the winds)

Line 13:

Blank and truncated.

COMMENT:

This is the very last tablet Rita Roberts is to translate for her second year of university, and it is by far the most challenging she has ever been confronted with to date. Congratulations to Rita! She is now about to take her final examination for her second year, which is to consist of 25 questions in increasing level of difficulty, the last 5 of which are to be translations of tablets, plus her second year thesis paper, *What did the Minoan agricultural sector contribute to the Mycenaean Empire?* This paper must be at least 25 pages long, inclusive of the bibliography but excluding illustrations, which will add to the page length of her thesis. Since this thesis paper is much more difficult than her first year thesis, I am allotting her three months to complete it, i.e. Feb. 15 – May 15. However, she must complete the rest of the examination in just 2 weeks (Feb. 15 – March 1 2018).

In the next post, I shall re-inscribe the entire tablet *in archaic Greek from the Mycenaean*.

## Researcher Cites Ancient Minoan-era Computer

Researcher Cites Ancient Minoan-era Computer:

This Minoan object preceded the heralded Antikythera Mechanism. If we take t*he definition of a computer as being a device that can compute, even at the most basic level*, then this computer meets the bottom line of the definition.

A stone-made matrix has carved symbols on the surface of this computer related with the Sun and the Moon, serving as a cast to build a mechanism that functioned as an *analog computer *to calculate solar and lunar eclipses. The mechanism was also used as sundial and as an instrument calculating the geographical *latitude*. In this sense, it predates the astrolabe, an instrument of some antiquity (i.e. since Minoan times).

Researcher Cites Ancient Minoan-era Computer:

Researcher Minas Tsikritsis who hails from Crete — where the Bronze Age Minoan civilization flourished from approximately 2700 BC to 1500 century BC — maintains that the Minoan Age object discovered in 1898 in Paleokastro site, in the Sitia district of western Crete, preceded the heralded “Antikythera Mechanism” by 1,400 years, and was the first analog and “portable computer” in history.

“While searching in the Archaeological Museum of Iraklion for Minoan Age findings with astronomical images on them we came across a stone-made matrix unearthed in the region of Paleokastro, Sitia. In the past, archaeologists had expressed the view that *the carved symbols on its surface are related with the Sun and the Moon*,” Tsikritsis said.

The Cretan researcher and university professor told ANA-MPA that after the relief image of a spoked disc on the right side of the matrix was analysed it was established that *it served as a cast to build a mechanism that functioned as an analog computer to calculate solar and lunar eclipses. The mechanism was also used as sundial and as an instrument calculating the geographical latitude*.

*Source: ** Athens News Agency* [April 06, 2011]

For the definition of the astrolabe, see

Persian models dating as far back as the *eleventh century* have been found, and Chaucer wrote a *Treatise* on it in the late 1300s. But different models of astrolabes date as far back as somewhere around 400 BCE, when Theodora of Alexandra wrote a detailed treatise on the astrolabe. Historically, many different versions of the astrolabe have arisen since then. For a full account of astrolabes, consult Wikipedia: Astrolabe. But the whole point is that the Minoan computer predates even the earliest of these (vide supra), by at least 1,000 years!

By the Elizabethan era it consisted of a large brass ring fitted with an *alidade* or sighting rule:

Notice the astonishing resemblance between the Minoan computer and the astrolabe from 1608 above.

***

For the amazing Antikythera Mechanism, see the next post.

## Linear B tablet from Mycenae translated by Rita Roberts

Linear B tablet from Mycenae translated by Rita Roberts: Translation: 1. Wodiyeya Deminiya l [NOTE 1] 2. Mano * [2] + Arekasadaraqe= Mano *andArekasadara 2 3. Risura + Qotaqe= RisuraandQota 2 4. Eritupina + Teodoraqe= EritupinaandTheodora 2 5. Otowowije + tukateqe = Otowowijeandher daughter 2 6. Anea + tukateqe= Aneaandher daughter 2 7. Pirowona + Kiraqe** [3] = PirowonaandKira 2 8. Pukaro * [2] + Ketideqe= PukaroandKedite 2 9. ? Scratched ...?moqe=and…?mo 2 10. ... Maraqe=andMara 2 11. scratched ? 1 12. ? + Kiraqe **=andKira 2 [3] 13. blank NOTES: [1] Since in Line 1, Wodiyeya Deminiya l is followed by the number 1, this can only be one person. Thus, her name is Wodiyeya Deminiya. [2] * Mano * and * Pukaro * are men's names. Line 11 also refers to only 1 person, but the name of the person is truncated, i.e. it no longer appears on the tablet. [3] ** kira ** - or Kira = Ki/ra or Kei/ra = onomastics. Also appears on a Linear A tablet as Kira (onomastics). Complements of Rita Roberts Greek transliteration: 1. a / #odie/ia Deminei/a 2. b / Ma/noj A0leca/ndra te/ 3. b / Risu/ra Bo/ta te/ 4. b / E0riqoupi/na Qeodo/ra te/ 5. b / O0qo#o#iei/ej quga/ter te/ 6. b / A0ne/a quga/ter te/ 7. b / Piro#o/na Kei/ra te/ 8. b / Puka/roj Keti/dej te/ 9. b / ... moj te/ 10. b / ... M/a/ra te/ 11. ... a / 12. b / Kei/ra te/

## Article, Linear B Lexicon for the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots just published on academia.edu

Article, *Linear B Lexicon for the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots* just published on __academia.edu__:

Click on the TITLE to view and download the article:

just uploaded to my academia.edu account at the link above. To download it, click the green DOWNLOAD button on the right side of the document.

Illustrations from the article:

*This Lexicon is the only one of its kind in the entire world*. To date, no one has ever published a Linear B Lexicon on a subject as focused as the Construction of Mycenaean Chariots.

This article has just been published in the prestigious European journal, *Epohi (Epochs)*, Vol. 25, Issue 2 (2017), published bi-annually by the Department of History of St. Cyril and St. Methodius, University of Veliko, Tarnovo, Bulgaria. I have been invited by the Editor-in-Chief, Stefan Iordanov, to publish new papers in the near future (sometime in 2018) and again in 2019. Considering that the Editor-in-Chief, Stefan Iordanov, solicited me to submit this article sight unseen, you can be sure I shall submit more papers to the journal.

## Linear B syllabary with correspondances to the ancient Greek alphabet including digamma

Linear B syllabary with correspondances to the ancient Greek alphabet including digamma:

This table of the Linear B syllabary with correspondances to the ancient Greek alphabet including digamma outlines how each series of syllabograms, e.g. A E I O U, DA DE DI DO DU, KA KE KI KO KU, MA ME MI MO MU, TA TE TI TO TU etc. corresponds with the ancient Greek letter series, including the archaic Greek letter digamma, very common in Mycenaean Greek but absent from Classical Greek which are common to them. In some cases, the first consonant of the syllabogram series exactly matches the consonant + vowels of the Greek letters to which that series corresponds. These are:

DA DE DI DO DU = da de dei dh di dh do dw du

MA ME MI MO MU = ma me mei mh mi mh mo mw mu

NA NE NI NO NU = na ne nei nh ni nh no nw nu

SA SE SI SO SU = sa se sei sh si sh so sw su

But there is one significant problem. The Linear B syllabary cannot distinguish between short and long Greek vowels, or Greek double-vowel combinations. Thus,

DE DI DO = de dei dh di dh do dw

ME MI MO = me mei mh mi mh mo mw

NE NI NO = ne nei nh ni nh no nw

SE SI SO = se sei sh si sh so sw

must account for 2 or 3 vowel variations in the ancient Greek alphabet, as seen above. For example, as seen in the D series of syllabograms above, DE = any of 3 = de dei dh DI for either di dh & DO for either do dw. The list of syllabogram series and their Greek alphabetic equivalents above provides several examples of these vowel variations.

Syllabogram series representing multiple consonants + vowels:

Syllabogram series representing multiple consonants + vowels are more complex. These are:

KA KE KI KO KU corresponding to:

ga ge gei gh gi gh go gw gu

ka ke kei kh ki kh ko kw ku

xa xe xei xh xi xh xo xw xu

PA PE PI PO PU corresponding to:

pa pe pei ph pi ph po pw pu

fa fe fei fh fi fh fo fw fu

ya ye yei yh yi yh yo yw yu

QA QE QI QO corresponding to:

ba be bei bh bi bh bo bw bu

ga ge gei gh gi gh go gw gu

RA RE RI RO RU corresponding to:

la le lei lh li lh lo lw lu

ra re rei rh ri rh ro rw ru

TA TE TI TO TU corresponding to:

ta te tei th ti th to tw tu

qa qe qei qh qi qh qo qw qu

Plenty of examples of all of the consonant + vowel variations explained in all instances above are found in the table, following the table of syllabogram series, at the top of this post.

CONVENTIONS in Linear A and ancient Greek orthography:

Linear B is also unable to account for the presence of consonants in the ancient Greek alphabet, especially in the case of f*inal or ultimate consonants, which are extremely common in ancient Greek*, and *de rigueur* in masculine and neuter nouns and adjectives, and in the conjugations of several persons, singular and plural, in all cases of ancient Greek verbs (present, future, imperfect, aorist, perfect and pluperfect in all moods, indicative, optative and subjunctive). But only the present and aorist (CHECK) in the indicative and the present in the optative occur in Linear B.

I shall be posting the Greek equivalents to Linear B nouns, adjectives and verbs in an upcoming post.

## Brian Wyble’s carved facsimile of Linear B tablet KN 349 J b 12. He made this himself

Brian Wyble’s carved facsimile of Linear B tablet KN 349 J b 12. He made this himself. Amazing!

Linear B text Latinized:

Rukito apudosi + ideogram for “olive oil” 52+ (because it is right

truncated)

Translation:

52 + units (probably amphorae) of olive oil, delivery to Lykinthos.

Transliterated into archaic Greek:

n /b / a0mfiforh/#ei e1laia, a0pu/dosij Lu/kinqo.

Brian is our newest student of Linear B. He already has a fundamental understanding of ancient Greek, although I am sure he realizes from the archaic Greek text above that he needs to master archaic Greek. This should come to him in no time flat.

Welcome from all of us to the study of Linear B, Brian!

## Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 3: entries 801-1166

Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 3: entries 801-1166 This lexicon adopts the conventions followed by L.R. Palmer in his ground-breaking work on Linear B,The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, © 1963, 1998. ix, 488 pp. ISBN 0-19-813144-5 (1998). For Palmer’s glossary, which follows these conventions,seepp. 402-473. We have adopted these conventions to make the vocabulary of Linear A accessible to any and all, from lay persons not yet familiar with Linear A and non-linguists (somewhat) familiar with Linear B and/or A all the way to professional linguists adept in Linear B, and possibly also in Linear A, in order that everyone, regardless of education or scholastic background may readily access our Linear A Lexicon and come to familiarize him- or herself with at least the rudiments of Linear A, or in the case of professional linguists, with the intricacies of the syllabary. This Lexicon represents all of the vocabulary Alexandre Solça and I myself have compiled, plus around 100 additional exograms deciphered by Peter van Soebergen in his superb 4 volume set, Minoan Linear. Amsterdam, Brave New Books, © 2016. ISBN 9789402157574 Originally published 1987 801. rosa 802. rosasiro 803. rotau 804. roti 805. rotwei 806. rua 807. rudedi 808. ruiko 809. Rujamime 810. ruka/rukaa/ruki/rukike 811. Rukito 812. ruko 813. rukue 814. ruma/rumu/rumata/rumatase 815. rupoka 816. ruqa/ruqaqa 817. rura2 (rurai) 818. rusa/rusi 819. rusaka 820. rutari 821. rutia 822. ruzuna 823. sadi 824. saja 825. sajama/sajamana 826. sajamadi 827. sajea 828. saka 829. samidae 830. samuku 831. sanitii 832. sapo/sapi 833. saqa 834. saqeri 835. sara2 (sarai)/sarara/saro/saru 836. saradi 837. sarara 838. sareju 839. saro/saroqe 840. saru/sarutu 841. sasaja 842. sasame 843. Sasara(me) 844. sasupu 845. sato/sata 846. sea/sei 847. sedina 848. sedire 849. seikama 850. Seimasusaa 851. seitau 852. Sejarapaja 853. Sejasinataki 854. Sekadidi 855. Sekatapi 856. sekidi 857. Sekiriteseja 858. sekutu 859. semake 860. semetu 861. senu 862. sepa 863. sere -or- rese 864. sesapa3 865. Sesasinunaa 866. sesi -or- sise 867. setamaru 868. Seterimuajaku 869. Setira 870. Setoija 871. sezami 872. sezanitao 873. sezaredu 874. sezatimitu 875. sia 876. side/sidi/sidare 877. sidate/sidatoi 878. sidija 879. sii/siida/siisi 880. siitau 881. sija 882. Sijanakarunau 883. sika 884. siketapi 885. sikine 886. Sikira/Sikirita 887. sima 888. simara 889. simeki 890. simita 891. sina 892. sinada 893. sinae 834. sinakanau 895. sinamiu 896. sinatakira 897. sinedui 898. sipiki 899. sipu3ka 900. sire/siro/siru/sirute 901. siriki 902. sireneti 903. sirumarita2 (sirumarita1) 904. sita2 (sitai) -or- ta2si (taisi) 905. sitetu 906. situ 907. situra2re 908. siwamaa 909. sodira 910. sokanipu 911. sokemase 912. sudaja 913. suja 914. sukinima 915. Sukirita/Sukiriteija 916. suniku 917. supu2ka 918. supa3 (supai)/supa3ra (supaira) 919. supi/supu/supu2 (supui) 920. sure 921. suria 922. suropa 923. sutu/sutunara 924. suu 925. suwaresu 926. suzu 923. taa 924. tadaki/tadati 925. tadeuka 926. taikama 927. Tainaro 928. tainuma 929. tainumapa 930. Ta2merakodisi (Taimerakodisi) 931. ta2re (raire) 932. ta2reki /ta2riki (aireki/tairiki) 933. Ta2rimarusi (Tairimarusi) 944. tai2si (taisi) 945. ta2tare 946. ta2tite 947. ta2u 948. tajusu 949. takaa/takari 950. taki/taku/takui 951. Tamaduda 952. Tanamaje 953. Tanarateutinu 954. tanate/tanati 955. Tanunikina 956. tamaru 957. tami/tamia/tamisi 958. tani/taniria/tanirizu 959. tanika 960. taniti 961. Tanunikina 962. tanurija 963. tanuwasa... 964. tapa 965. tapiida 966. tapiqe 967. tara/tare 968. tarasa 969. tarawita 970. tarejanai 971. tarikisu 972. tarina (tawena) 973. taritama 974. taro 975. tasa/tasaja 976. tasaza 977. tasise 978. tata/tati 979. tatapa3du (tatapaidu) 980. ta2tare (taitare) 981. ta2tite (taitite) 982. Tateikezare... (truncated) 983. tedasi/tedatiqa 984. tedekima 985. teepikia 986. teizatima 987. teja(i)/teija 988. teijo 989. tejare 990. tekare 991. teke/teki 992. tekidia 993. temada/temadai 994. temeku 995. temirerawi 996. tenamipi 997. tenata/tenataa 998. Tenatunapa3ku 999. tenekuka 1000. teneruda 1001. teniku 1002. tenita(ki) 1003. tenu/tenumi 1004. tepi 1005. tera/tere 1006. teraseda 1007. tereau 1008. tereza 1009. teri (tewe)/teridu 1010. terikama 1011. tero/teroa 1012. terota -or- rotate -or- tatero 1013. terusi 1014. tesi/tesiqe 1015. Tesudesekei 1016. tetita2 (tetitai) 1017. tetu 1018. Tewirumati 1019. Tidama 1020. tidata 1021. tidiate 1022. tiditeqati 1023. tiduni/tiduitii 1024. tiisako 1025. tija 1026. tika 1027. titiku 1028. tikiqa 1029. tikuja 1030. tikuneda 1031. timaruri/timaruwite 1032. timasa 1033. timi 1034. timunuta 1035. tina 1036. Tinakarunau 1037. tinata/tinita 1038. tinesekuda 1039. Tininaka 1040. tinu/tinuka/tinuja 1041. tinusekiqa 1042. tio 1043. tiqatediti 1044. tiqe/tiqeri/tiqeu 1045. tiraduja 1046. tira2 1047. tirakapa3 (tirakapai) 1048. tire 1049. tisa 1050. tiri 1051. tiriadidakitipaku 1052. tisiritua 1053. tisudapa 1054. tita 1055. titema 1056. titiku 1057. titima 1058. titisutisa 1059. tiu 1060. tiumaja 1061. tizanukaa 1062. toipa 1063. tome 1064. toraka 1065. toreqa 1066. toro 1067. totane 1068. tuda 1069. tui 1070. tujuma 1071. tukidija 1072. tukuse 1073. tuma/tumei/tumi 1074. tumitizase 1075. tunada 1076. tunapa 1077. tunapa3ku 1078. tunija

1079. tunu/tunuja

1080. tuqenu… (truncated)

1081. turunu 1082. Tupadida 1083. tuqe 1044. turaa1085. turunuseme 1086. turusa 1087. tusi/tusu 1088. tusupu2 1089. tute/tutesi 1090. udami/udamia 1091. udeza 1092. udimi 1093. udiriki 1094. ukanasi... (truncated) 1095. ukare 1096. Ukareasesina 1097. uki 1098. uminase 1099. unaa 1019. unadi 1100. unakanasi 1101. unana 1102. unarukanasi/unarukanati 1103. upa 1104. uqeti 1105. urewi 1106. uro 1107. uso/usu 1108. uta/uta2 (utai) 1109. utaise 1110. utaro 1111. Utinu 1112. waduko 1113. waduna 1114. Wadunimi 1115. waja 1116. wanai 1117. wanaka 1118. waomi 1119. wapitinara2 1120. wapusua 1121. wara2qa (waraiqa)

1122. wasato

1123. Wasatomaro

1124. + wasukinima

1125. watepidu 1126. Watumare 1127. wazudu 1128. weruma/werumati 1129. wetujupitu 1130. widina 1131. widui 1132. widunimi 1133. wija 1134. Wijasumatiti 1135. winadu 1136. winipa 1137. winu 1138. winumatari 1139. wiraremite 1140. wireu 1141. wirudu 1142. wisasane 1143. witejamu 1144. witero 1145. zadeu 1146. adeujuraa 1147. zadua 1148. zakisenui 1149. zama/zame 1150. zanwaija 1151. zapa 1152. zare/zaredu 1153. zareki 1154. zaresea 1155. zasata 1156. zirinima 1157. zokupa 1158. zokutu 1159.zudi/zudira/zudu 1160. zukupi 1061. zuma 1062. zupaku 1163. zurinima 1164. zusiza 1165. zusu HT 1 1166. zute

Save

## Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 2: entries 440-800

Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 2: entries 440-800 This lexicon adopts the conventions followed by L.R. Palmer in his ground-breaking work on Linear B,The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, © 1963, 1998. ix, 488 pp. ISBN 0-19-813144-5 (1998). For Palmer’s glossary, which follows these conventions,seepp. 402-473. We have adopted these conventions to make the vocabulary of Linear A accessible to any and all, from lay persons not yet familiar with Linear A and non-linguists (somewhat) familiar with Linear B and/or A all the way to professional linguists adept in Linear B, and possibly also in Linear A, in order that everyone, regardless of education or scholastic background may readily access our Linear A Lexicon and come to familiarize him- or herself with at least the rudiments of Linear A, or in the case of professional linguists, with the intricacies of the syllabary. This Lexicon represents all of the vocabulary Alexandre Solça and I myself have compiled, plus around 100 additional exograms deciphered by Peter van Soebergen in his superb 4 volume set, Minoan Linear. Amsterdam, Brave New Books, © 2016. ISBN 9789402157574 Originally published 1987 440. maa 441. madadu 442. madati 443. madi HT 3 444. mai/maimi 445. majutu 446. makai/makaise 447. makaita 448. makarite 449. mana/manapi 450. maniki 451. Manirizu 452. manuqa 453. maro/maru/maruku/maruri 454. masa/masaja 455. masi/masidu 456. Masuja 457. masuri 458. matapu 459. mateti 460. mati/matiti 461. matizaite 462. maza/mazu 463. medakidi 464. Mekidi 465. mesiki -or- sikime – or - kimesi 466. mepajai 467. mera 468. merasasaa/merasasaja 469. mesasa 470. Mesenurutu 471. meto 472. Meturaa 473. meza 474. mia 475. midai 476. midani 477. midamara2 (midamarai) 478. midara 479. midemidiu 480. mie 481. miima 482. Mijanika 483. mijuke 484. mikidua 485. mikisana/mikisena 486. minaminapii 487. minedu 488. mini 489. miniduwa 490. minumi 491. minute (sing. minuta2 – minutai) 492. mio/miowa 493. mipa 494. mireja 495. miru 496. mirutarare 497. misimiri 498. misuma 499. mita 500. miturea 501. mizase 502. Mujatewi 503. muko 504. mupi 505. murito 506. muru HT 3 507. naa 508. nadare 509. nadi/nadiradi/nadiredi 510. nadiwi 511. nadu 512. Nadunapu2a 513. Naisizamikao 514. naka 515. nakiki 516. Nakininuta 517. nakuda 518. Namarasasaja 519. Namatiti 520. nami 521. namikua/namikuda 522. namine 523. nanau 524. nanipa3 525. napa3du 526. nara/naru 527. narepirea 528. naridi 529. narita 530. naroka 531. nasarea 532. nasekimi 533. nasi 534. nasisea 535. nataa/nataje 536. Natanidua 537. natareki 538. nati 539. nazuku/nazuru 540. nea 541. neakoa 542. nedia 543. nedira 544. neka/nekisi 545. nemaduka 546. Nemaruja 547. nemi -or- mine 548. Nemiduda 549. Nemusaa 550. Nenaarasaja 551. neqa 552. Neramaa 553. nerapa/nerapaa 554. nere 555. nesa/nesaki/nesakimi 556. Nesasawi 557. Nesekuda 558. neta 559. netapa 560. netuqe 561. nidapa 562. nidiki/nidiwa 563. niduti 564. nijanu 565. niku/nikutitii 566. nimi 567. nipa3 568. nira2 (nirai) -or- nita2 (nitai) ) 569. niro/niru 570. nise/nisi 571. nisudu 572. nisupu 573. niti/nitinu 574. nizuka 575. nizuuka 576. nua 577. nude 579. nuduwa 580. nuki/nukisikija 581. numida/numideqe 582. nupa3ku 583. nupi 584. nuqetu 585. nuti/nutini 586. Nutiuteranata 587. nutu 588 nuwi 589. odami/odamia 590. okamiza 591. Okamizasiina 592. opi 593. ora2dine (oraidine) 594. osuqare 595. otanize 596. oteja 597. pa/paa 598. padaru 599. padasuti 600. pade 601. padupaa 602. pa3a/pa3ana 603. pa3da 604. pa3dipo 605. pa3e 606. pa3karati 607. pa3kija 608. pa3ku 609. pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi 610. pa3pa3ku 611. pa3qa 612. pa3qe -or- qepa3 i.e. paiqe -or- qepai 613. pa3roka 614. pa3sase 615. pa3waja 616. paiki... (truncated right) 617. Paito 618. paja/pajai 619. pajare 620. paka 621. paku 622. Pamanuita 623. para 624. parane 625. paroda 626. parosu 627. pasarija 628. pase 629. paseja 630. pasia 631. pasu 632. pata/patu 633. patada 634. patane 635. pataqe 636. pazaku 637. pia/pii 638. pija/pijani/pijawa 639. piku/pikui/pikuzu 640. pimata 641. pimitatira2 (pimitatirai) 642. pina/pini 643. pirueju 644. pisa 645. pita/pitaja 646. pitakase/pitakesi 647. pitara/pite(ri) 648. piteza 649. pitisa 650. piwaa 651. piwaja 652. piwi 653. posa 654. posi -or- sipo 655. potokuro 656. pu2juzu 657. pu2ra2 (pu2rai) 658. pu2reja 659. pu2su/pu2sutu 660. pu3pi 661. pu3tama 662. puko 663. punikaso 664. puqe 665. pura2 (purai) 666. pu2reja... (truncated) 667. pusa/pusi 668. pusuqe 669. putejare 670. Qara2wa 671. Qa2ra2wa 672. qajo 673. qaka 674. qakure 675. qanuma 676. qapa3 (qapai) 677. qapaja/qapajanai 678. qaqada 679. Qaqaru 680. qara2wa (qaraiwa) 681. qareto 682. qaqisenuti 683. qaro threshold 684. qasaraku 685. qatidate 686. qati/qatiju/qatiki 687. qedi 688. qedeminu 689. qeja 690. qeka 691. qekure 692. Qenamiku 693. qenupa 694. qepaka 695. qepita 696. qepu 697. qequre 698. qera2u/qera2wa/qera2ja HT 1 699. qeria/qeriu 700. qero 701. qerosa 702. qesidoe 703. qesite 704. qesizue 705. qesupu 706. qesusui 707. qeta2e (qetaie) 708. qeti 709. qetune/qitune 710. qisi 711. qoroqa 712. quqani 713. raa 714. rada/radaa/radakuku/radami 715. radarua 716. radasija 717. radizu 718. radu/rade 719. ra2ka (raika) 720. Ra2madami (raimadami) 721. ra2miki (raimiki) 722. ra2natipiwa (rainatipiwa) 723. ra2pu/ra2pu2 (raipu/raipu2) 724. ra2ri (rairi) 725. ra2rore 726. ra2ru 727. ra2saa 728. ra2ti (raiti) 729. Raja/Raju 730. raka/rakaa 731. ranatusu 732. rani 733. raodiki 734. rapa/rapu 735. rapu3ra 736. raqeda 737. rarasa 738. raride... (truncated right) 739. rarua 740. rasa/rasi 741. rasamii 742. rasasaa/rasasaja 743. rata/ratapi 744. ratada 745. ratise (ritise?) 746. razua 747. rea 748. reda/redana/redasi 749. Redamija 750. redise 751. reduja 752. reja/rejapa 753. rekau 754. rekotuku 755. reku/rekuqa/rekuqe 756. rema/rematuwa 757. remi 758. renara/renaraa 759. renute 760. repa 761. Repu2dudatapa 762. repu3du 763. reqasuo 764. reradu 765. Rera2tusi (Reraitusi) 766. Reratarumi 767. rerora2 (rerorai) 768. rese/resi/resu 769. retaa/retada 770. retaka 771. retata2 772. retema 773. reza 774.rezakeiteta 775. ria 776. ridu 777. rikata 778. rima 779. rimisi 780. ripaku 781. ripatu 782. riqesa 783. rira/riruma 784. rirumati 785. risa 786. Risaia3dai 787. Risumasuri 788. ritaje 789. rite/ritepi 791. ritoe 792. rodaa/rodaki 793. roe 794. roika 795. roke/roki/roku 796. romaku 797. romasa 798. ronadi 799. rore/roreka 800. rorota -or- taroro

## Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 1: entries 1-439

Linear A Lexicon 2018 vocabulary only, no definitions: PART 1: entries 1-439 This lexicon adopts the conventions followed by L.R. Palmer in his ground-breaking work on Linear B,The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, © 1963, 1998. ix, 488 pp. ISBN 0-19-813144-5 (1998). For Palmer’s glossary, which follows these conventions,seepp. 402-473. We have adopted these conventions to make the vocabulary of Linear A accessible to any and all, from lay persons not yet familiar with Linear A and non-linguists (somewhat) familiar with Linear B and/or A all the way to professional linguists adept in Linear B, and possibly also in Linear A, in order that everyone, regardless of education or scholastic background may readily access our Linear A Lexicon and come to familiarize him- or herself with at least the rudiments of Linear A, or in the case of professional linguists, with the intricacies of the syllabary. This Lexicon represents all of the vocabulary Alexandre Solça and I myself have compiled, plus around 100 additional exograms deciphered by Peter van Soebergen in his superb 4 volume set, Minoan Linear. Amsterdam, Brave New Books, © 2016. ISBN 9789402157574 Originally published 1987 1. adai 2. adakisika 3. ade 4. adara/adaro/adaru 5. adidakitipaku 6. adikite(te)... 7. adoro 8. adi 9. adina/adine 10. adu 11. adu2sara 12. adukumina 13. Adunitana 14. adure/adureza 15. aduza 16. ajesa 17. aju 18. aka 19. Akanu/Akanuzati 20. Akanuzati 21. akara/akaru HT 2 22. akarakitanasijase 23. ake 24. akipiete(ne?)

25. akiro

26. akoane

27. akumina 28. ama 29. amaja 30. amarane... (truncated) 31. amawasi 32. amidao/amidau 33. amata 34. amita 35. ana 36. ananusijase 37. anaqa 38. anatijowaja 39. anatu 40. anau 41. anepiti 42. apa3di (apaidi)... (truncated) 43. apadupa... (truncated 44. apaija 45. apaki 46. aparane 47. apaki 48. apero 49. api 50. apu2nadu 51. ara 52. araju 53. arako

54. arakokuzu

55. aranare/aranarai HT 1 56. aratiatu 57. aratu/aratumi... (truncated) 58. arauda 59. aredai

60. Arekinedisa(?)ma

61. Arenesidi 62. arepirena 63. aresana 64. ari 65. arinita 66. arija 67. aripa 68. ari/aru 69. arisu 70. arenita 71. aro/aru 72. arokaku 73. arote 74. arote2 75. arisu 76. aru 77. arura 78. arudara 79. aruma 80. aruqaro 81. asadaka 82. asamune 83. Asara2 84. Asasarame 85. asasumai(no) 86. Asasumaise 87. ase/asi 88. asu 89. aseja/asuja 90. asesina 91. asidatoi 92. asijaka 93. asikira 94. asisupoa 95. asona 96. Asuja 97. asumi 98. asupuwa 99. atade 100. ataijodeka 101. ataijowa(e) 102. atanate

103. A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja

104. atare 105. atika 106. atiru 107. atu 108. aurete 109. auta 110. awapi 111. azura 112. daa 113. dadai/dadana 114. Dadakitipaku 115. dadumata 116. dadumina/dadumine 117. dadute 118. dai/daina 119. daipita 120. daka/daki/daku 121. dakuna 122. Dakusene(ti)123. damate 124. dame/dami 125. daminu 126. danasi 127. danekuti 128. daqaqa 129. daqera 130. dare 131. darida (daweda) 132. daropa 133. darunete 134. daserate 135. dasi 136. datapa 137. datara/datare 138. data2 (datai) 139. datu 140. Dawa 141. dea 142. deauwase 143. dedi 144. dejuku 145. deka -or- kade 146. Demirirema 147. depa/depu 148. deponiza 149. dewa -or- wide 150. dide/didi 151. dideru 152. didikase/didikaze HT 1 153. dii 154. dija/dije 155. dika/dikaki.../dikatare (right truncated) 156. Dikate 157. dikime 158. dikise 159. dima/dimaru 160. dimedu 161. dinaro 162. dinasuka 163. dinau 164. dipa3a (dipaia) 165. dipaja 166. diqe -or- qedi 167. diqise 168. dirasa 169. diradina/diredina 170. direna (diwena) 171. dirina 172. diru 173. disa 174. disipita 175. ditajaru 176. ditamana 177. du/dua/duja 178. dudama 179. duja 180. dumaina 181. dumedi 182. dumitatira2 (dumitatirai) 183. dunawi 184. dupa3na (dupaina) 185. dupitewa 186. Dupu3re (dupure) 187. dura2 188. durare 189. duratiqe 190. dureza/durezase 191. durui... (truncated) 192. dusi/dusini 193. dusima 194. dusu 195. duti 196. duwi 197. duzu/duzuwa 198. edamisa 199. edija 200. edu 201. eka202. enasi 203. eniwa 204. epa3 (epai) 205. ero 206. esija 207. etanasu 208. eta2qe (etaiqe) 209. etori 210. ezusiqe 211. ia 212. Ida/Idaa/Idada/Idapa3 213. Idamate/Idamete 214. idami 215. idapa3isari 216. Idarea 217. idorinita 218. Idunesi 219. iduti 220. ija 221. ijadi 222. ijapa 223. Ijapame 224. ijaredija 225. ijate 226. ika 227. Ikesedesute 228. Ikurina 229. ikuta 230. imas 231. imisara 232. ina 233. inaimadu 234. inaja 235. Inajapaqa 236. inasi 237. inawa 238. ipasaja 239. ipinama/ipinamina 240. ipinamasirute 241. ira2 (irai) 242. iruja 243. isari 244. ise 245. itaja 246. itaki 247. itijukui 248. Itinisa

249. itisa*puko*

250. Ititikuna 251. itowaja 252. Izurinita 252. jaa 254. jadi/jadu 255. jadikitetedupu2re 256. jadikitu 257. jadireja 258. jadurati 259. jai 260. jainwaza 261. jaiterikisu 262. jaitose 263. jaja 264. jakisikinu 265. jako/jaku/jakuti 266. jamaa 267. jamauti 268. jami/jamidare 269. januti 270. japa/japadi 271. japaka/japaku 272. Japametu 273. Japanidami 274. japarajase 275. jara2qe (jaraiqe) 276. jara/jare/jaremi 277. jarepu2 278. jarete 279. jari/jarina/jarinu 280. jaripa3ku 281. jarisapa282. jaru -or- ruja 283. jarui 284. jasaja 285. jasumatu 286. jasapai 287. Jasaraanane 288. jasasaramana/jasasarame 289. jasidara 290. jasea/jasepa 291. jasie 292. jasuma(tu) 293. jataiouja 294. jate/jateo 295. jatimane 296. jatituku+ jatituku 297. jatoja 298. jawapa3... (truncated) 299. jaupamaida 300. jawi 301. jedi 302. jeka 303. jemanata 304. jetana 305. jua 306. judu 307. juerupi 308. juka 309. jukunapakunuu 310. juma/jumaku 311. juraa 312. jureku 313. juresa 314. jutiqa 315. juu 316. kadi 317. kadumane 318. kadusi 319. kae/kai 320. kaika 321. kairo 322. kaji/kaju 323. kaki/kaku 324. kakupa 325. kakunete/kakusunetu 326. kami 327. kana/kanatiti/kanau 328. kanaka 329. Kanijami 330. kanita 331. kanuti 332. kapa/kapaqe/kapate/kapi 333. kapasara2 (kapasarai) 334. kaporu 335. kapu3si 336. kaqa/kaqe 337. kara/karu 338. karero 339. karona 340. karopa2 (karopai) 341. karu 342. karunau 343. kasaru 344. kasi 345. Kasidizuitanai 346. Kasikidaa 347. kasitero 348. katanite 349. kataro 350. kati 351. kaudeta 352. kaudoni 353. kauzuni 354. keda 355. keire 356. Kekiru 357. kera/kero 358. keta/kete/ketu 359. Ketesunata 360. kezadidi 361. kida/kidi 362. kidapa 363. kidaro 364. kidata/kidate 365. kidini 366. kidiora 367. kii/kiipa 368. kija 369. kika 370. kikadi 371. kikina 372. kikiraja 373. kimara2 (kimarai) 374. kimu 375. kina 376. kinima 377. kinite 378. kipaa (see alsounaa below) 379. kipira2 (kipirai)/kipirija 380. kiqa 381. kira 382. kireta2 383. kiretana HT 2 384. kiretaiwinu + kiretana winu 385. kireza 386. kiro/kirisi/kiru HT 1 387. kirusata -or- rusataki -or- satakiru 388. kiso 389. kisusetu 390. kitai/kitei 391. kitanite 392. kitanasija/kitanasijase 393. kiti 394. kitina 395. kitiqa 396. kito 397. koiru 398. koja 399. komu 400. kopu 401. koru 402. Kosaiti 403. kuda 404. kudona 405. kuduri (kuduwe?) 406. kujude 407. kuka 408. kukudara 409. kumaju 410. kumapu 411. kuminaqe 412. kunisu 413. kupa/kupi 414. kupa3natu 415. Kupa3nu HT 1 HT 3 416. kupa3pa3 417. kupa3rija 418. kupaja 419. kupari 420. Kupatikidadia 421. kupazu 422. kupi 423. kuqani 424. kura 425. kuramu 426. kurasaqa

427. kuratujo

428. kureda 429. kureju 430. kuro/kurotu 431. kuto/kutu 432. kuruku 433. kuruma 434. Kutiti 435. kutu 436. kutukore 437. kuwa -or- waku 438. kuzu 439. kuzuni

## Rita Roberts’ translation of Knossos Linear B tablet, KN 897 D a 11

Rita Roberts’ translation of Knossos Linear B tablet, KN 897 D a 11:

Rita Roberts’ translation of Knossos Linear B tablet, KN 897 D a 11 reveals a brilliant insight on her part. She surmises that the single syllabogram PO may actually be the first syllable of Linear B pome poimh/n, which means “shepherd” or “herdsman”, and taht is one brilliant insight! If she is correct — and I believe she is — PO is a brand new supersyllabogram which I have not as yet accounted for.

## The supersyllabogram ME meza NM1 me/za (fem. sing.) probably means greater, bigger Cf. Linear B

The supersyllabogram* ME* *meza* NM1 me/za (fem. sing.) probably means greater, bigger Cf. Linear B *mezo* me/zwn me/zoj

It appears on Tylissos tablet TY 3 oo, dealing with olive oil and on Zakros tablet ZA 15 wi, dealing with wine. It would seem to imply that the vessels in which these commodities are stored are larger than usual.

## The supersyllabogram KI kitina in Linear A probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B kotona kotoina ktoi/na = plot of land?

The supersyllabogram* KI* *kitina* in Linear A probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B *kotona kotoina* ktoi/na = plot of land?

The supersyllabogram* KI* kitina NM1 ktoi/na/ktoina/siaj probably means a border of a plot of land/territory Cf. Linear B *kotona kotoina* ktoi/na = plot of land. There is no way of substantiating this claim. However, it does make sense, given that it appears on all of rhe following Linear A tablets from Haghia Triada (HT), on one from Tylissos (TY) and one from Zakros (ZA):

HT 8 oo HT 9 wi HT 16 oo HT 28 oo HT 44 gr HT 50 oo (x2) HT 91 oo HT 101 oo (x2) HT 116 (x2) HT 125 oo HT 129 oo HT 140 oo (x2) TY 3 (x3) ZA 18 oo

All of these tablets except one apparently deal with olive trees, rather than olive oil. The one exception is HT 44, which deals with grain, another crop which is grown on plots of land.

## Special post for Linear B students: how to convert from Linear B to the ancient Greek alphabet and vice versa:

Special post for Linear B students: how to convert from Linear B to the ancient Greek alphabet and *vice versa*:

The following tables illustrate how to convert from Linear B to the ancient Greek alphabet and *vice versa*.

A: Linear B to ancient Greek:

B: ancient Greek to Linear B:

## Linear B numerals 100, 1k and 10k are atemporal, like those in the movie. Arrival

Linear B numerals 100, 1k and 10k are atemporal, like those in the movie. *Arrival*:

It is quite clear from the following illustration of the numbers 1-12 in the Heptapod circular language, which correspond to the number of ships landing on earth, that their numbers, occurring in a circle, are similar to the numerals for 100, 1k and 10k in Mycenaean Linear A. This correspondence reveals an intriguing characteristic of these Linear B numerals, namely, that *they can serve as ideograms for extraterrestrial communication*. In other words, just as the Heptapod numbers serve *to communicate from the extraterrestrials*, the Linear B numerals can serve to communicate *with them* or any other extraterrestrial civilization.

## How circular language in the movie, Arrival, determines the aspacial/atemporal nature of logograms throughout the ages

How circular language in the movie, *Arrival*, determines the aspacial/atemporal nature of logograms throughout the ages:

In the movie, Arrival (2016), which chronicles the arrival on earth of 12 mysterious ships, apparently from outer space, the following statements leap out at us:

1. Unlike all written languages, the writing issemiseriographic. It conveys meaning. It doesn't represent sound. Perhaps they view our form of writing as a wasted opportunity. 2. How heptapods write: ... because unlike speech,a logogram is free of time. Like their ship, their written language has forward or backward direction. Linguists call this non-linear orthography, which raises the question, is this how they think? Imagine you wanted to write a sentence using2 hands, starting from either side. You would have to know each word you wanted to use as well as much space it would occupy. A heptapod can write a complex sentence in2 secondseffortlessly. The key to all of this is the phrasea logogram is free of time.Allow me to illustrate. Logograms are also often calledideograms, and that is what I prefer to call them. Another word to describe them isicon. When we examine ancient Linear A and B ideograms and compare them with modern ones, the results are astonishing, to wit: All of the aforementioned examples make it quite clear that ideograms, whether they be as ancient as those in Linear A and Linear B (i.e. about 3,400 years old) or modern ... or for that matter, neolithic or even earlier, all bear a striking resemblance to one another. Take for instance the Linear A ideogram for “scales” and compare it with just one modern one (among so many others), and we see immediately that they are extremely similar. Now take the Linear B ideograms for “man” and “woman” and compare these with the washroom symbols for the same and once again the similarity is almost too good to be true. Then there is the Linear B ideogram for a four-spoke wheel compared with a modern one for an eight-spoke wheel. The number of spokes is not relevant to this discussion, only the fact that the ancient Linear B ideogram for “wheel” is practically identical to the modern one. The implications for the decipherment of ideograms in any language, ancient or modern (let alone Linear A and Linear B) versus those in any modern language are staggering. We can be sure that the ancient ideograms varied little from one language to another, let alone between Minoan and Mycenaean. In fact, the syllabogram TE, which sometimes represents wheat, in Linear A and Linear B is almost identical to the same ideograms in cuneiform! It is patently obvious that since the distinction between the ancient ideograms and their modern equivalents enumerated above is so thin,all of these ideograms (or logograms or icons) are not only time independent (atemporal) and spatially independent (aspatial), they are also language independent. This is a stunning phenomenon. The implications for the further decipherment of Linear A are simply overwhelming. And this is why in the movie, Arrival, the heptapods assert, “There is no time.”

## My article, Lexicon of Chariot Construction in Mycenaean Linear B, has been accepted in advance by the international historical journal, Epohi/Epochs

My article, *Lexicon of Chariot Construction in Mycenaean Linear B*, has been accepted *in advance *by the international historical journal, Epohi/Epochs:

I shall be submitting it to the editor-in-chief, Stefan Iordanov of the **Faculty of History of St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo **(hence forward referred to as UVT), Bulgaria. The editorial board consists of highly prestigious researchers:

### Executive Editor:

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D.,** St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo**

### Editor-in-Chief:

Ivan Tyutyundjiev, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

### Deputy Editors in Chief:

Plamen Pavlov, Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

### Editors:

Acad. Vasil Gyuzelev, Prof., Dr. Hab., **Member of the Bulgarian Academy of science and President of the Association of Byzantinists and Medievalists in Bulgaria**

Demetrios Gonis, Dr. Hab., Professor Emeritus of **University of Athens** (Greece)

Mirosław Jerzy Leszka, Prof., Dr. Hab., **University of Lodz** (Poland)

Tatyana Leontyeva, Prof., Dr. Hab., **State University of Tver** (Russia)

Milko Palangurski, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Petko Petkov, Проф. д-р Петко Петков, St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Rumen Yankov, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Mariya Ivanova, Prof., Dr. Hab., St. Cyril and St. Methodius University of Veliko Tarnovo

Dan Dana, Chargé de recherche de 1ère classe, Ph.D., **Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique** – Paris (France)

### Issue editors:

Nikolay Kanev, Associate Prof., Ph.D.

Stefan Yordanov, Associate Prof., Ph.D.

## Another Linear A tablet bites the dust… Troullos TL Za 1… horsemanship and hunting

Another Linear A tablet bites the dust… Troullos TL Za 1… horsemanship and hunting:

This tablet or nodule completely eluded me for over 2 years. Then tonight, all of sudden, its meaning literally burst wide open. The first hint came when I began to decipher the obvious Linear words, all of which happen to be Mycenaean-derived New Minoan NM1. The most obvious word, which stands out like a sore thumb, is WAJA = #ai/a in Mycenaean-derived Greek, in other words land. The rest of the Mycenaean-derived words were more difficult to extract from the agglutinated text, since in an agglutinative language such as Minoan, words which would otherwise be separate in a fusional or inflected language, such as ancient or modern Greek or German, are simply strung together in long strings. So it is difficult to know where one word ends and another begins … but far from impossible. Because so many words on this tablet are agglutinated, it presents a particularly challenging target for decipherment. But decipher it I did, as you can see below.

If we break apart the agglutinated words, meanings start to surface. For instance, ATAI***301** appears to mean 0astai= from oastei=a, meaning of the town, community.

Moving on, we have QARE0 = ba/lei ba/loj = at the threshold (locative singular). For the time being, I do not know what OSU, which is almost certainly Old Minoan, means but I am confident I shall soon figure it out. If we then decipher the first 2 agglutinated words ATA*301WAJA. OSUQARE, we get something along these lines (OSU being omitted for the time being), on the … threshold of community of town, i.e. “on the … outskirts of the community or town”

The the next two agglutinated words are UNAKANASI. UNA is Old Minoan. KANASI is instrumental plural Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) for ka/nnasi (instr. plural) = made of reeds, i.e. wicker. This almost certainly refers to the chariot itself, which like almost all Mycenaean chariots, is probably made of wicker, as illustrated below. If my hunch is correct, given that KANASI means made of wicker, then UNA must necessarily mean chariot, hence a chariot made of wicker. Remember: UNAKANASI is a composite agglutination of 2 words, first Old Minoan (UNA) and the second Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) = KANASI.

IPINAMASIRUTE is another agglutination, this time consisting of 3 words, all of them Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1). The tablet or nodule above provides us with the full translation, which in its actual order reads, with horsemanship + running + (towards) prey. In other words, we have a charioteer, whose name is JASASARAME, clearly a highly skilled charioteer and hunter, whose ridership or horsemanship allows him to run towards his prey, and at a fast pace at that, given that NAMA always refers to something *flowing fast*, usually a stream, but in this context, clearly horses, 2 of them, of course, since Mycenaean chariots always have two horses.

So the free translation runs along these lines, and very well indeed,

Jasasarame, the hunter-charioteer, in his chariot made of wicker, is exercising his (considerable) ridership skills, by running at break-neck speed (or: running by a stream) towards the wild prey he is hunting on the outskirts of his town (community).

This decipherment, which is almost entirely in Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM1) hangs together admirably well. It is a major breakthrough in the ongoing saga of the decipherment of Linear A. It is also buttressed by the fact that the tablet or nodule actually looks like a horses halter. While the word halter appears, at least at first sight, not to figure in the text, this is of little consequence. The tablet itself makes it quite clear enough that here we have two horses (always two with Mycenaean chariots) and that a well-heeled, and most likely aristocratic or warrior-class charioteer, Jasasarame, is at the reins.

I rest my case.

## Translation of a very tricky Linear B tablet, Knossos KN 913 D k 01 by Rita Roberts

Translation of a very tricky Linear B tablet, Knossos KN 913 D k 01 by Rita Roberts:

The decipherment of this tablet is far from clear-cut, and all because of 1 word, *paro*, the first on both lines 1 and 2. This word very likely corresponds to the ancient Greek pa/loj (palos) = a lot (cast), meaning a lot cast by one or more people to decide who is obliged to do something, and in this case, which is apparently a religious context, that something is the sacrifice of a billy goat and a she goat. Etowono got the lot for the ram, probably the long stick, if that is what it was, given that we are dealing with a ram here. Komawete got the short one for the she goat. It kind of makes sense, and in fact there would seem to be no other rational interpretation of this tablet. It is one of the trickiest I have ever assigned to Rita, and this aroused her suspicions in the first place. Because she could not possibly have recognized the (archaic or ancient) Greek for *paro*, I had to delve into that word. Otherwise, her translation is highly commendable, and deserves a full 100 %.

## Translation of Linear B tablet Knossos KN 854 K j 11 by Rita Roberts

Translation of Linear B tablet Knossos KN 854 K j 11 by Rita Roberts: