BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY:

In order to decipher Linear A, you need to know Hittite. With the kind assistance of Alexandre Solcà, who knows Hittite very well, I am finally learning the language. How exciting! Here you see my preliminary vocabulary of Hittite. 

ACT = action/AGR = agricultural/ANI = animal, bird etc./AST = astronomy/CLI = climate/COL = colour etc./COM = commerce/FOO = food etc./FUR = furniture etc./GEO = geographic/MIL = military/MUN = municipal/PER = personal/REL = religion/ROY = royalty/SCR = scribal/TEX = textiles/VES = pottery,vessels

ais = mouth PER
akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
antu- (n) : property  AGR
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
arunas = sea GEO
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI ACT
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
TÚGadupli- (n) : garment, dress TEX
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL

E:

ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
ekuna = cold (Akk ka?û)  CLI
ekunima- (c) : the cold CLI
eshar = blood PER
eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
es = to be MI ACT

H:

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
halkis = cereal AGR
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
halukannis = chariot MIL
handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
happar- (n) : trade  COM
happiriya- : town (id URU) MUN 
hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
hark = to hold, to have MI ACT
harki- : white, clear  COL
harnaus = chair FUR
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
GIŠhassalli- (n) : stool (id GIŠGÌRGUB) FUR
haster- : star (id MUL) AST
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
hatrai = to write MI SCR
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR.MIL
heus = rain CLI
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL

I,Y:

UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ishas = lord ROY
ispant- (c) : night AST
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
istamas = to hear MI PER
iya = to do MI ACT

G,K:

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
karuilis = old PER
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
kessaras = hand PER
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) MIL
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN

L:

LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lami = to detach HI? ACT
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
GIŠluttant- : window MUN
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL

M:

malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
mehur = time Cf. English “hour”, français “heure” etc. AST
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR

N:

nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
nekut- (c) : evening AST 
nepis = sky AST
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL

B,P:

pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
pai = to go MI ACT
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
parn = house, nominative = pir + pir : house (§89a; id É-ir) MUN
pattar (n) : wing ANI
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
punus = to ask MI ACT

S:

sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
sarnink = to replace MI ACT
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL

D,T:

dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
dankui- : black; dark (id GE6) AST/MIL
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
te = to speak MI ACT
tekan earth AGR
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL

U:

udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English) ACT
uwate = to bring MI ACT

W:

wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wemiya = to find MI ACT
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR
wetant- : year (id MU) AST
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

Z:

zahhais = battle MIL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

April 22 2020

PRIMARY BY CATEGORY: * = major category

AGR = agricultural *

akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
antu- (n) : property  AGR
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halkis = cereal AGR
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
tekan earth AGR
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR

ANI = animal, bird etc.

hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
pattar (n) : wing ANI
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI

FOO = food etc.

aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

MIL = military *

alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halukannis = chariot MIL
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer vassal(French) MIL
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
zahhais = battle MIL
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

PER = personal *

ais = mouth PER
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
eshar = blood PER
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
istamas = to hear MI PER
kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
karuilis = old PER
kessaras = hand PER
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL

REL = religion *

alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL

ROY = royalty *

eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY

SCR = scribal

handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
hatrai = to write MI SCR
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR

VES = pottery,vessels DUG logogram for vessels *

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES