Archive for April, 2020


A Sense of Place WALKING THROUGH ANCIENT MYCENAE


The Muddy Archaeologist's Blog

Mycenae: the place the myth and legend.  It was from here that King Agamemnon set out for the Trojan War, leading the allied troops of the Greek lands across the northern Aegean Sea to a long drawn-out siege and seemingly interminable hand-to-hand battles.  So the epic poems of Homer sang.

The king returned here, with his new, captured girl, the daughter of King Priam of Troy, Cassandra.  Here he was slaughtered by his wife, Clytemnestra and her new lover, Aegisthus, almost as soon as he arrived home; Clytemnestra had, understandably, never forgiven Agamemnon for sacrificing their daughter, Iphigenia, to gain favourable winds to sail to Troy.  So the epic poems of the 600s and 500s BC and the dramatic tragedies of Athens of the 400s BC tell.   The stories lived on as Greek vases and Roman frescoes and epics would vividly tell their stories.

To walk in Mycenae is…

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CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN HITTITE: Present and Preterite (past tense) 

Conjugation:

Present active:
MI:					HI: uncommon

sing.					Sing.
1 mi					1 hi (/hhi/ahhi)
2 si					       2 ti						
3 zi					      3 i
pl.					pl. MI = HI
1 weni//wani/ueni		1 weni
2 teni					2 teni
3 anzi					3 anzi

PRESENT:

es = to be MI
1 esmi
2 essi
3 eszi
1 esuwani
...
3 asanzi

ses = to sleep MI
1 sesmi
2 ...
3 seszi
1 sesueni
2 ...
3 sesanzi

ed = to eat MI
1 edmi
2 ezzassi 
3 ezzazzi/ezzai
1 eduwani
2 ezzatteni
3 adanzi

kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) 
1 kuemi
2 kuesi
3 kuenzi
1 kuennummeni
2 kuenatteni
3 kunanzi

hark = to hold, to have MI 
1 harmi (k dropped before consonant)
2 harsi/harti (k dropped before consonant)
3 harzi (k dropped before consonant)
1 harweni/harwani (k dropped before consonant)
2 harteni (k dropped before consonant)
3 harkzani

istamas = to hear MI
1 istamasmi
2 istamassi (istamasti/istamaszi) 
3 istamaszi
1 istamasteni
2 ...
3 istamassanzi

punus = to ask MI
1 punusmi
2 ...
3 punuszi
1 punussueni
2 ...
3 punussanzi

uwate = to bring MI
1 uwatemi
2 uwatesi
3 uwatezzi
1 uwateweni (uwatewani
2 uwatetteni (uwatettani)
3 uwadanzi

lami = to detach HI?
1 lami
2 lasi
3 lai
1 ...
2 ...
3 lanzi

te = to speak MI
1 temi
2 tesi
3 tezzi
1 tarweni (te -> ta in the plural)
2 tarteni
3 taranzi

pai = to go MI
1 paimi
2 paisi (pasi/paitti)
3 paizzi
1 paiweni (paiwani)
2 paitteni (paittani)
3 panzi

hatrai = to write MI
1 hatrami
2 hatrasi
3 hatraizzi
1 hatraweni
2 ...
3 ...

kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper”
1 ...
2 kupuesi
3 kuppuwaizi (kupuezzi)
1 ...
2 kuppuwateni
3 kuppwanzi

handai = to add MI
1 handami
2 handasi
3 handaizzi (hantesa/handai)
1 ...
2 ...
3 handanzi

iya = to do MI
1 iyami (iyammi)
2 iyasi
3 iyazi (iyazzi/iezi)
1 iyaweni (iyawani)
2 iyatteni
3 iyanzi

wemiya = to find MI
1 wemiyami
2 wemiyasi
3 wemiyaz(z)i (wemiezi)
1 wemiyaweni
2 ...
3 wemiyanzi

harnink = to destroy HI
1 harrikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 harrikti  (drops n before consonant)
3 harrnikti  (drops n before consonant)
1 ...
2 harnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 harninkanzi

sarnink = to replace MI
1 sarnikmi (drops n before consonant)
2 ...
3 sarnikzi (drops n before consonant)
1 sarninkueni
2 sarnikteni (drops n before consonant)
3 sarninkanzi

ninik = to mobilize MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 ninikzi
1 ...
2 ninikteni
3 nininkanzi

akkusk = to drink a lot MI 
1 ...
2 uskusi (uskatti) ask -> usk
3 uskizzi
1 ...
2 uskatteni
3 uskanzi

azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI
1 ...
2 ...
3 azzikizzi
1 ...
2 azzikkittani
3 azzikktanzi

arnu = to bring MI
1 arnum(m)i
2 arnusi
3 arnuz(z)i 
1 arnummeni
2 arnutenni
3 arnuwa(n)zi

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI
1 assanumi
2 assanusi/asnusi 
3 assanuz(z)i/asnuzi
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuanzi


PRETERITE:

Preterite active:

MI:					HI:
1 (n)un					1 h(hun)
2 sta					2 (s)ta
3 sta/t					3 s
pl.
1 wen/uen				1 wen MI = HI
2 ten					2 ten
3 er/ir					3 er/ir

es = to be MI

1 esun
2 esta
3 esta
1 esuen
2 esten
3 esir

ses= to sleep MI

1 sesun
2 sesta
3 ...
1 sesuen
2 ...
3 seser

ed = to eat MI

1 edun
2 ... 
3 ezta
1 ...
2 ...
3 eter

kuen = to strike, kill MI

1 kuenun (kuenunun)
2 kuinnesta kue -> kui
3 kuenta
1 kueun (kuinnummen)
2 kuenten
3 kuennir

hark = to hold, to have  MI (Alexandre, please double check this!)

1 harkun
2 ...
3 harta
1 harwen
2 harten  
3 harkir

istamas = to hear MI

1 istamassun
2 ...
3 istamasta
1 ...
2 istamasten
3 istamassir


punus = to ask MI

1 punussun
2 punusta
3 punusta
1 punussuen
2 ...
3 punussir

uwate = to bring MI? 

1 uwatenun
2 uwatet
3 uwatet
1 uwatewen
2 ...
3 uwater

lami = to detach MI?

1 laun
2 lais
3 lait
1 lawen
2 ...
3 ...

te = to speak MI

1 tenun
2 
3 tet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

pai = to go MI

1 paun
2 ...
3 pait/paitta
1 paiwen
2 ....
3 pair

hatrai = to write MI/HI?

1 hatranun 
2 hatraes
3 hatrait/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair

kupawi = to count MI Cf. to count (English), compter (French), contare (Italian)

1 kappuwanun – kup -> kapp
2 kappuit
3 kappuwait/kappuet
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

handai = to add MI

1 hatrunun  d -> t (drops n before consonant t)
2 hatraes (drops n before consonant t)
3 hatrai/hatraes 
1 ...
2 ...
3 hatrair (drops n before consonant t)

iya = to do MI

1 iyanun
2 iyas/iyat
3 iyas/iet
1 iyawen
2 iyatten
3 ier

wemiya = to find MI

1 wemiyanun
2 ...
3 wemiyat/wemit
1 wemiyawen
2 ...
3 wemiyer

harnink = to destroy HI?

1 harinkun
2 harikta (drops n before consonant k)
3 harnikta (drops n before consonant k)
1 ...
2 
3 harninkir

sarnink = to replace

1 sarninkun
2 ...
3 sarnikta
1 ...
2 ...
3 ...

akkusk = to drink a lot MI

1 uskinun
2 ...
3 uskit
1 usgawen
2 ...
3 ...

arnu = to bring MI

1 arnunun
2 ...
3 arnut 
1 ...
2 ...
3 arnuir/arnuer

assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain

1 assanunun
2 ...
3 assanut
1 ...
2 ...
3 assanuir

April 25 2020


DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS IN HITTITE

NOUNS in Hittite: Noun declensions are fragmentary

Declensions: ABL = from, of etc. ALL (directive) = to (direction)

Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM as/is/us
GEN as/iyas
ACC an
DAT/LOC i
INST it/ta
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
NOM es/is
ACC us
GEN an/as
DAT/LOC as
INST it/ta
ABL za/aza

man = antuhsas 
sing.
NOM antuhsas
GEN antuhsas
ACC antuhsan
DAT/LOC antuhsi
ABL antuhsaz
pl.
NOM antuhses
ACC antuhsus
GEN antuhsas
DAT/LOC antuhsas

anna = mother
sing.
NOM annas
GEN annas
ACC annan
DAT/LOC anni
ABL annaz
pl.
NOM annis
ACC annus

aruna = sea
sing.
NOM arunas
GEN arunas
ACC arunan
DAT/LOC aruni
ABL arunaz(za)
pl.
ACC arunus

kessara = hand kess -> kiss
sing.
NOM kessaras
GEN kissaras
ACC kisseran
DAT/LOC kissiri
INST kisserit
ABL kissaraz(a)
pl.
ACC kisserus

isha = lord
sing.
NOM ishas
DAT/LOC ishi/eshe
ALL isha
pl.
NOM ishes
DAT/LOC ishas

halki = cereal
sing.
NOM halkis
GEN halkiyas
ACC halkin
INST halkit
ABL halkiyaza
pl.
NOM halkis
ACC halkius/halkes

tuzzi = army
sing.
NOM tuzzis/tuzziyas
GEN tuzzias
ACC tuzzin
DAT/LOC tuzziya
ABL ... tuzziyaz
pl.
ACC tuzzius

halukanni = chariot
sing.
NOM halukannis
GEN halugannas
ACC halukanin
DAT/LOC haluganni(ya)
INST halukannit
ABL ...haluganniyaz(a)

halhaltumari = cornerstone
sing.
DAT/LOC halhaltumari(ya) 
pl.
NOM halhaltumares
GEN halhaltumariyas 
DAT/LOC halhaltumariyas
ABL halhaltumaraza

huwasi = grindstone
sing.
NOM huwasi
GEN huwasiyas
DAT/LOC huwasi(ya)
ABL huwasiyaz
pl.
NOM huwasi

ispantuzzi = wine barrel
sing.
NOM ispantuzzi
GEN ispantuzziyas
DAT/LOC ispantuzzi
INST ispantuzzit
ABL ispantuzziaz

zahhai = battle
sing.
NOM zahhais
GEN zahhias
ACC zahhain/zahhin
DAT/LOC zahhiya
ABL ... zahhiyaz(a)

lengai = oath
sing.
GEN likiyas/lingayas
ACC lingain
DAT/LOC linkiya/lingai
ABL linkiaza
pl.
NOM lingais
ACC lingaus

zashai = dream
sing.
ACC zashain
DAT/LOC zashiya
INST zashit
ABL ...zashiyaz
pl.
ACC zahsimus

harnau = chair
sing.
NOM harnaus
GEN harnawas
ACC harnaun
DAT/LOC harnawi

wellu = meadow
sing.
NOM wellus
ACC wellun
DAT/LOC welli
ABL welluwaz
pl.
DAT/LOC welluwas

heu = rain
sing.
NOM heus
GEN hewas
ACC heun
INST heawit
pl.
NOM hewes/heyawes
ACC heus

siu = god
NOM siunis/DINGURus
as/iyas
ACC siunin
DAT/LOC siuni
INST siunit 
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
pl.
NOM siwannies
ACC simus
GEN siunan/siunas

uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English)
NOM uttar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC udani
INST uddanit
ABL .. udanaza/undananza
pl.
NOM uddar
GEN uddanas
DAT/LOC uddanas

memiya = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc.
sing.
NOM memiyas 
GEN memiyanas
ACC memiyan
DAT/LOC memiyani
INST meminit
pl.
ACC memiyanus

eshar = blood
NOM eshar
GEN eshanas
DAT/LOC eshani
INST eshanta
ABL eshanaza/esnaza

watar = water Cf. all sorts of Indo-European languages, especially “water” (English)
NOM watar
GEN witenas
DAT/LOC witeni
INST wetenit
ABL ...wetenaza

pahhuar = fire
NOM pahhuwar
GEN pahhuwenas
DAT/LOC pahhueni
INST pahhuenit
ABL pahhuenaz

mehur = time
NOM mehur
DAT/LOC mehueni

hilammar = gate
Common (masculine/feminine):
sing.
NOM hillamar
GEN hillamnas
ACC hillamar
DAT/LOC hillamni
INST it/ta
ABL hillamnaz
ALL hillamna

nepis = sky
sing.
NOM nepis 
GEN nepisas
DAT/LOC nepisi
ABL nepisaz(a)
ALL nepisa

ais = mouth
sing.
NOM ais
GEN issas
DAT/LOC issi
INST issit
ABL issaz

isgaruh = container, vessel
sing.
NOM isqaruh/iskarih 
DAT/LOC hi
INST isqaruit

arkamma = tribute
sing.
NOM arkammas
GEN arkammanaas
ACC arkamman
pl.
ACC arkammus

muri(yan) = grapefruit
sing.
NOM mures
INST murinit
ABL ...z/za/aza/yaz
ALL a (almost never attested)
pl.
ACC muriyanus

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc.
sing.
NOM SA(ideogram)+ir
GEN kardiyas
DAT/LOC kardi
INST kardit
ABL kartaz
ALL karta

parn = house
sing.
NOM pir
GEN parnas
DAT/LOC parni
ABL parnaza
ALL parna (almost never attested)




Adjectives: salli = big 
sing.
NOM sallis
GEN sallas/sallaiyas
ACC sallin
DAT/LOC sallai
ABL ...sallayaz
ALL a
pl.
NOM sallaes
ACC sallaus/sallius
DAT/LOC sallayas

suppi = pure
NOM suppis
GEN suppayas
DAT/LOC suppai/suppi/suppa/suppaya
INST suppit
ABL suppayaza
pl.
NOM suppaes/suppis 
ACC suppaus
DAT/LOC suppayas/suppiyas
ABL suppayaza

karuili = old
sing.
NOM karuilis
GEN karuilias
ACC karuilun
ABL karuililes/karuiliyas
pl.
NOM  karuiles/ karuiliyas
GEN  karuila
DAT/LOC  karuiliyas

assu = good
sing.
NOM assus
GEN assawas
ACC assun
DAT/LOC assawi
INST assawet
ABL ... assawaza
pl.
NOM assawes
ACC assamus
DAT/LOC
INST assawet

parku = high
sing.
NOM parkus
GEN parkuwas 
ACC parkun
DAT/LOC pargawe 
ABL pargawaz
pl.
NOM pargawes/pargaus
ACC pargamus/pargaus
DAT/LOC pargawas


April 26 2020

BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY


BASIC HITTITE VOCABULARY:

In order to decipher Linear A, you need to know Hittite. With the kind assistance of Alexandre Solcà, who knows Hittite very well, I am finally learning the language. How exciting! Here you see my preliminary vocabulary of Hittite. 

ACT = action/AGR = agricultural/ANI = animal, bird etc./AST = astronomy/CLI = climate/COL = colour etc./COM = commerce/FOO = food etc./FUR = furniture etc./GEO = geographic/MIL = military/MUN = municipal/PER = personal/REL = religion/ROY = royalty/SCR = scribal/TEX = textiles/VES = pottery,vessels

ais = mouth PER
akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
antu- (n) : property  AGR
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
arunas = sea GEO
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
assanu/asnu = to prepare/obtain MI ACT
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
TÚGadupli- (n) : garment, dress TEX
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL

E:

ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
ekuna = cold (Akk ka?û)  CLI
ekunima- (c) : the cold CLI
eshar = blood PER
eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
es = to be MI ACT

H:

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
halkis = cereal AGR
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
halukannis = chariot MIL
handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
happar- (n) : trade  COM
happiriya- : town (id URU) MUN 
hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
hark = to hold, to have MI ACT
harki- : white, clear  COL
harnaus = chair FUR
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
GIŠhassalli- (n) : stool (id GIŠGÌRGUB) FUR
haster- : star (id MUL) AST
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
hatrai = to write MI SCR
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR.MIL
heus = rain CLI
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL

I,Y:

UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ishas = lord ROY
ispant- (c) : night AST
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
istamas = to hear MI PER
iya = to do MI ACT

G,K:

kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
karuilis = old PER
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
kessaras = hand PER
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer (French) MIL
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN

L:

LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lami = to detach HI? ACT
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
GIŠluttant- : window MUN
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL

M:

malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
mehur = time Cf. English “hour”, français “heure” etc. AST
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR

N:

nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
nekut- (c) : evening AST 
nepis = sky AST
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL

B,P:

pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
pai = to go MI ACT
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
parn = house, nominative = pir + pir : house (§89a; id É-ir) MUN
pattar (n) : wing ANI
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
punus = to ask MI ACT

S:

sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
sarnink = to replace MI ACT
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL

D,T:

dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
dankui- : black; dark (id GE6) AST/MIL
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
te = to speak MI ACT
tekan earth AGR
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL

U:

udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
uttar = word  Cf. “utter” (English) ACT
uwate = to bring MI ACT

W:

wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wemiya = to find MI ACT
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR
wetant- : year (id MU) AST
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

Z:

zahhais = battle MIL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

April 22 2020

PRIMARY BY CATEGORY: * = major category

AGR = agricultural *

akkalan : (kind of plow) AGR
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
asawar (n, §85) : enclosure AGR
assu- (n) : goods, merchandise (id NÍGGA) ? the good AGR
antu- (n) : property  AGR
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halkis = cereal AGR
harsauwar (n) : agriculture, farming AGR
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
UDUiyant- (c) : sheep AGR
iyata- (n) : abundance AGR
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
gimmara/gimra- "field" (§26) AGR
kuer- (I 1 c) : to harvest AGR
kuera- (c) : countryside (id AKÀR) AGR
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
malla- (II 2 c ?) : to grind AGR
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
memal- (n, §79) : groats AGR
milit- (n, §76) : honey (id LÀL) AGR
muri(yan) = grapefruit, nominative = mures AGR
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
perunant- (c) : rock AGR
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
salles- (I 1 f) : to grow, increase AGR
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
sessar : beer (id KAŠ) AGR/FOO
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
dannatta- : empty, desert AGR
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
taru- (n) : wood (id ?IŠ) AGR
tekan earth AGR
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
watar (n, §82) : water (id A) ? Pl wid?r : also "irrigation" AGR
welkuwan- (n) : grass, plant AGR
wellus- (c / n) : meadow (id ÚSAL) AGR
wesi- (c) : pasture AGR

ANI = animal, bird etc.

hara(n)- (c, §88a) : eagle ANI
pattar (n) : wing ANI
pittar (n, §82) : wing; feather ANI Cf. English “feather”
pittarpalhi (c) : (a bird) ANI
suppal- (n, §79) : animal ANI

FOO = food etc.

aku=  to drink (cf eku-, §11) FOO
akkusk = to drink a lot MI (reiterative) FOO
ed = to eat MI FOO
eku to drink  FOO 
marnu- (c) : (a kind of beer) AGR/FOO
marnuwant- (n) : (a drink) FOO
sakni- (c) : oil, fat AGR/FOO
GIŠsesarul- (n, §79) : sieve FOO 
sesariya- (I 4) : to filter, sieve AGR/FOO 
wiyana- : wine (id GEŠTIN) FOO

MIL = military *

alsant- (c) : prisoner MIL
aniya- (I 4) : to act, create, work, achieve; ? to make grow (a plant) (id KIN) AGR
aniyatt- (c, §76) : achievement, work (id KIN-att-) AGR/MIL
arkammas = tribute MIL
arkuwar (n, §85) : prayer REL
arnu = to bring MI ACT
asandul/asandulatar crew MIL
asandula- (c) : garrison MIL
atis (n) : axe MIL Cf. English “axe”
auri/awari- = awari- "border guard" (§17) MIL
halhaltumari- (c) : boundary stone , cornerstone AGR/MIL
halukannis = chariot MIL
harnink = to destroy HI Cf. English “to harm” MIL
Lúhattalwala/LÚhilamma-- : gate keeper, door guard MIL
hilammar = gate + Éhilammar (n, §86) : gate AGR/MIL
GIŠhuluganni- (c) : chariot MIL
irha- (c) : side, border (id ZAG) AGR/MIL
kuen = to strike, kill MI Cf. kill (English) + tuer vassal(French) MIL
kutt- (c) : wall AGR/MIL/MUN
LÚlahhiyala- (c) : man of war, soldier MIL
lahhiyatar (n, §83) : (military) campaign, expedition MIL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
luzzi- (n) : corvée = a day's unpaid labor owed by a vassal to his feudal lord/forced labour exacted in lieu of taxes, in particular that on public roads MIL
masdu- (c) : chain, rope, shackles MIL 
ninik = to mobilize MI MIL
pahhuenant- (c) : fire AGR/MIL
pahhuwar, pahhur (n, §82) : fire AGR/MIL
panzakiti- (c) : plug, peg, pin AGR/MIL
parkus = high AGR/MIL
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY
suhha- (c) : roof AGR/MUN/MIL
summanza(n)- (c) : rope, cord AGR/MIL 
tuzzis/tuzziyant - (c) : army MIL
udni (n, §72) : land (also for name of towns; id KUR-e) AGR/MIL
wappu- (c) : river shore AGR/MIL
GIŠwarasma- (c) : firewood AGR/MIL
zahhais = battle MIL
GIŠzuppari- (n) : torch MIL

PER = personal *

ais = mouth PER
annas = mother PER
annalla/annalli : maternal; old PER
antuhha/antuhsa/antuhsas - (c) = antuwahha- (§17a), antuhsa- "human being" PER
assus = good PER
atta- (c) : father PER
attalla- : paternal PER
eshar = blood PER
harsan/harsar- (n) : head; person (id SAGDU) PER
hassa hanzassa : grand-son and grand-grand-son ? (§89b) PER
istamas = to hear MI PER
kard= heart Cf. “heart” (English) + “coeur” (French) etc. etc. nominative = LOGO+ir PER
karuilis = old PER
kessaras = hand PER
guen(ant)- : woman (id MUNUS) PER
kuis, n kuit : (relative and interrogative pronoun; §119ff) ? kuit ap?t = "what is that ?" ? Also kuis = "someone", kuit = "something" (especially in UL kuis "no one, not the least") ? kuis  kuis : "the one  the other" ? kuis kuis : "whoever" (§120) ? kuis imma (kuis) : "whoever else" (§120) PER
kuissa : each (§125) PER
kuiski : someone kuitki : something (§124ff) ? UL kuiski : no one, no UL kuitki : nothing (§124) PER
nega- (c) : sister (id NIN) PER
negna- : brother (id ŠEŠ) PER
sasta- (c) : bed PER
ses = to sleep MI PER
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL

REL = religion *

alwanzatar (n, §83) : magic REL
alwanzessar (n) : witchcraft, magic REL
ariya- (I 4) : to study an oracle, ask an oracle REL
ariyasessar (n, §84) : oracle REL 
azzikk = to adore (all the time) MI REL
LÚhaliyatalla- : temple guard REL
handandatar (n, §83) : miracle REL
(NA4)huwasi- (n) : grindstone; ritual monument, ritual stone AGR/REL
É karim(n)i- : ritual building, temple REL
lahhurnuzzi- (n) : sacrificial altar REL
lingant- (c) : oath MIL/REL
parkuyatar (n, §83) : purification, atonement REL
sankunni/sankunniyant- (c) : priest (id LÚSANGA) REL
siu = god, nominative = siunis REL
suppis = pure REL
suppisduwara- (c) : decoration, ornament PER/REL
unuwasha- (c) : ornament PER/REL
zashai = dream (no nom.) REL

ROY = royalty *

eshas = ishas = "lord, master" (§10) ROY
GIŠhalmasuitt- (c) : throne (id GIŠGUZA) ROY
harsanalli- (n) : crown ROY
hassu- : king (id LUGAL) ROY
hassusara- : queen (id MUNUSLUGAL)  ROY
ishassara- (c) : lady ROY
sallis = big AGR/MIL/ROY

SCR = scribal

handai = to add MI ACT/SCR
hatrai = to write MI SCR
kupawi = to count MI Cf. français “couper” SCR
memiyas = word Cf. “memory” (English) + “mémoire” (French) etc. SCR
tuppi- (n) : tablet, document (Akk ?uppu) SCR

VES = pottery,vessels DUG logogram for vessels *

DUGhakkun?i- : (a pot) VES
DUGharsiyali- (n) : storage receptacle, pithos VES
isgaruh- (n, §87) : (a pot) VES
ispantuzzi = wine barrel VES
DUGkattamarant- (c) : (a pot) VES
DUGpalha- (c) : cauldron VES
sasanna- (c) : lamp VES
tarnas : (small dry measure of capacity) AGR/VES
tessummi- (c) : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
tuppa- (c) : vessel, container VES
zeri- : cup, goblet (id DUGGAL) VES
zeriyalli- (n) : vessel stand VES


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