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I-je-re-ja, ka-ra-wi-po-ro and others, article by Cécile Boëlle,

Click here to read this fascinating study on the role of women as priestesses in Mycenaean Religion.

ijereja academia

This article is in French. You can download it from the link above and open it in WORD or Open Office.

How to read entries in The Linear B Lexicon by Chris Tselentis (Greece):

Linear B Lexicon frontispiece

Here is a table illustrating exactly how to read entries in The Linear B Lexicon by Chris Tselentis (Greece)

how to read entries in the Linear B Lexicon620

You can download the entire Lexicon from my account here. CLICK on the title to download it:

Linear B Lexicon

In Memoriam Joe Ruggier, Canadian poet and poetry publisher:

It is with the greatest regret that we announce the passing of Joe Ruggier on July 8 2018, Canadian poet and poetry publisher, based out of Richmond, B.C.


To put my professional relationship with Joe Ruggier into proper context, it is needful for me to clarify that before I started specializing in Mycenaean Linear B linguistics in 2013, subsequent to my unforgettable trip to Greece and Knossos, Crete, in May 2012, I was a poet over decades, and colleague of Joe Ruggier. Two of Joe Ruggier’s scores and scores of highly memorable sonnets, so many of which he dedicated to his belovèd daughter, Sarah, “Stellar Moonrise” (pg. 51), based on John Keat’s stunning masterpiece,“Bright Star” (pg. 51), both here:

Bright Star and Stellar moonrise
and “love-sonnet, where shall a body run?” (pg. 94)

love sonnet

were published in international, multilingual sonnet anthology, The Phoenix Rising from the Ashes = Le Phénix renaissant de ces cendres (251 pp.), published  in 2013 by Richard Vallance Janke, Editor-in- Chief, which you can download here

Phoenix Rising from the Ashes

NOTE that the print font size online is very small, but if you download the book, the font increases to normal 10 point size.

Mini-Bio of Joe M. Ruggier (1956-2018):

Joseph Mary Ruggier was born in Malta on July 26, 1956 and died at his home in Richmond, BC, Canada on July 8, 2018 at age 61.

Ruggier wrote and published poetry in both Maltese and English. He also managed a small press, Multicultural Books, and was the editor of a poetry journal, The Eclectic Muse. 

Ruggier was a remarkable man who sold over 20,000 books, many of them door-to-door, including over 10,000 books that he wrote and published himself. There are over 5,700 copies of his book Out of Blue Nothing in print. These are amazing figures for a poet of our time: one man willing to buck the system and not accept the common wisdom that “poetry doesn't sell.”

There is an extended biography on this page, following a selection of poems by Joe M. Ruggier. You are also invited to read My Memories of Joe Ruggier by Michael R. Burch, although we recommend reading Joe's poems first. 

In addition to publishing his own poetry and that of hundreds of other well-known and upcoming international poets in his prestigious annual journal, The Eclectic Muse:

Eclectic Muse

Joe Ruggier has himself been widely published in several prominent international poetry e-zines and journals, including Poetry Life and Times:

PL&T Wikipedia

The Deronda Review:

Deronda Review

and The Hypertexts:


among many many others.

Joe Ruggier has for decades run his own publishing house, Mbooks of BC (Multicultural Books of British Columbia):


which has published a highly impressive roster of no fewer than 32 poetry books over the years. Here is an excerpt of a number of these books:


Converting Linear B into ancient Greek: Rule 5, neuter gender: 

Linear B O to Greek on neuter620

The table above makes it painfully obvious that archaic Greek neuter nouns MUST end in n, and there is no exception to this rule. It is impossible for Linear B to express this final n, because Linear B is a syllabary, and in a syllabary all words can end only in a vowel. But in archaic and ancient Greek, all neuter words MUST end with n. Rule 5 (neuter) is similar to Rule 4 (masculine), except for the final letter, which is j for masculine is n for neuter. This is the last rule for July 2018. 


Converting Linear B into ancient Grreek: Rule 4, masculine gender:

Rule 4 masculine Linear B O to Greek OS620

The table above makes it painfully obvious that archaic Greek masculine nouns MUST end in j, and there is no exception to this rule. It is impossible for Linear B to express this final j, because Linear B is a syllabary, and in a syllabary all words can end only in a vowel. But in archaic and ancient Greek, all masculine words MUST end with j.

Linear B R to ancient Greek l, Rule 3b, not quite so intuitive but still easy!

Linear B to ancient Greek r = l620

Rule 3b is as almost as easy as Rule 3a. In Rule 3b Linear B R always = ancient Greek l. This is because there is no L series of syllabograms in Linear B, i.e. no LA LE LI LO LU, so the only way to express L in Linear B is through the R series, RA RE RI RO RU.

Linear B R to ancient Greek r, Rule 3a, extremely easy!

Linear B to ancient GreekRule 3a r= r620

Rule 3a is as easy as Rule 1. Nothing to it. Linear B R always = ancient Greek r.

Converting Linear B into ancient Greek: Rule 2, single S in Linear B becomes double SS in ancient Greek:

Rule 2 the double consonant Linear B S = ss in ancient Greek620

In a very few cases, Linear B words with a single S convert into a double SS ss in ancient Greek, as illustrated in the chart above. This is not very common. Most of the time, a single S in Linear B remains a single S s in ancient Greek.

Converting Linear B into ancient Greek: Rule 1, the stressed acute accent /

Rule1 acute accent = stress in ancient Greek620

Rule 1 is by far the easiest Rule to remember in converting Linear B spelling into ancient Greek orthography. Simply put, you must always place the acute accent / where the stress falls on the ancient Greek word. This stressed acute accent / must never be omitted from the ancient Greek word.

Linear B to ancient Greek: Level 2a – part 1, a little more complex:

Linear B to ancient Greek Level 2a 620

As we enter the second phase of converting Linear B feminine words into ancient Greek, things get a little more complex. So it is absolutely essential to read the graphic table Level 2a – part 1 so thoroughly that you finally have it memorized. I shall not repeat the comments in the NOTES here, because they speak for themselves.


Lets here it for technology. If not for such advancements, we would never have come this far in our discovery of the foods Paelolithic man really ate. Imagine the discoveries that were just thrown on the  trash heap because archaeologist at the time had no idea plant material could survive this long. Think of the grinding stones that were washed, all their valuable information of the past…gone forever!

Original article:


Nicola DavisMon 16 Jul 2018 15.00 EDT

Tiny specks of bread found in fireplaces used by hunter-gatherers 14,000 years ago, predating agriculture by thousands of years

Charred crumbs found in a pair of ancient fireplaces have been identified as the earliest examples of bread, suggesting it was being prepared long before the dawn of agriculture.

The remains – tiny lumps a few millimetres in size – were discovered by archaeologists at a site in the Black Desert in…

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Ancient Greek alphabet: PART B, for guess who...

ancient Greek alphabet PART b

Ancient Greek alphabet: Part A, for guess who….

ancient Greek alphabeta


Want to see something amazing? Earth nowadays and ancient Mars ca. 4.5 billion years ago:

These 3 pictures have absolutely nothing to do with Linear A or Linear B, but what caught my undivided attention is the astonishing similarity between North America on Earth nowadays, and the entire surface of ancient Mars, which also looks like North America! Can you believe it? Ripley’s Believe it or not. 

Earth and ancient Mars side by side

ancient mars


Take a good look for yourself, and let me know in Comments whether or not you agree with me.

NEW on High Correlation Linear A-Linear B vocabulary, grammar and orthography in Linear A, by Richard Vallance Janke and Alexandre Solcà:


High Correlation Linear A Linear B on

Over the past 118 years since the discovery of the first Linear A tablets at Knossos, innumerable attempts have been made to decipher Linear A, all of them falling short of expectations in academia, or being outright abject failures. We propose a multi-pronged approach to the decipherment of the Mycenaean-derived superstrate in Linear A, otherwise known as New Minoan (NM), with the implicit understanding that we, like all other researchers past and present, are not in a position to decipher the Minoan substrate language, a.k.a. Old Minoan (OM), onto which Mycenaean-derived New Minoan (NM) vocabulary is grafted. The primary thrust of this monograph is to demonstrate the high correlation which obtains only between Mycenaean-derived Linear A and Linear B vocabulary, a.k.a. New Minoan (NM) in Linear A, between the grammar and orthography in Linear A and Linear B and between their syllabaries. To this end we have adopted a multi-pronged approach, which consists of the following methodologies: (a) the establishment of high correlation between Mycenaean-derived Linear A and Linear B vocabulary, wherever applicable (b) the confirmation of high correlation between the Linear A and Linear B syllabaries (c) demonstration of high correlation between the orthography of Mycenaean-derived Linear A terms and their Linear B counterparts and (d) corroborating evidence of the possible derivation of much of Mycenaean, archaic and Homeric Greek grammar from foundational archaic Minoan declensions. 

Keywords: syllabary, Linear A, substrate, Linear B, superstrate, correlation, high correlation, derivation, derivative analysis, vocabulary, orthography, syllabaries, grammar, archaic Greek, Homeric Greek

This monograph, High Correlation Linear A-Linear B vocabulary, grammar and orthography in Linear A, by Richard Vallance Janke and Alexandre Solcà, is the largest study into the genesis of a Mycenaean-derived superstrate in Linear A ever undertaken by these authors. This is merely the draft paper, and as such it has yet to be approved for final publication by the editorial board of Les Éditions KONOSO Press. Since this is a draft paper only, we urgently request that any and all visitors to View Comments apprise us of any and all errors, whether orthographic, grammatical or syntactical. We have already proof-read this monograph at least 150 times, but before it can be approved or is approved for final publication by Les Éditions KONOSO Press, it must be absolutely free of errors of any kind. So if you spot any errors whatsoever, please let us know at once. We of course welcome any and all comments, observations and criticisms on this major new and entirely revolutionary study into the possible/probable existence of a Mycenaean-derived superstrate in Linear A. We realize that a great many critics will object to our hypothesis, some of them vociferously. But all we ask is that you keep an open mind, whoever you may be, with our thanks in advance.

Also, please be sure to go straight to this astonishing new study on, by clicking on the graphical link at the outset of this post. Please do bookmark it, and if you are a member of, please recommend it to other researchers. And if you already know Linear B, read all of it, because you will be astounded to discover how great is the overlap between Mycenaean-derived Greek in Linear A and Mycenaean Greek in Linear B. Trust me.

Thank you

Richard Vallance Janke and Alexandre Solcà

Converting Linear B to ancient Greek, Level 1b:

converting Linear A to ancient Greek level1b

Table 2 above illustrates further refinements in the conversion of Linear B spelling to (archaic) ancient Greek orthography. We note in particular Linear B pedira, which becomes pe/dila in ancient Greek. This is because there exists no L series of syllabograms, i.e. LA LE LI LO LU, in Linear B. On the other hand, a great many (archaic) ancient Greek words contain the letter l (lambda) = l Latinized. One such word is pe/dila. So it is to be expected that the l (lambda) = l Latinized in words such as pe/dila must be represented by R in Linear B. There is just no way around it. Next, we have the word onata in Linear B, which of course turns out to be o/nata in (archaic) ancient Greek, just as we would naturally expect. But this word has an alternative spelling o/naton, which is not feminine at all, but rather neuter. Now it just so happens that almost all neuter words in ancient Greek must terminate in n, Latinized as n. But since Linear B is a syllabary, it is impossible for any Linear B word to end in a consonant. However, since almost all neuter ancient Greek words end in n, this consonant must be added to the ancient Greek equivalent of the Linear B word to which it corresponds.

This fragment of Homer is absolutely critical to any futher understanding of his magnificent epics, The Iliad and The Odyssey.

Ritaroberts's Blog

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How to convert Linear B vocabulary into (archaic) ancient Greek: PART A: feminine

PART A: Level 1a

converting Linear A to ancient Greek level1a

We note in the Table 1 above that in many instances the correlation between the Linear B and (archaic) ancient Greek orthography is (practically) one on one, i.e. the spelling is identical or almost identical in Linear B and in (archaic) ancient Greek. The attribute (archaic) is optional, since sometimes the Greek word parallel to the Linear B is simply ancient Greek, whereas at other times, the word parallel to the Linear B is archaic ancient Greek. But it really does not make any difference in the end, because the Greek spelling to the right of the Linear B word is the preferred orthography, as simple as that. Thus, in Table 1, the Greek for aiza, eneka, kama, meta and Samara is identical to the Linear B. Since Samara is capitalized, Greek S or sigma is also upper case, S rather than lower case, s. In the case of Linear B arura, the ancient Greek has an additional vowel, ou as in arou/ra. There is nothing at all unusual in such a small discrepancy in spelling between Linear B and ancient Greek, since Linear B u may be expressed as simply u or as ou in ancient Greek, because the pronunciation of u and ou is identical in ancient Greek.

In the case of Linear B Manassa (also capitalized, because it is a theonym), Linear B single s becomes double ss in ancient Greek. This is because it is impossible for two adjacent consonants to follow one another in Linear B, which is a syllabary, in which absolutely all syllabograms must end in a vowel, whereas ancient Greek, which is an alphabet, far more frequently doubles consonants, i.e. allows for adjacent consonants. While this seems counter-intuitive at first sight, once we have covered all Linear B words in the feminine, masculine and neuter genders, this will become transparent.

Finally, we note the / above one of the syllables in each of the Greek words in this table. This is called the acute accent (/), indicating on which syllable the stress must fall in that word. So ai/za (Latinized) is pronounced AIza in ancient Greek, e/neka Eneka, ka/ma KAma, Ma/nassa MAnassa, meta/ meTA and Sama/ra SaMAra.

This phenomenon is identical to the stress on the primary syllable in English, except that English never uses accents, not even / acute. So in English we have HOUsing, deCIpherant, deCIsion, Elephant, instiTUtion and SEparation etc. etc. To English-speaking people, this is intuitive, but to people learning English as a second language (ESL) the position of the accented syllable is far from intuitive, because English simply has no accents of any kind. In this sense, English is very odd, because almost all other modern languages have accents (for whatever reason, stress or not). On the other hand, the stressed syllable in ancient Greek is glaringly obvious, because it always bears the acute accent / above it.    

on Old Minoan lexicon and geographical researches Lexicon for sites other than Haghia Triada, by Alexandre Solcà, primary author, and Richard Vallance Janke:

Click on the link below to visit:

Old Minoan Lexicon

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